ThesisItem Open AccessCHARACTERIZATION OF WILD VIGNA SPECIES FOR SEEDLING WATER-LOGGING TOLERANCE AS REVEALED BY PHYSIO-CHEMICAL AND EXPRESSION PROFILING(Banda University of Agriculture & Technology, Banda-210001, Uttar Pradesh, India, 2022-08-24) Kumar I, Sandeep; Singh, C.M.Mungbean is the most important short duration grain legume. It is consumed as food and feed, fodder and manure crop. It has wider adaptability to array of environmental conditions, shorter life cycle and improves the soil health through symbiosis. These features indicated that there is an ample scope of vertical and horizontal expansion of mungbean worldwide. However, it is much weather sensitive crop in which water logging at early crop growth stage caused sever plant loss and stunted growth. The development of water logging tolerant mungbean varieties required the potential donors. The crop wild relatives (CWRs) and cross species Vigna possessed improved tolerance can be identified and introgressed in mungbean. The 32 Vigna accessions including cultivated and wild belong to nine different species were evaluated and six genotypes namely PRR 2008-2, PRR 2008-2-1, TCR-93, L-24, TCR-20 and W-17 were found as water logging tolerant. These tolerant genotypes had better survival, strong root system, proper shoot elongation and delayed chlorophyll degradation. The two genotypes PRR 2008-2-1 and PRR 2008-2 showed induction of adventitious roots from the hypocotyl region under water logging stres. The histochemical staining indicated the lower cell death in leaves of PRR 2008-2. The PRR 2008-2 showed formation of aerenchyma as adoptive mechanism as compare to IPM 2-3. The higher activity of ADH, proline and O2 were was recorded in PRR 2008-2 whereas it was lower in IPM 2-3. The expression of candidate genes and transcriptional factors provides a fundamental resources for understanding signaling behaviour, hormonal regulation and antioxidant homeostatsis involved in water logging tolerance. ThesisItem Open AccessSTUDIES ON HETEROSIS AND COMBINING ABILITY IN FIELD PEA (Pisum sativum var. arvense)(BANDA UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE & TECHNOLOGY, BANDA, UTTAR PRADESH, INDIA, 2022-08-08) YADAV, INDU; Sharma, VijayA diallel experiment excluding reciprocals entitled “Studies on heterosis and combining ability in field pea (Pisum sativum var. arvense)” was conducted during the rabi season of 2021-22 at the P.G. Research Farm of Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, College of Agriculture, Banda University of Agriculture and Technology, Banda, Uttar Pradesh. The experimental material comprised of 8 diverse genotypes and their 28 hybrids and two checks IPFD 10-12 and Ambika. The analysis of variance reveals that the mean square due to parent v/s hybrid was significant only for plant height, 100- seed weight, biological yield per plant and seed yield per plant. The cross P-1541-16 × P1297-97 followed by P-1297-97 × P-92-97-11 and P-1541-16 × P-92-97-11 recorded the highest significant economic heterosis for seed yield per plant. In addition to seed yield per plant, combining ability analysis showed highly significant GCA and SCA effects for all the traits under study except days to maturity for GCA which showed importance of both additive and non-additive genetic component of variation. Parental lines viz., Aman, P1297-97 and P-541-16 were found to be good general combiner for seed yield per plant along with number of pods per plant and number of effective pods per plant. The most promising crosses with high specific combining ability for yield were EC-564817 × Vikas, EC-564817 × P-1426, P-1541-16 × P-92-97-11 and Aman × Vikas. These crosses could be used for development of high yielding variety through heterosis breeding programmes. ThesisItem Open AccessThesisTitle “Assessment of combined terminal heat and drought stress tolerance in wheat (Triticum spp.)”(BANDA UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE & TECHNOLOGY, BANDA-210001, UTTAR PRADESH, (INDIA), 2022-08-19) Kuamr, Shubham; Kumar, HiteshWheat is a second staple food crop and which feeds billions of people around globally while its productivity hinders by high temperature and drought stress. The evaluation of genotypes under stress conditions for adaptive traits could increase selection efficiency for better performance. The present investigation was carried out with 34 wheat landraces and elite cultivars during 2020-21 & 2021-22 under optimum, heat, and a combined heat-drought stress environment at BUAT Banda & KVK Jhansi. Eleven agromorphological, five physiological, and six stress indices were used to evaluate genotypes to assess drought and heat tolerance. The pooled ANOVA indicates significant interactions in location, year, genotypes, and treatments suggesting the influence of trait development affected by stress conditions. The maximum reduction of the seed yield was observed under a combined heat-drought stress environment as compared to heat stress alone. The genotypes Local-17, and HI 8802 performed well under heat and heat-drought stress with higher yield at the Banda and HI 8627 and DBW 187 performed well under heat stress with higher yield while under heat-drought stress PDW 274 and HI 8777 were better performing genotypes at the Jhansi location The