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Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat

Assam Agricultural University is the first institution of its kind in the whole of North-Eastern Region of India. The main goal of this institution is to produce globally competitive human resources in farm sectorand to carry out research in both conventional and frontier areas for production optimization as well as to disseminate the generated technologies as public good for benefitting the food growers/produces and traders involved in the sector while emphasizing on sustainability, equity and overall food security at household level. Genesis of AAU - The embryo of the agricultural research in the state of Assam was formed as early as 1897 with the establishment of the Upper Shillong Experimental Farm (now in Meghalaya) just after about a decade of creation of the agricultural department in 1882. However, the seeds of agricultural research in today’s Assam were sown in the dawn of the twentieth century with the establishment of two Rice Experimental Stations, one at Karimganj in Barak valley in 1913 and the other at Titabor in Brahmaputra valley in 1923. Subsequent to these research stations, a number of research stations were established to conduct research on important crops, more specifically, jute, pulses, oilseeds etc. The Assam Agricultural University was established on April 1, 1969 under The Assam Agricultural University Act, 1968’ with the mandate of imparting farm education, conduct research in agriculture and allied sciences and to effectively disseminate technologies so generated. Before establishment of the University, there were altogether 17 research schemes/projects in the state under the Department of Agriculture. By July 1973, all the research projects and 10 experimental farms were transferred by the Government of Assam to the AAU which already inherited the College of Agriculture and its farm at Barbheta, Jorhat and College of Veterinary Sciences at Khanapara, Guwahati. Subsequently, College of Community Science at Jorhat (1969), College of Fisheries at Raha (1988), Biswanath College of Agriculture at Biswanath Chariali (1988) and Lakhimpur College of Veterinary Science at Joyhing, North Lakhimpur (1988) were established. Presently, the University has three more colleges under its jurisdiction, viz., Sarat Chandra Singha College of Agriculture, Chapar, College of Horticulture, Nalbari & College of Sericulture, Titabar. Similarly, few more regional research stations at Shillongani, Diphu, Gossaigaon, Lakhimpur; and commodity research stations at Kahikuchi, Buralikson, Tinsukia, Kharua, Burnihat and Mandira were added to generate location and crop specific agricultural production packages.

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  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Effect of antioxidants on quality and relative expression of fertility related genes of cryopreserved beetal buck semen
    (College of Veterinary Science, Assam Agricultural University, Khanapara Campus, 2023) Singh, W Lomen; Sinha, Sudip
    A total of 120 ejaculates from six Beetal bucks, collected by artificial vagina were used in the study. Immediately after collection each ejaculate was evaluated for volume, mass activity and initial sperm motility and the ejaculates having volume 0.8 ml or more, mass activity (0 to 4+ scale) 3+ or more and initial sperm motility 70 per cent or more were pooled. A total of 48 pooled ejaculates comprising 12 pooled ejaculates for each experiment were evaluated for sperm motility, live sperm, intact acrosome, sperm concentration, HOST-reacted sperm and sperm abnormalities. Each pooled ejaculate was split into two parts and one part was used for assessment of glutathione–S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and malondialdehyde (MDA) level in the seminal plasma. The other part of pooled semen was split into four parts, then centrifuged and the seminal plasma was discarded. The centrifugate of the first three parts was extended separately in Tris extender containing vitamin E @ 1, 2 and 3 mM in experiment I; IGF-1 @ 100, 125 and 150 ng/ml in experiment II; crocin @ 1, 2 and 3 mM in experiment III; and vitamin E @ 2 mM (best of expt. I), IGF-1 @ 125 ng/ml (best of expt. II) or crocin @ 1 mM (best of expt. III) in experiment IV while the fourth part was kept as control in each experiment. Semen was frozen in 0.25 ml French straws using static horizontal vapour freezing. Frozen semen was thawed in warm water at 37ºC for 30 seconds for evaluation. Each semen sample was evaluated after freezing in experiment I, II and III for sperm motility, intact acrosome (Giemsa stain), HOST-reacted sperm and intact DNA (AO stain) and in experiment IV for sperm motility, intact acrosome (FITC-PSA stain), HOST-reacted sperm, viability (CFDA + PI stain), high mitochondrial potential (JC-1 stain) and intact DNA. Semen after freezing in all the experiments was evaluated for GST, SOD, CAT, GR, GPx, ALT, AST, LDH and MDA levels in the extracellular fluid by standard methods. In experiment IV, the relative expression of certain fertility related genes and their correlation with seminal attributes in frozen-thawed Beetal buck spermatozoa as well as fertility rate of frozen semen was also studied. In Beetal bucks all the seminal attributes studied immediately after collection and pooling were within normal ranges. Semen samples extended with Tris extender containing vitamin E @ 1, 2 and 3 mM or no additive (control) and with Tris extender containing IGF-1 @ 100, 125 and 150 ng/ml or no additive differed significantly (P<0.001) in respect of sperm motility, intact acrosome, HOST-reacted sperm, intact DNA, GST, SOD, CAT, GR, GPx, ALT, AST, LDH and MDA after freezing. Semen samples extended with Tris extender containing crocin @ 1, 2 and 3 mM or no additive differed significantly (P<0.05) in respect of sperm motility and intact acrosome after freezing. While HOST-reacted sperm, intact DNA, GST, SOD, CAT, GR, GPx, ALT, AST, LDH and