ThesisItem Open AccessDESIGNING READY TO ATTACH YOKES FOR KURTIS USING KANTHA EMBROIDERY(AAU, Jorhat, 2017-01) Borah, Pompy Jilly; Kaur, SatvinderYokes are horizontal divisions within a garment which may be functional or decorative. They are usually small, flat panels of fabric at the shoulder, waist, or midriff. Embroidered decorative yokes look attractive and are very much popular. The present study deals with designing ready to attach yokes for kurtis using kantha embroidery stitches. Kantha is the traditional form of embroidery of West Bengal. Running style stitch is used to create various patterns and details for this embroidery. Kantha is an indigenous household craft popular among the rural women in West Bengal. The traditional form of this embroidery is done on soft dhotis and saris. For the present study materials were collected from Jorhat town. The selected material for yoke was one coloured plain weave fine casement fabric. Cotton lining fabric of the same colour was also selected. Black poplin material was selected for the bindings. Printed cotton fabric was selected for the kurtis. The investigator designed and embroidered 7 yokes using kantha embroidery. The yokes were finished with bias binding so that they were ready to be attached on kurtis. Seven constructed kurtis were displayed and views of college girls were taken with the help of an interview schedule. From the data collected it has been found that Design No. 4 was ranked 1st for style of the yoke and Design No. 2 was ranked 1st for the embroidery design and also for colour combination of embroidery design. However, when the overall final rank was calculated, Design No. 2 and 3 were ranked 1st, Design No. 4 was ranked 2nd, Design No. 1 was ranked 3rd, Design No. 5 and 7 were ranked 4th and Design No. 6 was ranked 5th. ThesisItem Open AccessNANO FINISHES ON ERI SILK AND ITS UNION FABRICS(2019-07) Borah, Mamoni Probha; Kalita, Binita BaishyaNano science and nanotechnology are considered to be the key technology for the recent era. The “nano” in nano technology refers to the material or chemical with a particle size of one billionth of meter. In textiles & apparel product nanotechnology can be used to provide performance characteristic like water repellant, fire retardant, UVresistance, stain resistance etc.Nano finishing of fabrics with different nano particles made the fibers to achieved desirable hand, surface texture, color and other special aesthetic and functional properties.Water-repellent means not easily penetrated by water. Water repellent is a state characterized by the non-spreading of water globules on a textile material. Fabric flammability is an important textile issue. The goal of flame retardancy is to inhibit or suppress the combustion process acting chemically or physically in the solid, liquid or gas phases. Eri silk fiber, yarn and fabric are the most unexplored, underutilized sector in textile industry and tremendous scope for application of nano finishes with different functional and aesthetic end uses. Australian merino wool produces a yarn of good quality. Preparation of union fabric from wool with eri silk had reduced maintenance cost and more productivity in the subsequent processes, cost effective too.Union fabrics used for better serviceability of fabrics but are also used for improved appearance and hand. Surface modification through nanotechnology was used to impart unique properties to fibers and fabrics. Nano-finishing has been done on different fibers like cotton, polyester, and other blended fibers for different functional end uses. However, no research on the properties of apparel and ability for eri silk fabrics and its union fabrics after being treated with flame retardant and water repellency has been reported in the literature Therefore, an attempt was made and studied on “Nano Finishes of Eri Silk and Its Union Fabric” with the following objectives-Selection of suitable chemicals for fire retardant and water repellent finishes; Optimization of finishing methods for fire retardant and water repellent finishes and assessment of physico- chemical and functional properties of finished fabrics.For water repellant and fire retardant nano finishing the plain weave eri silk and union fabric woven from eri silk and wool yarn were selected. The nano silica particle from rice husk, titanium dioxide was selected for water repellant nano finish. For fire retardant nano finishing the nano clay and ammonium sulphamate were selected purposively. The nano particle from selected sources was applied in eri silk and union fabrics for water repellant and fire retardancy with and without polymer. For that, the optimization of application process was carried out where, different pH, concentrations of nano particles, material to liquor ration and application methods were optimized on the basis of drop test and 45° Inclined flammability test . The optimized condition for nano finishing on selected fabrics were done and evaluated for its physico-chemical and mechanical properties by using standard methods. The properties like fabric count, thickness, crease recovery bending length, tensile strength, elongation, stress, drapability, air permeability, wicking heights etc were accessed. The analytical properties like drop test, spray test, optical contact angle, were done for water repellency test and 45° inclined, Flammability test & limiting oxygen index was done for fire retardancy test. Apart from that particle size analysis, SEM, EDS etc was also carried out. The particles size analyzer confirmed