genotype PDW 274 showed stress tolerance under all treatment and both location .The genotype, PDW 233 & PDW 291 durum wheat showed the highest stress susceptibility index (SSI) across the environment at both locations. The NGS&TKW is directly positively associated with seed yield across the environment and location. Among physiological traits chlorophyll and CT are good sources of traits to select potential genotypes to cope up the adverse effect of climate change in wheat production. The combination of selection indices and consistent association with physiological traits showed the potential to increase the selection efficiency of superior genotypes. ThesisItem Open Access“Characterization of Lentil Genotypes for Yield Component and Terminal Heat Stress Tolerance Traits”(BANDA UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE & TECHNOLOGY,BANDA, UTTAR PRADESH, INDIA, 2022-08-08) Kumar, DeepakLentil is a cool-season food legume with an excellent source of protein, prebiotic carbohydrates, minerals, and vitamins. The present investigation was carried out at P.G. Research farm of College of Agriculture, BUAT, Banda, Uttar Pradesh, India in augmented block design during Rabi season 2021-22. The experimenting materials comprised of 123 genotypes of lentil containing exotic as well as indigenous germplasm lines of lentil including three check varieties viz. KM-1, KM-2 and PANT L-7. The data were recorded under two environments viz. timely sown (E1) and late sown (E2) for sixteen morpho-physiological characters for estimation of DUS characterization, analysis of variance, correlation coefficient, heat susceptibility index, yield stability index and principal component analysis. The considerable morphological diversity has been found especially in foliage intensity of green color, leaflet size, plant growth habit, seed size, and seed testa colour. Analysis of variance showed that wide range of variability under both environmental conditions. A wide range of estimates in the mean performance of genotypes was found for all characters under both the environmental conditions. LSS-18- 149, L-112-6 were identified as heat tolerant genotypes on the basis of HSI for economic yield/plant. An overall appraisal revealed that eight genotypes viz. KLS 1461, KLS1453, KL-09-01, KL 127, LOCAL, WBL-58, L-112-6 and EC-542186 exhibited highly heat tolerance on the basis of heat susceptibility index and yield stability index for economic yield/plant under both the conditions. Correlation coefficient of HSI and YSI among different traits exhibited significant and positive correlation of economic yield/plant with effective pods/plant, secondary branches/plant, total pods/plant and biological yield/plant. Principal component analysis exhibited highest cumulative variability of PC6 which contributed 65.7% in E1 and 67.4% E2 among all traits. Economic yield/plant was positively correlated with the no. of effective pods/plant, biological yield/plant, total chlorophyll content, canopy temperature depression and no. of secondary branches/plant in both the condition of normal and heat stress. ThesisItem Open AccessHeterosis and combining ability for yield and its contributing traits in linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.)(BANDA UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE & TECHNOLOGY, BANDA, UTTAR PRADESH, INDIA, 2022-08-10) Prajapati, Pawan Kumar; Kumar, MukulA half diallel experiment involving six parents was carried out in randomized block design with three replications at PG research Farm, Banda University of Agriculture and Technology, Banda, Uttar Pradesh, India to assess the gene action, combining ability (GCA and SCA) and heterosis for seed yield and its eight contributing characters in linseed under agro climatic condition of Bundelkhand region. The genetic analysis was done following Griffing’s Method II with Model I (1956). The study revealed the importance of both additive and non-additive gene effects for all the traits with preponderance of nonadditive gene effects for seed yield per plant, Days to 50% flowering, Days to maturity, Plant height, Number of branches per plant, Number of capsules per plant, Number of seeds per capsule and Biological yield per plant whereas 1000-seed weigh showed predominance of additive gene effect. On the basis of general combining ability (GCA), the parents, LMS 2015-27 and Shekhar could be exploited for developing prolific pure lines varieties in linseed. The parallelism between heterosis and SCA effects indicated that heterotic response alone may be good indicator for selection of superior cross combinations, On the basis of comparison of per se performance, SCA effects and heterotic response for seed yield and its number of important attributing traits, the crosses, Shekhar × GP-1050, LMS 2015-27 × GP-1028, Shekhar × GP-820, LMS 2015-27 × GP-820 and LMS 2015-27 × GP-1050 may be included in recombination breeding for developing high yielding genetic stock/varieties in linseed. ThesisItem Open AccessEVALUATION OF LINSEED (Linum usitatissimum L.) GENOTYPES FOR DROUGHT TOLERANCE(Banda University of Agriculture & Technology, Banda-210001, Uttar Pradesh, India, 2021-10-30) Kumar, Sandip; Kumar, MukulThe present study consisting 50 linseed genotypes were evaluated in randomized complete