MDA differed significantly (P<0.001) after freezing in Tris extender containing crocin @ 1, 2 and 3 mM or no additive. In semen extended using Tris extender containing best concentration of vitamin E (2 mM), IGF-1 (125 ng/ml) and crocin (1 mM) or no additive differed significantly (P<0.001) in respect of sperm motility, intact acrosome, HOST-reacted sperm, viability, MMP+, intact DNA, GST, SOD, CAT, GR, GPx, ALT, AST, LDH and MDA after freezing. NFE2L2, GPx4, CAT and SOD2 gene expression was significantly (P<0.05) higher in IGF-1 group compared to that in vitamin E and crocin groups, however, no significant (P>0.05) differences were recorded between vitamin E and crocin groups. ii Correlation study revealed that sperm motility showed a significant (P<0.05) positive correlation with all the four target genes, irrespective of the antioxidant treatment. The target genes also showed a positive correlation with all the seminal attributes in different antioxidant groups. Although the kidding rate (doe kidded per inseminated doe) did not differ significantly (P>0.05) between groups, the values were found to be the highest in the IGF-1 @ 125 ng/ml group. Based on the semen parameters studied it was concluded that IGF-1 @ 125 ng/ml, was found to be superior to other additives studied in maintaining post-thaw semen quality.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Amelioration of heat stress through certain managemental interventions in lactating dairy cows
    (College of Veterinary Science, Assam Agricultural University, Khanapara Campus, 2023) Das, Venus; Hussain, Jakir
    The present experiment was executed in the Instructional Livestock Farm (Cattle) and Sahiwal Cattle Farm under in the Livestock Farm Complex, College of Veterinary Science, Assam Agricultural University, Khanapara,Guwahati-22 to observe the heat stress amelioration capacity of body cooling and bypass fat feeding during summer season (1St May to 31st August, 2022) in lactating dairy cows. A total of twenty four (12 Holstein-Friesian crossbred and 12 pure Sahiwal) lactating cows were divided into three groups with eight animals in each group with similar parity, stage of lactation and average daily milk production and with equal number of each breeds. The experimental animals were offered feed twice daily individually @ 4 percent of body weight on DM basis to meet up the optimum nutritional demand (NRC, 2001). Out of total DM 1/3rd was given standard concentrate feed (CP: 18% & TDN: 68.00%) prepared in the farm and 2/3rd was given roughages. Out of total roughage 1/3rd was given as paddy straw and 2/3 mixed green fodders such as Para (Brachiaria mutica), Napier (Pennisetum purpureum) and Guinea (Panicum maximum) grasses in equal parts. In the treatment group bypass fat was fed along with concentrate mixture @ 100 g in the morning and 100 g in the afternoon daily. The experiment was followed by a 7 days of digestibility trial. The average daily milk yield for T1, T2 and T3 group was 5.94±0.09, 8.26±0.12 and 9.58±0.20 kg, respectively and for Holstein-Friesian crossbred and Sahiwal cow, it was 8.57±0.23 and 7.37±0.13 kg, respectively. The average daily milk yield was significantly (p<0.01) higher in T2 and T3 group than the T1 group. The average fat, protein, SNF, lactose, ash, specific gravity and freezing point depression of milk in T1, T2 and T3 group was 3.07±0.11, 3.62±0.13 and 4.31±0.20; 3.46±0.02, 3.53±0.02 and 3.59±0.02; 9.26±0.04, 9.34±0.04 and 9.34±0.04; 5.38±0.03, 5.41±0.03 and 5.48±0.02; 0.75±0.01, 0.78±0.01 and 0.79±0.00; 1.0348±0.0001, 1.0349±0.0002 and 1.0352±0.00 and - 0.63, - 0.64 and - 0.63 percent, respectively and for Holstein-Friesian crossbred and Sahiwal cow, it was 3.74±0.11 and 3.58±0.14; 3.53±0.02 and 3.53±0.0; 8.06±0.19 and 9.3±0.03; 5.42±0.02 and 5.42±0.02; 0.77±0.00 and 0.76±0.00; 1.0348±0.001 and 1.0351±0.0001 and - 0.63and - 0.64 percent, respectively. The analysis of variance showed that there was highly significant (p<0.01) effect of treatment on the average fat, protein, ash and non-significant (p>0.05) effect on SNF, lactose, specific gravity and freezing point depression. The average fat, protein and ash content (%) was significantly (p<0.01) increased in T2 and T3 groups. The average daily dry matter intake (DMI), dry matter intake per 100 kg body weight and feed conversion efficiency (FCE) for T1, T2 and T3 groups was 11.93±0.21, 14.66±0.19 and 15.42±0.22 kg; 2.43±0.03, 2.98±0.02 and 3.10±0.03 percent and 0.50±0.01,0.51±0.01 and 0.51±0.01, respectively. The average daily DMI, DMI per 100 kg body weight and FCE of Holstein-Friesian crossbred and Sahiwal cow was 15.40±0.19 and 12.61±0.16 kg; 2.76±0.03 and 2.91±0.03 percent and 0.51±0.00 and 0.49±0.01, respectively. There was (p<0.01) significant increase in DMI in T2 and T3 groups compared to T1 group. The overall average Temperature Humidity Index (THI) was 78.01±0.65, 74.89±0.39, 76.26±0.39, 76.26±0.39, 80.7±0.61, 85.04±0.64, 82.80±0.53 and 79.17±0.22 for 1st fort night (FN), 2nd FN, 3rd FN, 4th FN, 5th FN, 6th FN, 7th FN and 8th FN, respectively. The average THI value for ILF(C) was 78.14±0.97, 74.99±0.56, 76.26±0.56, 77.69±0.70, 80.90±0.93, 85.25±0.96, 82.93±0.77 and 79.52±0.28 and For Sahiwal cattle farm, it was 77.87±0.90, 74.79±0.56, 76.26±0.56, 76.26±0.56, 80.5±0.81, 84.83±0.88, 82.66±0.74 and 78.82±0.33 during 1st FN, 2nd FN, 3rd FN, 4th FN, 5th FN, 6th ii FN, 7th FN and 8th FN. There was significantly (p<0.05) highest THI was found during 6th FN. The average respiration rate, pulse rate, rectal temperature and rumination time in T1, T2 and T3 groups was 26.84±0.54, 26.22±0.39 and 26.22±0.39 per min; 80.33±2.02, 67.52±1.31, 65.17±1.30 per min; 102.1±0.17, 101.4±0.10 and 100.69±0.08 ºF and 405.7±3.30, 425.59±4.45 and 438.88±4.45 min/day, respectively and for Holstein-Friesian crossbred and Sahiwal cows, it was 27.00±0.31 and 25.85±0.41per min; 74.44±1.45 and 68.11±1.41per min; 101.38±0.11 and 101.48±0.12 ºF and 422.92±3.33 and 423.85±3.21 min/day, respectively. There was highly significant (p<0.01) decrease