ThesisItem Open AccessEconomic analysis of paddy cultivation in Ambedkar Nagar District of Uttar Pradesh(ANDUAT, Kumarganj, Ayodhya, 2021-07-05) Verma, Saurabh; Singh, K.K.Paddy is most prominent crop among the food crops of India and is likely to be continued to dominant in future also. The highest percentage of people in country are engaged in the processing and marketing of paddy. The random cum purposive sampling technique were used to select District, Block, Village and the sample farmers, Ambedkar nagar District of Eastern Uttar Pradesh At first was selected purposively of the to avoid the operational inconvenience of the investigator with a list of all 9 blocks of Ambedkar nagar district of Eastern Uttar Pradesh along with area of paddy was undertaken block wise and the one of the block namely Tanda was selected purposively for this study. A list of village growing paddy in selected block was from official record and five villages having reasonable higher area under paddy were was obtained selected randomly for study. A list of all the cultivator of each selected villages were prepared along with their size of the operational holding and then it was arranged in ascending order on the basis of holding size. The cultivators were classified into three categories viz. below 1 ha. (marginal), 1- 2 ha. (small), and 2-4 ha (medium). Finally 100 farmers were selected randomly from five selected villages. The study reveals that per farm average investment on overall farms recorded to Rs.319642.70 In cropping pattern paddy covers 36.79 per cent to total cropped area and the cropping intensity was 193.00 per cent shows inverse relation with the size of holding. Per hectare cost of cultivation shows negative relation with size of holding as it was maximum of Rs. 39111.01 on small farms. On all farms per quintal cost of production overall was found to Rs.589.298 and productivity was 51.27 quintal per hectare. Five variables namely seed. machinery charges manure and fertilizer, irrigation charges and human labour were considered work-out the resource use efficiency. These three factors had positive role in production of paddy on all size groups of farms and two factor had negative role in the production of paddy. The value of M.V.P. to factor costs was found both( positive and negative) indicating the positive factor that, there is further scope to increase the investment on these factors to realize return more than the cost. In case of paddy cultivation Labour problems Technical, Irrigation, Seed problems, and financial problems. The following suggestion were made viz, to establish sound irrigation facilities, at farm level, HYV of seed to be used along with timely sowing and improved agricultural implements, liquidity of crop loan through Kisan Credit Card be available without delay. ThesisItem Open AccessIsolation, evaluation and characterization of disease suppressing Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) of lentil rhizosphere(ANDUAT, kumarganj, Ayodhya, 2021-07-31) Ahmad, Niyaj; Kumar, Dr. AdeshA total number of 16 lentil rhizobacterial isolates were isolated at Nutrient Agar medium. Only twelve isoaltes showed antagonistic activity against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lentil. All the antagonistic isolates produced diffusible and volatile antifungal metabolites. The isolates 10 and 14 showed a maximum antagonism 72% and 68.6% respectively. All the antagonistic isolates showed PGPR activity such as phosphate solubilization, IAA production and ammonia production. On the basis of their antagonistic and PGPR traits out of nine only two isolates, 10 and 14 were found to be more effective which were selected for SDS-PAGE and 16S rDNA molecular analysis. Strain 10 and 14 identified as Enterobacter ludwigii and Enterobacter cloacae. The protein bands of variable size are present and both isolates have similar protein banding pattern. The PCR was run with primers namely, 16s Forward 5`GGATGAGCCHAGGCCTA3` and 16s Reverse Primer 5`CGGTGTGTACAAGGCCCGG3` PCR product was run on 1.5% agarose gel for appearance of banding patterns sequence of PCR product of 16S rDNA, the electropherogram and dendogram generated which showed genetic similarity between the isolate 10 (Enterobacter ludwigii) and 14 (Enterobacter cloacae). ThesisItem Open AccessKnowledge and Adoption of Improved Sugarcane Production Technology by the Farmers in Lakhimpur (Kheri) District of (U.P.) India(ANDUAT,Kumarganj, Ayodhya, 2021-08-03) Kumar, Vimlesh; Meena, Dr.N.R.The study was conducted in Lakhimpur and Pasgawn