that the chemical and natural sources that used for imparting nano finish in eri silk and union fabrics are nano in size which is less than 10000nm. From the study it was found that by using the optimized conditions for nano finishing of eri silk and its union fabric for functional finish with nano silica, titanium dioxide, nano clay and ammonium sulphamate with and without polymer the water repellency and fire retardancy properties have been successfully achieved. From SEM, it was found that the nanoparticles are penetrate uniformly inside in the fibers matrix and form a thin film on the surface of the fabrics leading to water repellency and fire retardancy of the treated fabrics and the EDS also confirmed the presence of nano particles elements are present in the treated fabric. For water repellency, the different standard tests are performed. Under drop test, it was observed that fabrics treated nano silica and titanium dioxide along with silicon polymer are more water repellant than without polymer. This was affirmed by optical contact angle showing above 150° means providing super hydrophobic fabric at higher percentage of nano particles, however it was also found that all the selected concentration showed hydrophobicity with water contact angle above 100° of contact angle. But after dry cleaning & washing the water repellency decreased to some extent but still at higher concentration, the water repellency was retained with contact angle above 100 degree. It was interesting to note that after abrasion the water repellency enhanced though some amount of distortion in fabric surface was observed. The enhancing in the water repellency may be attributed due to deposition of nano particles in the fabric surface forming a layer and inhibiting the water to penetrate. Other factors like weave structure, yarn twist and density also affecting the water repellency properties. The fire retardancy property of eri silk and union fabrics treated with optimized conditions for nano finishing with nano clay and ammonium sulphamate was carried out and the treated fabrics are evaluated for fire retardancy properties through 45° inclined flammability test & limiting oxygen index test. The char length and flame speed of treated samples were recorded and found that the control fabric burn entire length and the nano finished fabric took more flame speed to burn and the char length was found to be very less when expose to flame and also lesser than the fire retardant classified class I. II and III. The flame speed was also recorded very less compared to control fabric, self extinguishing property was observed and no afterglow was recorded after burning. Hence, the nano finished fabric with nano clay and ammonium sulphamate produced fire retardant fabrics. Through SEM and EDS, it was observed that the nano particles adhered in the fabric uniformly and forming a thin film of the surface of the fabric thereby prohibiting the fire to catch easily by the fabric. The LOI test also showed that the fire retardancy property was achieved successfully. All the treated fabric showed the good fire retardancy property. But at the higher percentage of nano particles concentration showed excellent flame retardancy with LOI value 28 ThesisItem Open AccessBlending of Hibiscus Cannabinus with Ramie for value added products(AAU, Jorhat, 2018-07) Kakoty, Ankita; Phukan, Ava RaniNatural fiber seems to be the most imminent alternative for chemically treated synthetic fibers. Products from natural fibers are now getting more and more preferred across the globe over synthetic fiber products which has less bio degradable characters and the manufacture of which add more to the carbon credit. India has a big role to play in such a situation by utilizing its large reservoir of fibers in the most diverse terrine of the country. One of the bast fiber Kenaf which is being selected for the study is a feasible source of cellulose which is economically viable and ecologically friendly which could be utilized for extraction of fiber. This study is an attempt to explore the possibilities of Kenaf fibers blending with Ramie fiber. Natural fiber blending with other fiber posses valuable properties and presently various diversified products are made from these fibers. Blending is done to produce fabrics with a better combination of performance characteristics in the product and to obtain better hand on fabric appearance. There is no perfect fiber. All fibers have good, fair and poor characteristics. Blending enables the technician to combine fibers so that the good qualities are emphasized and poor qualities are minimized. Efforts have been made in the present investigation to extract the fiber from Kenaf plant, and its blending with Ramie fiber and preparation of fabric for making diversified products. The physical and chemical properties of the fibers were evaluated accordingly. Kenaf and Ramie fibers were subjected to blending process at the ratio of Kenaf: Ramie 75:25, 50:50 and 25:75 to produce yarns. The physical properties such as twist, count, tenacity, elongation, wicking height, and density of blended yarns were evaluated and the blended proportion Kenaf: Ramie 75:25, 50:50 and 25:75 were feasible for producing fabric using the plain weave construction and used to produce value added products. The constructed fabrics were then analysed for mechanical properties such as fabric count, cover factor, fabric weight, thickness, stiffness and crease recovery. Also standard graphs on Scanning Electron microscopy (SEM) and Infrared test