in pulse rate, rectal temperature and increase in rumination time in T2 and T3 groups than the T1 group. But respiration rate was not affected by treatment in the present study. The average blood albumin, globulin and A: G ratio in T1, T2 and T3 groups was 5.28±0.21, 7.36±0.27 and 8.47±0.48 g/dl; 5.36±0.21, 6.91±0.32 and 7.97b±0.33g/dl and 1.01 ±0.03, 1.19±0.07 and 1.09±0.05, respectively and for Holstein-Friesian crossbred and Sahiwal, it was 6.56±0.29 and 7.51±0.32 g/dl, 6.35±0.25 and 7.13±0.26 g/dl and 1.12±0.04 and 1.07±0.04, respectively. There was highly significant (p<0.01) increase in blood albumin and globulin content in T2 and T3 group compared to T1 group in the present study. The average superoxide dismutase (SOD) level of plasma for T1, T2 and T3 groups was 8.06±0.10, 7.48±0.13 and 7.27±0.22 unit/mg of protein, respectively and for Holstein-Friesian crossbred and Sahiwal, it was was 7.69±0.15 and 7.52±0.11 unit/mg of protein, respectively. In the present study, it was found that there was significant (p<0.05) reduction in superoxide dismutase level of blood in T2 and T3 group compared to T1 group. The overall mean digestibility coefficient of DM, OM, CP, EE, CF and NFE in T1, T2 and T3 group was 67.05±0.15, 68.26±0.16 and 68.48±0.15; 68.46±0.17, 65.11±0.24 and 68.88±0.15; 64.89±0.24, 65.11±0.24 and 64.70±0.28; 53.69±1.19, 53.57±0.76 and 56.61±0.39; 59.67±0.20, 59.94±0.24 and 60.04±0.21 and 73.74±0.25, 74.74±0.25 and 76.71±0.15 percent, respectively and for Holstein-Friesian crossbred and Sahiwal cows, it was 68.10±0.14 and 67.76±0.17; 68.61±0.12 and 68.47±0.14; 65.01±0.13 and 64.79±0.26; 56.27±0.39 and 52.98±0.87; 60.10±0.18 and 59.67±0.17 and 75.02±0.25 and 75.11±0.27 percent, respectively. The analysis of variance showed non-significant (p>0.05) effect of treatment, breed and fortnight on digestibility coefficient of DM, OM, CP, CF and NFE. But in case of EE, there was highly significant (p<0.01) effect of treatment and breed on digestibility coefficient of EE. There was highly significant (p<0.01) effect of treatment and breed on the average daily cost of feeding and cost of feeding per kg milk yield. The mean cost of feeding and cost of feeding per kg milk yield for T1, T2 and T3 group was Rs. 212.27±3.70, 262.37±2.82 and 302.25±3.31 and Rs. 36.13±0.78, 31.43±0.27 and 32.17±0.58, respectively. Though the total cost of feeding for T3 group was found to be significantly (p<0.01) higher due to feeding of bypass fat, but cost of feeding per kg milk yield was significantly (p<0.01) lower in T2 and T3 group compared to T1 because of higher milk production. In respect of breed, the daily cost of feeding and cost of feeding per kg milk yield in HF crossbred was significantly higher than pure Sahiwal cows. The present experiment validated that heat stress can be ameliorated significantly by body cooling and feeding bypass fat during summer season for improvement of milk production and maximize the income from rearing of dairy cattle.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Effect of rice beer and phyto-ingredients on certain quality characteristics of duck meat product
    (College of Veterinary Science, Assam Agricultural University, Khanapara Campus, 2023) Boro, Pompi Rani; Laskar, S K
    The study was conducted in the Department of Livestock Products Technology, Assam Agricultural University, Khanapara, Guwahati-22 to develop a duck meat product incorporating rice beer, phyto-ingredients and spices as marinating ingredients along with control without affecting the physico-chemical, microbial, organoleptic qualities and shelf life of the meat. A total of five batches of marinated duck meat comprising of 4 different treatments in each batch were prepared. Ducks were collected and slaughtered hygienically and marinated. The marinades were prepared by using rice beer, spice paste and phyto-ingredients. The marinated samples are grouped into following treatments for control (meat and spice paste), Treatment 1 (meat and rice beer), Treatment 2 (meat, phyto-ingredients and spice paste) and Treatment 3 (meat, spice paste, rice beer and phyto-ingredients). The marinated samples were vacuum and aerobically packed and stored in refrigeration temperature for 24 hrs. After these periods, the samples were subjected to various quality assessments. Shelf life studies conducted at interval of 5 days for vacuum packed samples, whereas, aerobically packed samples were assessed for shelf-life studies at an interval of 3 days. The results of the investigation are as follows: The alcohol content (%) of rice beer found to have 6.02±0.2. The pH value was 3.58±0.09 and the antioxidant activity (%) was found to have 16.12±0.13. The results with respect to pH, tyrosine and TBA of marinated duck meat were found to be significantly (P<0.01) higher when compared to control samples. Mean cooking yield was found to be higher in control samples as compared to the treated samples. The cooking yield was significantly lower in treated samples as compared to that of control samples. The mean percent of proximate composition of products showed similar trend for both aerobic and vacuum packaging systems. Moisture was high in the Treatment 3 samples as compared to that of control samples, whereas, crude protein, ether extract and total ash was high in control samples. The mean values of moisture, crude protein, ether extract and total ash showed significant differences among the control and treated samples but no significant effect could be seen in both the packaging conditions. The mean values of colour profile showed no significant differences between the control and treated samples and also no significant effect in both the packaging conditions. The data generated for aerobic packaging method revealed marginally higher L* values. The L* value was lower for treated products than that of control products. Redness (a*) followed a decreasing trend in all the treated products as well in control products. Slight decrease in yellowness in vacuum packaged duck meat products. ii The mean