Block of district Lakhimpur (Kheri) selected purposively. A total number of 120 sugarcane growers were selected through proportionate random sampling from Twelve villages on the basis of land holding size. The structured schedule was developed maintenance in view the objectives and variable to be deliberate. The traits be contacted personally for data collected work. The analysis of data was done with the use of correlation coefficient to collection. The percentage, mean and standard deviation was also used for drawing the inference. The results of the study depicted that the majority the respondents were found in various socio-economic profile characters like, age, category of 33-64 years (66.66%), Illiterate (29.16%), Other backward caste (67.53%), Joint families (60.0%), married (79.16%) family size of 10 above members (68.0%), the small farmers with a land holding below 1 hectare (48.33%) respectively. Farming only(45.83%) ThesisItem Open AccessResponse of Pea (Pisum sativum L.) to fertility level and micronutrients(ANDUAT, Kumarganj, Ayodhya, 2021-08-17) Bajpai, Raghav; Kumar, sureshThe field experiment was conducted at student instructional farm of Acharya Narendra Deva University of Agriculture Technology, Narendra Nagar, Kumarganj Ayodhya (up), during rabi season 2020-21 to evaluate the response of Pea (Pisum sativum L.) to fertility level and micronutrients. Three fertility level viz. F1: 40kg P, F2: 60kg P + 20kg S and F3: 80kg P + 40kg S ha-1 and four micronutrients’ levels viz. M0: Control, M1: 2.0 kg Zn ha-1, M2: 0.3% B ha-1 and M3 : 2.0 kg Zn ha-1 + 0.3% B ha-1 were comprised in split plot design with three replication. The pea variety ‘Rachna’ was taken as a test crop. The soil having pH (1:2.5) 8.2 EC 0.35 dSm-1, organic carbon 3.60 g kg-1, available nitrogen 188.9, P2O5 14.5 K2O 255, S 13.3 kg ha-1, Zn 0.43 and boron 0.39 mg kg-1. The maximum growth yield attributes and yield (grain 21.22 and straw 30.40 q ha-1) were recoded with application of F3: 80kg P + 40kg S ha-1 which was significantly superior over F1 and statistically at par with F2. The maximum growth, yield attributes and yield (grain 21.74 and straw 36.01 q ha-1) were recorded with application of M3:2 kg Zn ha-1+0.3% B ha-1 which was significantly superior over M0 and M2 and statistically at par with M1. Same trend was also recorded in nutrients content, uptake and quality of grain. The maximum gross income (120289) and net return 81444 and benefit cost ratio (2.30) work out the treatment combination F2 M3: 60kg P + 20kg S, 2 kg Zn ha-1+ 0.3% B ha-1. ( ThesisItem Open AccessSurvey and management of black scurf disease in potato(2021-07-10) Singh, Aditya Pratap; Singh, S.K.Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), is an important vegetable crop grown throughout India and it play very important role in the supply of the nutrients to the under nourished vegetarian population of the country. Black scurf and stem canker diseases of potato is caused by the Rhizoctonia solani Kühn is one of the wide spread and destructive diseases in world. For minimizing the losses caused by black scurf need inexpensive and environmentally safe management practices. The present investigation regarding to studies on Survey and management of Black scurf disease of Potato was carried out during Rabi season 2020-21 at laboratory of department of Plant Pathology and field experiments were conducted at the Student’s Instructional Farm, Acharya Narendra Dev University of Agriculture & Technology, Kumarganj, Ayodhya (UP) India. Black scurf disease was prevalent at all the surveyed five districts of Uttar Pradesh. Average disease incidence was 16.33 per cent and 10.53 per cent disease severity were recorded. Twelve germplasm were screened against black scurf disease. Among them C-28 was found Immune (no symptoms), C-48 was resistant, 8 germplasm were found moderately resistant, Kufri Ashok was moderately susceptible, none of genotypes was found Susceptible and Kufri Pukhraj was found highly susceptible. For the management of black scurf of potato, seven various combination practices such as mulching (neem leaf), addition of mushroom spent (organic amendment) in soil, bio-control agent (e.g. Trichoderma harzianum) mixed in soil and tuber treatment at the sowing time, tuber treatment and foliar application of fungicides viz. Carbendazim, Boric acid and tuber treatment with Thifluzamide 15%+ Difenoconazole 20% were evaluated in field conditions. The results clearly indicated that all treatment more or less reduced the black scurf disease