block design with three replications in two environments during Rabi, 2020-21. The first environment was normal irrigated but in second environment, the irrigation was withhold for 30 days in between from 45 days (pre flowering) to 75 days after sowing to imposed water deficit or stressed or drought condition. The genotypes were showed significant variances for all tested traits under both the environments. The mean squares of environments explained most of the total variations for all the traits. The two-way interaction effects of genotype x environments were found to be significant for all the characters except days to 50% flowering and days to maturity. The considerable morphological diversity has been found especially in anther colour, petal venation colour, size of corolla, flower shape, petal and stamen filament colour. Among tolerance indices, HM, YI and STI were more useful indices for prediction of potential yield in both water deficit and non-stress condition. The selection of suitable genotypes considering number of capsules per plant, number of seeds per capsule and biological yield per plant along with their yield performance may be useful when breeding for broad adaptation of linseed for cultivation under drought conditions. On the basis of mean performance of tolerance indices and their ranking, the genotypes, GP-1064, GP-955, GP-820, LMS-16-1-2, GP-807 and LMS-17-1-12 could be identified as tolerant to water stress condition. It is pertinent to reveal that the yield of each genotype equal or above the mean yield of respective normal and stress condition should be considered while ranking and classifying the genotypes on the basis of drought indices. ThesisItem Open AccessCHARACTER ASSOCIATION AND GENETIC DIVERGENCE STUDIES FOR YIELD AND YIELD RELATED TRAITS IN PIGEON PEA [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millspaugh](Banda University of Agriculture & Technology, Banda-210001, Uttar Pradesh, India, 2021-10-30) KUMAR, ANUJThe present investigation was carried out at P.G. Research farm of College of Agriculture, Banda University of Agriculture and Technology, Banda, Uttar Pradesh, India in augmented block design-II during kharif 2020-21.The experimental materials comprised of seventy-three genotypes of pigeon pea including three check varieties viz., NDA-1, Bahar and Pant Arhar-291. Analysis of variance showed significant difference for all the traits under study except number of seeds per pod and pod length. The maximum value of PCV were found for the traits days to maturity (32.53%) and days to 50% flowering (25.65%) and PCV minimum for number of seeds per pods (3.17%). Maximum GCV was found for the traits days to maturity (32.38%) and days to 50% flowering (25.35%) and minimum GCV for number of seeds per pods (1.42%). The magnitude of high heritability in broad sense was found for days to 50% flowering (97.62%) followed by biological yield per plant (94.60%) and seed yield per plant (93.52%) and high genetic advance as per cent of mean was observed for days to 50% flowering (51.59%) followed by days to maturity (39.59%). Traits such as days to 50% flowering, days to maturity, number of primary branches per plant, number of secondary branches per plant, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, 100-seed weight, biological yield per plant, harvest index, shelling per cent showed highest positive significant correlation with seed yield at Phenotypic and Genotypic level. Path coefficient analysis revealed that the highest positive direct effect on seed yield per plant exerted by harvest index, days to maturity, 100-seed weight, number of primary branches per plant, number of secondary branches per plant and pod length at Phenotypic and Genotypic path correlation coefficient direct effect on seed yield. In cluster analysis, seventy-three germplasm lines were grouped into five different non-overlapping clusters in which cluster I had the maximum number of genotypes (25) followed by cluster III (19 genotypes), cluster II (14 genotypes), cluster V (09 genotypes) and cluster IV (06 genotypes). The first five principal components showed 67.893% of the total variation among the tested genotypes. The genotypes which showed highest genetic diversity can be used as a parent in hybridization program. Early flowering was found in genotype IPA-10W-8-1, IPA-12W-16, IPAM-15-2, IPAB-11-20-2, IPA-12W-46 and genotypes IPA-12W-3 and IPAB-10-13 had the highest seed yield per plant. ThesisItem Open AccessEVALUATION OF FIELD PEA (Pisum sativum var. arvense L.) GERMPLASM FOR TERMINAL HEAT TOLERANCE(Banda University of Agriculture & Technology, Banda-210001, Uttar Pradesh, India, 2021-10-30) SEEPAL, YASHWANT SINGH; Sharma, VijayThe present study was conducted at P.G. research block of college of agriculture, Banda University of Agriculture and Technology, Banda during rabi season of 2020-2021. The investigation data was recorded under two environment conditions viz. timely sown (E1) and late sown (E2) for eleven morpho-physiological characters for estimation of analysis of variance, correlation coefficient, path coefficient, heat susceptibility index, genetic diversity and principal component analysis. Analysis of variance showed the existing genetic variability among the 143 genotypes of field pea. A wide range