values of texture profile also showed similar trend in both the packaging systems. The hardness values showed a decreasing trend in treatment 3 as compared to control samples in both the packaging systems. However hardness values were marginally lower in vacuum packaged samples when compared to aerobically packaged samples. Significant differences (P<0.01) could be observed in the control and treated samples for springiness and chewiness, whereas, cohesiveness followed an increasing and decreasing trend and no significant (p>0.05) differences among all the treated samples. The resilience followed uniformly decreasing trend from control to T3 samples The sensory evaluation showed no significant differences (Appearance, colour, flavour and tenderness), whereas, significant differences were observed for juiciness and overall acceptability. The microscopic study in both (scanning electron microscope and light microscope ) revealed swelling of muscle fiber and decrease in inter fibrillar spacing between the muscle fibers and disruption of connective tissue membranes due to use of marinating ingredients. The microbiological quality studies revealed that there is a significant increase (P<0.01) in control samples compared to treated samples during the entire storage periods in both the packaging systems, whereas, total psychrophilic count could not be detected on 1stand 5th day of storage in vacuum packaging but on 10th and 15th day it increases in the storage periods. Similarly for aerobically packaging systems, TVPBC were not detected on 1st day of storage but on 3rd, 5th and 7th day of storage it increases in the storage periods. The Yeast and Mould count and Coliform count were absent in all the storage periods in both the packaging systems. The Sulphite Reducing Clostridial organisms and salmonella were also found to be absent in all the samples for both the packaging systems. The shelf life studies of marinated duck meat were studied on the basis of pH, tyrosine, TBARS value, microbiological quality and visible colour and odour changes of the products at refrigeration temperature. Vacuum packaging system was found to be better than the aerobic packaging system. Based on the investigation, it can be concluded that an acceptable marinated duck meat product can be developed for future commercial exploitation.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Development of mucosal vaccine against riemerella anatipestifer based on membrane antigen conjugated with nanoparticle
    (College of Veterinary Science, Assam Agricultural University, Khanapara Campus, 2023-02) Deka, Naba Jyoti; Kalita, Dhrubajyoti
    Duck plays a significant role to mitigate the poverty by upgrading the socio-economic condition of farmers. Riemerella anatipestifer infection is a contagious bacterial disease of ducks and causes a significant economic loss to duck rearers. The present study was carried out to develop a mucosal vaccine against Riemerella anatipestifer based on membrane antigen which was conjugated calcium phosphate nanoparticle. The outer membrane vesicle (OMVs) was extracted and conjugated with calcium phosphate nanoparticle. The average OMVs yield in terms of protein concentration was found to be 122.33 ± 3.48 mg per litre of BHI broth. In SDS-PAGE analysis, isolated OMVs exhibited presence of 16 distinct protein bands with molecular weight ranging from 142.1 to 12.1 kDa in SDS-PAGE. Among them, seven protein bands of 74.1, 69.3, 55.5, 50.6, 45.6, 25.1 and 13.1 kDa were found relatively more distinct. The major bands detected in our findings were 42 kDa, 37 kDa and 16 kDa that corresponds to OmpA, OmpH, P6 respectively. The mean size (± SD) of nanoparticle was found to be 246.20 ± 0.53 nm and the mean zeta potential (± SD) was found to be -25.60 ± 5.97. The mean size of the nanoparticles was found to be 129.80 ± 11.10 nm in size and spherical morphologies in transmission electron microscopy analysis. The optimum conditions for conjugation of OMV and calcium phosphate nanoparticles were found to be pH=6.00, amount of OMV=1.5 mg, conjugation temperature=10°C and period of conjugation=1 hour. The PD50 or the median protective dose of CAP-OMV nanoparticle was found to be 1881.10 μg of protein. For the bacterin vaccine, the concentration of the vaccine dose was taken as 2 × 109 cfu/ml. The immunization trial was carried out in ducks. Group I birds received 3762 μg of protein (entrapped protein in CAP-OMV nanoparticle) preparation via intra nasal route and it showed the highest serum IgG and secretory IgA level than the other immunized group. Group V which was administered 0.5 ml of inactivated bacterin vaccine by subcutaneous (s/c) route elicited strong immune response after Group I. All the experimental birds were challenged with 10× LD50 (~2 .1×1010 CFU per bird) on 35 days of post primary immunization. Group I and group V showed 100 % survivability, while other vaccine groups showed 0 % survivability. From the present study it can be concluded that CAP-OMV nanoparticle can act as suitable mucosal vaccine delivery system for Riemerella anatipestifer.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Effect of wet and boiled diets feeding on growth and carcass characteristics in crossbred hampshire pigs
    (College of Veterinary Science, Assam Agricultural University, Khanapara Campus, 2023) Kakati, Lakshya Jyoti; Bora, J R