incidence, disease severity and increase the germination, plant height, BSDI and yield of the potato. The black scurf disease incidence varies between 4.45 to 13.55 per cent. Among all treatments, lowest (4.45%) disease incidence was recorded in tuber treatment with boric acid 3% + Carbendazim 1% which was found most effective in managing the black scurf disease. ThesisItem Open AccessSeasonal abundance of major insect pests and Integrated Pest Management of brinjal shoot and fruit borer, Leucinodes orbonalis Guenee(ANDUAT, Kumarganj, Ayodhya, 2021-07-29) Kumar, Akshay; Chandra, UmeshThe present investigation entitled “Seasonal abundance of major insect pests and Integrated Pest Management of brinjal shoot and fruit borer, Leucinodes orbonalis Guenee” has been proposed to be carried out at Students’ instructional Form of A.N.D.U.A. & T., Kumarganj, Ayodhya (U.P.) d Kharif season, 2019 and 2020. The maximum and minimum shoot infestation 31.85 and1.32 per cent was observed during 43rd SW and 35th SW of Kharif season, 2019, respectively. The maximum and minimum shoot infestation 36.84 and 0.80 per cent was recorded during 43rd SW and 35th SW Kharif season, 2020, respectively. The maximum and minimum fruit infestation 34.26 and 2.35 per cent was recorded during 46th SW and 39th SW Kharif season, 2019, respectively. The maximum and minimum fruit infestation 38.24 and 2.12 per cent was observed during 46th SW and 39th SW Kharif 2020 respectively. Spider highest mean population 3.42 spider/plant was noticed at fruiting stage followed by flowering stage (1.73 spider/plant), vegetative stage (1.12 spider/plant) and seedling stage (1.01 spider/plant) respectively, during Kharif 2019 and Kharif 2020. Ladybird beetle highest pooled mean population 4.99 beetles/plant was observed at fruiting stage followed by flowering stage (4.73 beetles/plant), vegetative stage (3.32 beetles/plant and seedling stage (1.75 beetles/plant) respectively, during Kharif 2019 and Kharif 2020.Shoot infestation per cent revealed a highly significant negative correlation with the minimum temperature (r= -0.465 and -0.951), non-significant negative correlation with maximum temperature (r= -0.044 and -0.281), during Kharif 2019 and 2020, non-significant negative correlation with relative humidity (r= -0.147) and (r= -0.139) and rainfall (r= 0.322) and (r= 0.254) showed non-significant with positive correlation during Kharif season, 2019 & Kharif season, 2020. Average duration of L. orbonalis from egg to adult emergence on brinjal during 2019 and 2020 at 30 ºC and 60% RH in case of male was ranged 21-27 and 21-27 days with a mean of 24.15 ±0.828 and 25.70 ± 0.613 days respectively. Average duration of L. orbonalis also showed that the total life cycle during 2019 and 2020 at 30 ºC and 60% RH in case of female was ranged 23-31 and 23-31 days with a mean of 26.68 ±0.914 and 27.77± 0.283 days respectively. ThesisItem Open AccessEffect of tillage, fertility levels and weed management on late sown wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)(ANDUAT, Kumarganj, Ayodhya, 2021-07-29) Kanaujiya, Pradeep Kumar; SIngh, R.P.A field experiment was conducted for two consecutive rabi seasons of 2018-19 and 2019-20 at the Agronomy Research Farm of the Acharya Narendra Deva University of Agriculture & Technology, Kumarganj, Ayodhya (U.P.). The field experiment way laid out in split plot design assigning two tillage practices viz., Conventional tillage (3 ploughing) and Zero tillage (ferti-cum-seed drill) alongwith three fertility levels viz., 100% RDF (120:60:40 NPK kg ha-1), 75 % RDF + 25% RDN- FYM (6 t ha-1) and 50% RDF + 50% RDN- FYM (12 t ha-1) in main plot. Each main plot was further divided into four sub plots to accommodate sub plot treatments i.e. weed management practices comprising Weedy check, Weed free upto 60 DAS, Sulfosulfuron @ 30 g a.i. ha-1 (POE) and Sulfosulfuron @ 30 g a.i. ha-1 + Metsulfuron @ 4 g a.i. ha-1 (POE) - Ready mixture. Thus a total of 24 treatment combinations were tested in the study and were replicated thrice. The soil of the experimental field was silty loam in texture having slightly alkaline in reaction, low in organic carbon and available nitrogen, but medium in available phosphorus and potassium during experimentation. The total rainfall experienced during the crop growth season was 65.5 mm in 2018-19 and 228.4 mm in 2019-20. K-7903 (halna) variety of wheat was used for sowing of the experiment. Tillage, fertility levels and weed management were done as per treatment. Other crop management practices were followed as per