of estimates in the mean performance of genotypes was found for all characters under analysis in non-stress and stress condition. Most desirable field pea genotypes identified for eleven characters under heat stress condition for seed yield per plant was EC-341743, P-1679, Shikha, P-1384-3, P-179. The heat susceptibility index (HSI) measures the reduced performance of test genotypes under stress (heat stress) conditions and used to identify the heat tolerant genotype. The genotypes having HSI ≤ 0.5 were considered as highly tolerant to heat stress, HSI 0.5 to 0.75 were heat tolerant, HSI 0.76 to 1.0 were considered as moderately heat tolerant and HIS > 1.00 were considered as susceptible. An overall appraisal revealed that three genotypes viz. P-1384-3, P-1531 and P-1384-1 for high tolerance against terminal heat. Correlation analysis revealed that for non-stress and stress environment seed yield per plant showed high significance and positive correlation with effective pods per plant, biological yield per plant and plant height. In addition to above traits, 100-seed weight and pollen viability also showed significant and positive correlation with seed yield in stress environment. These characters were also mutually correlated with each other in both environmental conditions. This relationship suggested that selection for high effective pods per plant, biological yield per plant, plant height, 100-seed weight and pollen viability are desirable under heat stress condition in increasing the yield. Path coefficient analysis revealed that in timely sown (E1) environment effective pods per plant and biological yield per plant; and in late sown (E2) environment effective pods per plant, biological yield per plant, 100-seed weight, plant height and pollen viability contributed to seed yield directly as well as indirectly. Therefore, due emphasis should be placed on these characters while formulating selection strategy in field pea for developing high yielding varieties with improved heat tolerance. The D2 cluster analysis grouped 143 genotypes into 05 multi-genotypic clusters in both non-stress or stress environment. The distribution of genotypes in different environment was different suggesting thereby that change of environment were effective in affecting the performance of genotypes. The heat tolerant genotypes viz. P-1531, P-1384-1 and P-1384-3 were also scattered among different clusters in different sowing environments. The different clusters in both the environments displayed significant variations in the mean intra-cluster group for all eleven characters. As a result, crosses between cluster members with a high cluster mean for significant characters combined with high inter-cluster distances between them are expected to be more satisfactory. About 11 principal components (PCs) were studied for different traits in which only 4 PCs with eigenvalue >1 accounted 64.24% in E1 and 62.73% in E2. The traits falling to these 4 PCs may be given due importance in field pea improvement programmes. For both E1 and E2, the PC1 had the highest variability (24.62% & 23.27%) followed by PC2 (19.42 & 17.58%), PC3 (10.53 & 11.62%) and PC4 (9.67% & 10.26%). ThesisItem Open AccessMORPHOLOGICAL, BIOCHEMICAL AND MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF BLACKGRAM GENOTYPES FOR YELLOW MOSAIC DISEASE RESISTANCE(Banda University of Agriculture & Technology, Banda-210001, Uttar Pradesh, India, 2021-10-30) TRIPATHI, ANUPAM; Singh, C. M.Blackgram (Vigna mungo L. Hepper) is one of the most important short duration grain legume, which contributes significantly towards nutritional security and environmental sustainability. The present investigation was carried out with an objective to evaluate the panel of blackgram genotypes for yellow mosaic disease resistance, its molecular validation and understanding the biochemical basis of resistance. The molecular detection confirmed the presence of MYMIV causing YMD. Total of 32 blackgram genotypes were noticed as HR to YMD having 0.00% PDI and DSI over the environments, in which 27 genotypes were validated as HR based on CEDG-180 and CYR-1 genotyping. For exploring linked amplicons, 36 SCoT primers were used for polymorphism survey on test panel of HS and HR genotypes. The SCoT markers namely SCoT-4 (2200bp), SCoT-16 (700bp), SCoT-24 (2500bp), SCoT-25 (700bp), SCoT-33 (900/1000bp), SCoT-34 (600bp), SCot-9 (1150bp/ 1200bp), SCoT-15 (1150bp/ 1100bp). These fragments will be utilized for developing MYMIV linked SCAR markers. The structure analysis of test panel were done using linked unique 08 SCoT loci, which distinguished the HR and HS blackgram genotypes. The analysis grouped all the genotypes in two subpopulation only as HR and HS. The biochemical analysis revealed that the increased expression of ROS indicating the hypersensitive response of wild species as compared to HS genotypes. The activation of Phenyl Propanoid Metabolism in activating the defense mechanism in wild species provide an insight into MYMIV resistance. The increased expression of ROS indicating the hypersensitive response of wild species as compared to HS genotypes. The study provides an insight into identification of robust donors of MYMIV resistance, novel fragments for developing linked SCARs, and biochemical basis of resistance.