    A total of 36 (thirty six) weaned Hampshire crossbred pigs were selected randomly from the littermates of 6-8 piglets maintained at the “Ruhini Deka Pig Farm” complex. The pigs (56 days old) were randomly divided into three treatment groups depending upon nearness of body weight in such a manner that each group consisted of twelve piglets with equal number of males and females. The animals were allotted to 3 experimental groups viz., control (reared on standard conventional feed), T1 (reared on standard conventional wet feed @ the ratio of 1:1.5) and T2 (reared on standard conventional boiled /cooked feed). Weaned piglets were housed individually under conventional housing system up to the market age (32 weeks). The space allowance per pig was provided 10 x 9 ft. (approx.). The standard conventional feed both grower and finisher feed were prepared as per ICAR (2013) recommendation. Feed was offered in the morning and evening. Clean and wholesome water was provided round the clock throughout the experiment. At the end of the experiment, 3 animals per treatment (the lightest, heaviest and the middle by weight) were selected for slaughter by humane method. Boiled diet could significantly (p<0.05) influence body weight, total and average daily feed intake of crossbred Hampshire pigs. However, average daily gain was not found to be significant during the experimental period yet the findings clearly shows numerical superiority in regards to body weight, average daily gain, total and average daily feed intake. FCE was found to be the best in boiled fed (T2) group showing better efficiency over control and wet fed (T1) group. Moisture (P<0.01) was affected by soaking and boiling of feed, while crude protein, crude fibre, ether extract, total ash and showed no significant difference. Boiling of feed (grower-finisher) showed significant change (p<0.01) in the phosphorus content of the experimental ration. The pre-slaughter weight, hot carcass weight and dressing percentage, carcass measures viz., Carcass length, backfat thickness and loin eye area was not affected. Wholesale cuts (ham, bacon, loin, boston butt and picnic) did not show any significant difference (p>0.05) among the groups. Likewise there was no significant difference (p>0.05) in regards to weight of the edible and inedible offals among the treatment groups. In relation to physico-chemical properties, water holding capacity and ultimate pH at 6 hours of L. dorsi showed no significant (P>0.05) difference among the groups. On sensory evaluation of pork, flavour and juiciness revealed significant difference among the groups while colour, texture and overall acceptability of pork showed no difference among the experimental groups. However, the present findings showed numerical superiority among the groups in regards to sensory parameters. The cost feeding per kg weight gain was found to better at the end of the feeding trial slightly in the boiled fed (T2) group followed by we fed (T1) and control group. Therefore, it may be concluded that feeding of boiled feed may be suggested for improved productive performance, feed conversion efficiency, superior carcass and pork quality characteristics and better cost of production.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Histological, ultrastructural and molecular studies on guard hair for species difference of Hoolock Gibbons (Hoolockhoolock) found In Assam, Arunachal Pradesh and Meghalaya
    (College of Veterinary Science, Assam Agricultural University, Khanapara Campus, 2023) Ahmed, Jahan; Sharma, Munmun
    Hoolock gibbons are the only ape species found in India and its population is confined to the north eastern states of India. The Hoolock gibbons are tailless and have distinctive call pattern.The gibbons have strong hook shaped hands for grasping branches, brachiating arms and long and strong legs to help them in jumping and propelling across branches of trees. Gibbons found in India has been identified based on their phenotypic characters as Western Hoolock gibbons found in Assam, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Tripura and Mizoram while the ones found in Arunachal Pradesh were classified as Eastern hoolock gibbon. These classification is purely based on the external observation and phenotypic characters. There has been a debate regarding the species found in India, initially it was believed to be one single species but later on it was found that there are two species namely the Western Hoolock gibbon and Eastern Hoolock gibbon. Recently, a new sub species has been added from Mishmi hills in Arunachal Pradesh called as Mishmi gibbons (Holoockhoolockmishmiensis) . All the classifications are based on morphological characteristics. In Western Hoolock gibbons, the newborns are milky white and turn to black in both sexes by the age of 2 years. Males remain black and the scrotum appears distinct by seven months. In females when they reach adult stage, the hairs turn into golden blond colour with white brows and a white frame in the face. The white brows are found in males as well. These are distinctive characteristics of Western Hoolock gibbons. Eastern Hoolock gibbons are similar to the Western Hoolock gibbons except that the adult female is pale colour with more distinct paler arms. The male has a white genital tufts and spaced out white eyebrows. The length of the hairs varied in different body regions being shortest hairs in the forehead region of male hoolock gibbons from Assam and longest in the shoulder region in both sexes of gibbons from Arunachal Pradesh, Assam and Meghalaya. The hairs were curly and twisted. The hairs were observed to have a fine lustrous texture. In male eastern hoolock gibbon it was observed that the hair diameter in the forehead region was 43.43 ± 0.19 μm and in female it was 46.55 ± 0.21 μm. In western hoolock gibbon from Assam the hair shaft diameter was 43.22 ± 0.59 μm in male and in female it was recorded as 44.55 ± 0.23 μm. In western hoolock gibbon from Meghalaya it was observed that the hair shaft diameter in male was 41.88 ± 0.26 μm while in female it was 39.74 ± 0.61 μm. Hair medulla was present only in the male gibbons from Arunachal Pradesh. The medulla pattern was continuous and elongated in shape. Hair medulla was observed in gibbons of all the three states. The hair medulla was elliptical and fragmented in structure. The cortico medullary index was maximum in female hoolock gibbons from Arunachal Pradesh i.e. 34.66 ± 0.04 μmand minimum was recorded from hoolock gibbons in Meghalaya gibbons i.e. 30.06 ± 0.2 μm. 2D electrophoresis revealed two protein bands in the range of 61.98 KDal and 44.3 KDal. Highest value was recorded from male Eastern hoolock gibbon at 172.7 ± 0.28 Kdal while lowest was recorded from Western hoolock gibbon from Assam at 5.04±0.14. Molecular analysis indicates that hoolock gibbon from NE are Hoolockhoolock or western hoolock gibbon.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Effect of polyherbal feed supplementation on performances of Assam Hill goat