the recommendation of the area. Among the tillage practices, zero tillage had a significant influence on weeds, crop growth, yield attributes and yield along with nutrient uptake of wheat during both the years. In case of fertility levels, application of 100% RDF (120:60:40 NPK kg ha-1) exerted significantly less weed density, weed dry matter, weed index and higher weed control efficiency, crop growth, yield attributes and yield, nutrient content and their uptake along with protein content during both the experimental years. Weed free upto 60 DAS recorded significantly less weed density, weed dry matter, weed index and higher weed control efficiency, crop growth, yield attributes and yield, nutrient content and their uptake along with protein content during both the experimental years. Economically, combined application of M2F1W2 (Zero tillage with application of 100% RDF (120:60:40 NPK kg ha-1) under weed free upto 60 DAS). However, higher net returns and B: C ratio were obtained with combined application of M2F1W4 (Zero tillage with application of 100% RDF (120:60:40 NPK kg ha-1) under post emergence application of Sulfosulfuron @ 30 g a.i. ha-1 + Metsulfuron @ 4 g a.i. ha-1 (POE)-Ready mixture) was proved superiority in terms of net returns and B: C ratio of wheat over rest of the treatments during both the years. ThesisItem Open AccessMolecular characterization and Seroprevalence studies on equine haemoprotozoan diseases with special reference to Trypanosoma evansi(ANDUAT, Kumarganj, Ayodhya, 2021-07) Pal, Dr. Vijendra Kumar; Singh, Dr. AmitEquine haemoprotozoan diseases have negative impacts on health status and working efficiency of equines in different areas of the world including India. A cross sectional study was conducted in twenty seven districts of three agro-climatic zones of Eastern region, Uttar Pradesh, India during February, 2020 to February, 2021 to evaluate the prevalence (parasitological, molecular and serological) study, epidemiological relative risk factors, molecular characterization of equine haemoprotozoans and T. evansi parasite clearance efficacy of trypanocidal drugs in equine population. A total of 524 equines (381 horses, 50 donkeys and 93 mules) blood samples of both sex and different age groups were collected for the present study. The overall prevalence of T. evansi and T. equi was 8.01% and 5.15 % by microscopic method, 12.98 % and 19.85 % by PCR method and 17.56 % and 41.79 % by ELISA assay, respectively in the entire study area. The assessment of epidemiological relative risk factors associated with PCR and ELISA techniques revealed that mule and donkey population was at 5.34 and 3.69 times more prone to T. evansi infection as compared to the horses. The young animals and equines used for bricks kiln purpose were at 1.93 and 1.54 times more chances of T. evansi infection as compared to the adult and equines used for other transport purpose, respectively. North eastern plain zone and Vindhyan zone equines were at 1.34 and 1.09 times more susceptible to T. equi infection as compared to the equines of the Eastern plain zone of study area. Mule and donkeys were at 1.37 and 1.25 times whereas helminthes infested equines were at 1.42 times more prone to infection as compared to the horses and helminthes free equines in study area. Multiple alignment of nucleotide sequence of ITS1 and 18S RNA gene variants from Eastern part of Uttar Pradesh, Indian, T. evansi and T. equi showed homology with database sequences of GenBank. No trypanocidal drug was found to completely eliminate parasites with single recommended dose. Isometamidium chloride was recorded more effective than rest of the selected trypanocidal drugs. ThesisItem Open AccessEFFECT OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LEAF SUPPLEMENTATION ON PERFORMANCE IN BROILER CHICKENS(ANDUAT, Kumarganj,Ayodhya, 2021-07) Verma, Dr.Ajeet Kumar; Pramanik, P.S.Moringa leaf supplemented birds had highest body weight. BWG, growth rate and ADG were significantly (P0.05) difference among the groups. The leg portion of MOLP1.5 group was significantly (P<0.05) lower than rest of the groups. Drumstick and neck portion did not reveal any significant difference among groups. Breast portion of broiler in MOLP1 group recorded significantly (P<0.05) higher percentage yield. The economic efficiency of PC and moringa supplemented group was significantly (P<0.05) higher than NC group birds. The result revealed significant (P<0.05) reduction in oxidative stress level in moringa supplemented groups as compared to control group birds.