    (College of Veterinary Science, Assam Agricultural University, Khanapara Campus, 2023) Dutta, Chinmoy; Bordoloi, Jyoti Prasad
    The experiment was conducted for a period of nine months and a digestion trial thereafter to study the effect of feeding a polyherbal feed supplement constituted of Shatavari, Fenugreek and Ajwain mixed in 1:1:1 ratio on different performances of Assam Hill goat. Thirty six healthy weaned kids (eighteen male and eighteen female) of similar age and bodyweight were allocated to three experimental groups, control (C0), treatment-1 (T1) and treatment-2 (T2) with twelve animals in each group(six male and six female). Kids of all the three groups were fed with a standard basal diet consisted of concentrate and green fodder with supplementation of the polyherbal feed supplement@1gm and 2 gm per kg body weight daily in the treatment-1 (T1) and treatment-2 (T2) groups respectively. The average body weight at 19th fortnight i.e., at 12months of age were 13.84± 0.032, 14.47±0.021 and 16.24±0.040 kg control and the two treatment groups(T1 and T2) respectively. The overall body weight (kg) of two treatment groups were significantly higher (P<0.01) than that of control group. In respect of sex, the male animals attained higher bodyweight than that of female animals at all the stages of experiment. The average fortnightly body weight gain during the experimental were 0.476 ± 0.006, 0.510 ± 0.005 and 0.603 ± 0.006 kg for control and the two treatment groups respectively and revealed significant (p<0.01) difference from the fourth fortnight and showing significant differences between the treatment groups, between the fortnights and between both the sexes. The male goats gained more overall body weight i.e., 0.556 ± 0.005kg over the female goats i.e., 0.503 ± 0.007 kg throughout the experiment. The initial mean values of fortnightly measurement (cm) of body conformation (body length, height at wither, chest girth, neck girth, tail length, length of head, breadth of head, horn length and ear length) of Assam Hill kids in control (C0), treatment-1 (T1) and treatment-2 (T2) groups were similar and non-significant .However, at the end of experiment, significant differences (p<0.01) among control and two treatment groups were observed for body length, height at wither and chest girth. Other measurements, neck girth, tail length, length of head, breadth of head, horn length and ear length were apparently higher in the treatment groups. Sex wise, the male goats had better body conformation than female animals. The overall mean values of respiration rate in Assam Hill goats were 19.68 ± 0.473, 19.56 ± 0.279 and 19.68 ± 0.229 breaths/min in control (T0), treatment-1 (T1) and treatment-2 (T2) respectively The average mean values of pulse rate of Assam hill goat fed with polyherbal supplementation during the studies were 78.56 ± 0.750, 78.50 ± 1.047 and 78.40 ± 0.786 beats/min for control and the two treatment groups respectively. The overall mean values of rectal temperature of the goats were 102.38 ± 0.161, 102.4 ± 0.176 and 102.32 ± 0.170 ºF for control and treatment groups respectively. There were no significant (P>0.01) differences in pulse rate, respiration rate and temperature among the three groups and sex wise between male and female animals. The average values of BCS of the male goats at puberty were 2.70 ± 0.032, 2.94± 0.054 and 3.05 ± 0.074 as well as at maturity were 2.72 ± 0.028, 3.01± 0.076 and 3.15± 0.059 in control (C0), treatment-1 (T1) and treatment-2 (T2) respectively. In respect of female goat, the overall mean values of BCS puberty were 2.66± 0.029, 2.86± 0.037and 2.91± 0.050 and at maturity the BCS were 2.68 ± 0.029, 2.9 ± 0.047 and 2.94 ± 0.056 for animals in Co, T1 and T2 respectively. The results showed significant (P<0.01) difference in BCS at puberty and maturity both in male and female among the ii three experimental groups. Again, the BCS were found better at maturity than that of puberty in both male and female goats. The average haemoglobin were 7.36 ± 0.05, 7.44 ± 0.057 and 7.52 ± 0.051 g/dl in control and two treatment groups respectively as well as 7.56 ± 0.053 and 7.37 ± 0.052 g/dl.in male and female respectively. All the values were within the normal ranges and showed no significance differences (P>0.01) among the treatment groups and the sexes. The average blood glucose concentration in different groups during different quaternary varied from 69.94 ± 0.864 to 73.73 ± 0.430, 69.86 ± 0.884 to 74.67 ± 0.667 and 69.38 ± 0.824 to 74.63 ± 0.597 mg/dl with overall values as 71.78 ± 0.623, 72.27 ± 0.926 and 72.01 ± 0.649 mg/dl in control, treatment-1 (T1) and treatment-2 (T2) groups respectively. Results showed no significant difference (P>0.01) between control and treatment groups. The mean total plasma protein was found to be 7.37 ± 0.049, 7.46 ± 0.052 and 7.52 ± 0.038 gm/dl of blood for control, treatment-1 (T1) and treatment-2 (T2) groups, respectively. Sex wise , the overall mean total blood plasma protein for male and female were 7.51 ± 0.062 and 7.39 ± 0.047 gm/dl found no significant differences(P>0.01) among the treatment groups and sexes on overall as well as at any stage of the experiment till the end. However, the respective values improved within the normal range. The average growth hormone (ng/ml) levels of the experimental goats were 2.94 ± 0.097, 3.02 ± 0.010 and 3.07 ± 0.012 in control, treatment-1 (T1) and treatment-2 (T2) groups respectively. Similarly, the overall mean growth hormone (ng/ml) concentration in male and female were 2.99 ± 0.068 and 2.97 ± 0.011 ng/ml. The level of growth hormone (ng/ml) increased among the treatment groups and the sexes numerically but was not significant statistically. The mean estrogen level (pg/ml) at 1st estrous were found to be 14.235± 0.015, 15.288± 0.018 and 15.548± 0.012 for control, treatment-1 (T1) and treatment-2 (T2) groups respectively. Similarly at 5th estrous when the goats attained 60% to 70% of their adult body weight, the mean estrogen level (pg/ml) were found to be 22.667± 0.012, 22.867± 0.016 and 23.242±0.013 for control and two treatment groups respectively. Results revealed significant differences (P<0.01) among the treatment groups during each estrous till 5th estrous. The mean blood testosterone hormone level (ng/ml) at 11th month were found to be 2.710± 0.176, 3.008± 0.136 and 3.107± 0.179 and at 12th month 2.777± 0.175, 3.222± 0.108 and 3.425± 0.187 for control and treatment groups respectively. The testosterone level was significantly higher (P<0.01) in among the treatment-1 (T1) and treatment-2 (T2) groups. The mean average age (days) at first heat were 199.833 ± 3.842, 183.333 ± 2.985 and 183.167 ± 4.110 for Assam Hill goats in control, treatment-1 (T1) and treatment-2 (T2) groups respectively. The corresponding age at fifth heat were 283.845 ± 3.842, 267.287 ± 2.982 and 267.062 ± 4.179 respectively. The duration (hr) of first heat were 26.087 ± 0.582, 28.562 ± 0.970 and 28.627 ± 1.219 as well as for fifth heat duration (hr) were 26.955 ± 0.436, 32.317 ± 1.318 and 34.197 ± 1.010 for goats in control and the two treatment groups respectively. The age at first heat were significantly earlier iii (P<0.01) in treatment groups compared to control group. The duration of heat revealed marked variations and was significantly high (P>0.01) in fifth heat. Routine examination of semen samples revealed the mean values of volume, colour, mass activity, individual motility, normal sperm, live sperm and dead sperm (%) at 11th month and 12th month which showed significant differences (P<0.01) among the control and the two treatment groups. The semen volume (0.627 ± 0.008 ml) and percentage of live sperm (85.355 ± 0.895%) were highest in T2 group at 12th month of age. The overall semen qualities were found better in treatment groups. The buck of the treatment groups could had been used for mating or even for collection of semen from 11th month onwards instead of 12th months as level of testosterone hormone (ng/ml) and over all semen quality were well within the optimum range and body condition score was found suitable. The average digestibility of the different organic nutrients in Co, T1 and T2, respectively were as : DM (%), 59.526 ± 0.051, 61.069 ± 0.058 and 61.512 ± 0.058; CP (%), 72.027 ± 0.044 , 74.451 ± 0.032 and 75.015 ± 0.042; EE (%), 67.727 ± 0.012 , 68.155 ± 0.020 and 68.364 ± 0.033 ; CF (%), 54.348 ± 0.054, 58.474 ± 0.033 and 59.201 ± 0.017; NFE (%), 67.026 ± 0.039 , 67.507 ± 0.021 and 67.785 ± 0.035 ; OM (%), 64.793 ± 0.041 , 65.977 ± 0.050 and 66.416 ± 0.051 . Digestibility remained higher in both the treatment groups than control and improved significantly (P<0.01). The average cost of concentrate mixture alone and with addition of the polyherbal supplement @ 1gm and 2gm per kg body weight were (Rs.) 1056.13 in control group, 1532.84 in the T1 and 2168.64 in the T2 group. The higher feed costs in treatment groups were found due to the higher price of the polyherbal supplement costing Rs. 170/Kg. However, the mean body weight gain (kg) was 9.38, 9.63 and 10.54 in Co, T1 and T2, respectively. The findings of the experiment, though cost of feeding is slightly higher in the supplemented groups, those goats indicated better growth and reproduction performances was expected to perform superior yielding higher lifetime return.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Isolation, characterization and morpho-biometric evaluation of pre-pubertal porcine spermatogonial stem cells in different culture media
    (College of Veterinary Science, Assam Agricultural University, Khanapara Campus, 2022-03) Lalmasawma, Timothy; Das, Arpana
    Testes samples were collected from 7-15 days old pre-pubertal male crossbred piglets (Local × Hampshire) for isolation, enrichment and in vitro culture of porcine spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). Isolation of spermatogonial stem cells like cells was performed by double enzymatic digestion using four enzymes viz., collagenase, DNase I, hyaluronidase type II and trypsin-EDTA. Isolated cells were further enriched by differential plating and percoll density gradient centrifugation method. Enriched cells were cultured on Sertoli cell feeder layer in three different culture media. All the three media consisted of same concentration of DMEM, NEEA, L-glutamine, FBS, EGF and FGF, however in addition to these, LIF was added to media I, GDNF was added to media II and both LIF and GDNF were added to media III. Characterization of SSCs was done by alkaline phosphatase and immunoflourescence staining. Expression of SSC specific pluripotent marker genes by putative SSCs was also studied by RT-PCR study. Porcine SSCs were observed as dome shaped round or oval bodies on 5th -6th day of culture in all the three media. Clustering of cell was observed from 4th -5th day of culture and single, paired or multiple colonies were observed from 8-10th day of culture. The SSCs colonies appeared as mulberry, grape or rosette shaped with irregular distinct boundary from feeder layer on 15th - 19th day of culture in all the three media. However, the shape of the SSCs was found to be distorted with increase in the days of culture. The morphology of the SSC colonies was maintained best up to 30th day of culture in media III. The SSC colony number was recorded as 82.14 ± 2.91, 60.07 ± 2. 78 and 48.43 ± 1.96 on 5th, 15th and 30th day of culture respectively in media I. The corresponding numbers were 91.71 ± 2.62, 67.00 ± 2.05 and 57.29 ± 2.17 in media II and 105.93 ± 2.82, 80.21 ± 2.45 and 62.50 ± 2.09 in media III respectively. The SSC colony diameter was found to be 64.26 ± 0.85, 125.30 ± 1.88 and 123.01 ± 5.49μm on 5th, 15th and 30th day of culture respectively in media I. The corresponding values were 69.67 ± 1.12, 139.58 ± 3.93 and 142.08 ± 5.72μm in media II and 76.49 ± 1.61, 152.55 ± 4.07 and 172. 08 ± 4.96μm in media III respectively. The day of culture and culture media had significant effect (P≥0.01) on SSC colony number and significantly higher number of SSC colony was observed on day 5 and lower was on day 30 of culture in all the three media. The SSC colony number was significantly higher in media III containing both GDNF and LIF. The diameter of SSC colony differed significantly (P≥0.05) due to day of culture and culture media. The interaction between day of culture and culture media was also significant (P≥0.01). The colony diameter recorded on day 30 of culture was significantly higher, whereas lower number was recorded on day 5 of culture in all the culture media. Diameter of SSC colony obtained in media III was found to significantly higher and the lower diameter was obtained in media I on all the day of culture. It was observed that the SSC colony number decreased and colony diameter increased with the day of culture from day 5th to 30th day of culture in all the media.The putative SSCs in all the three media showed positive result for alkaline phosphatase and immunofluorescence staining. The putative SSCs in all the three media were also found to express SSC specific pluripotent marker genes viz., OCT4, SOX2, NANOG and maximum expression was observed in media III, however, no expression was recorded for c-KIT and PPARγ which were known to be the markers for differentiated SSCs. BAX4, an apoptopic marker gene was also expressed by putative SSCs in all the three media. Based on the findings of the present study, it may be concluded that a pure population of porcine spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) could be obtained and successfully maintained in vitro up to 30th day of culture. Media III containing DMEM, FBS, NEAA, L-glutamin, FGF, EGF, LIF and GDNF was found to be the best for in vitro culture of porcine SSCs.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Effect of feeding protected proteins on milk yield and nutrient utilization in crossbred cows
    (College of Veterinary Science, Assam Agricultural University, Khanapara Campus, 2022-09) Haloi, Sikhamoni; Bhuyan, Robin
    An experiment was conducted to assess the effect of feeding protected proteins on milk yield, milk quality, nutrient utilization and cost of production in crossbred cows. Eighteen lactating crossbred cows of almost similar milk yield and parity were randomly divided into three groups of six animals each. Randomized block design (RBD) technique was followed for the study. Experimental cows were allotted to three dietary treatments (T0, T1 and T2). T0 was considered as control group and T1 and T2 as treatment groups. Feeding of roughage and concentrate mixture having soybean meal (untreated) was offered in T0 group; while concentrate mixture with heat treated and formaldehyde treated soybean meal was offered to T1 and T2 group, respectively. The feeding trial was conducted for a period of 120 days followed by digestibility trial of 5 days. The average dry matter (DM) intake (kg/Day) was 10.98±0.04, 11.05±0.05 and 11.02±0.05 for T0, T1 and T2 groups, respectively and did not differ significantly among groups. The DM intake (kg) per 100 kg body weight was 3.34 ±0.07, 3.40 ±0.07 and 3.35 ±0.05 for T0, T1 and T2 group, respectively. The DM intakes (g) per kg W0.75 body size was 141.92 ± 2.21, 144.44 ± 2.22 and 142.32 ± 1.31 for the corresponding groups. The DM intake per 100 kg body weight and per kg W0.75 body size did not differ significantly among groups. The percent digestibility of DM, CP were significantly higher in T1 and T2 group over T0 group, however digestibility of EE, CF, NFE, NDF and ADF did not differ significantly among groups . The average daily milk yield (kg/Day) was 7.70 ± 0.98, 9.01 ± 0.14 and 8.93 ± 0.14 for the T0, T1 and T2 group, respectively which was significantly higher (P<0.01) in T1 and T2 group compared to T0 group. The average FCM yield (kg/Day) was 8.12 ± 0.16, 9.42 ± 0.17 and 9.30 ± 0.18 in T0, T1 and T2 respectively which was significantly higher (P<0.01) in T1 and T2 group in comparison to T0 group. The milk parameters like fat, protein, lactose, total solid, solid not fat did not differ significantly among groups. The total serum protein (g/dl), albumin (g/dl) and albumin globulin ratio was significantly higher (P<0.01) in T1 and T2 group compare to T0 group. The creatinine (mg/dl) and globulin (g/dl) concentration of blood were significantly lower in (P<0.01) in T1 and T2 group compared to T0 group. The gamma glutamyl transferase (U/L) concentration of blood was comparable among the groups. Rumen degradable protein (RDP) percentages were 26.47 ± 0.02, 22.52 ± 0.01 and 22.53 ± 0.02 for untreated, heat treated and formaldehyde treated soybean meal, respectively. Undegradable dietary protein (UDP) percentages were 18.55± 0.01, 22.51 ± 0.01 and 22.52 ±0.01 for the corresponding feeds. RDP percentages were lower in (P<0.01) in heat treated and formaldehyde treated soybean meal than untreated soybean meal whereas UDP percentages were significantly higher (P<0.01) in heat treated and formaldehyde treated soybean meal compared to untreated soybean meal. The feed cost per kg of milk was lower in T1 and T2 groups (Rs.28.77 and Rs.29.60) compared to T0 (Rs.32.83) group. It was observed that feeding of heat treated soybean meal (T1) and formaldehyde treated soybean meal (T2) showed better results in terms of milk yield, FCM yield and digestibility of nutrients like dry matter and crude protein over untreated soybean meal (T0). Hence, it can be concluded that treatment of soybean meal has a significant effect on milk yield due to enhancement of nutrient bioavailability caused by lowering of rumen degradable protein (RDP). Comparing the heat treatment and formaldehyde treatment of soybean meal, heat treatment could be recommended from practical and economic point of view as there is no risk of chemicals.