were done for both controlled and blended samples. The functional properties such as tensile strength, elongation, drapability, and wicking height, air permeability and tearing strength were also evaluated. The study on the fabric properties showed satisfactory results for both controlled and blended fabrics for textile use. Finally, value added products were prepared for the controlled and blended fabrics. Subjective evaluations of the products were done through visual assessment method and the respondents opined that, all the products were better suited according to type of the fabric which can be recommended for commercialization. ThesisItem Open AccessEVALUATION OF TWILL WEAVE FABRICS MADE OF BLENDED ERI-MODAL AND ERIACRYLIC YARNS SUITABLE FOR DIFFERENT DRESS DESIGNS(AAU, Jorhat, 2018-06) Boruah, Sunita; Kalita, Binita BaishyaDress designing has always been an important art and a well- designed garment has beauty and appropriateness, which makes it right for the wearer. To achieve a good fit, it is necessary to give attention to finer details such as fabric structure, individual proportion and contours. In textiles, fabrics are manufactured in wide varieties and designs which are produced by different weaving techniques that enhance the look of aesthetic value of the apparels. Union fabrics are those, where fabrics are created with warp of one kind of yarn and weft of another yarn or blended yarn in one direction or both warp and weft direction of different blended yarn. Weaving of such fabrics has opened a new era with limitless possibilities in the field of textile, as well as in fashion world. The review of the literature suggested that there is an increased interest in blending of silk with other fibres but limited work has been done regarding blending of eri silk with modal and acrylic on commercial spinning system. Therefore, the investigation was carried out to “Evaluation of twill weaves fabrics made of blended eri-modal and eri-acrylic yarns suitable for different dress designs” with the objectives to blend the yarns in different proportions using selected fibres, to analyse the physical properties of selected fibres and yarns, to construct the union fabrics of different twill weaves using selected yarns, to assess the mechanical, comfort and tactile properties of woven fabrics, to design and construct different dresses based on the fabric properties and to take opinion on constructed dresses. The study was limited in three different types of fibres- eri silk, modal and acrylic and three blend proportions were selected, 30:70, 50:50 and70:30.The weaves were limited to only twill weave and derivatives of twill i.e. herringbone and diamond. The present study was conducted to analyze the physical and mechanical characteristics of fibre. The count and diameter of eri silk fiber were higher than modal and acrylic fiber. Whiteness index and the Initial Modulus were found to be highest in modal and lowest in eri-silk. Fibre density and moisture content observed maximum in eri silk followed by modal and acrylic. The tenacity and specific work of rupture of acrylic fibre was greater than modal and eri silk fibre. The results indicated that elongation per cent for eri silk is higher as compared to modal and acrylic fibre. Six developed yarns with varying proportions and one definite count (1/30s) with Z twist were prepared. From the study it was found that the physical and mechanical properties of yarn samples of both the controlled and blended were significant at 5% level of significance and all the samples were found to be different with each other. The developed twill, herringbone and diamond weaves woven fabrics were analyzed for physical, mechanical and comfort properties. Interaction among all the tested samples, the highest fabric count and cloth cover factor were observed in EA 30:70 with diamond weave in both direction. The fabric weight and thickness of all the controlled samples were in increasing trend as compared to union fabrics. Regarding the interaction between all the test fabrics in both the way i.e. warp and weft way controlled eri silk with diamond fabrics was exhibited highest mean value in stiffness, drape co-efficient and dimensional stability. Maximum mean value of flexural rigidity was observed in sample EM 30:70 and the crease recovery angle of all the test samples in both warp and weft direction was seen in sample EA 30:70 with twill weave.The highest wicking height in both the warp and weft direction was observed in controlled modal with diamond weave. Among all the test fabrics, EA 30:70 were exhibited highest values of tensile strength and loss in mass in warp and weft-way. The modal test fabrics with twill weave showing increase trend of air permeability and thermal conductivity. The maximum mean value of thermal insulation was observed in sample controlled acrylic with diamond weave. Subjective evaluations of union fabrics were done by 100 respondents to assess the fabrics visual inspection like appearance, lustre, handle, texture and suitability of products prepared from union fabrics. Respondent opined that all the woven samples have good appearance, soft in hand and smooth in texture. It was observed that cent percent of respondents found eri-modal blended union fabrics with three weaves were high in lustre. The rank order of preferences for the constructed dresses were evaluated by the respondents and it was interesting to note that the rank order of preferences for selection of dress designs and the constructed dresses were found to be similar. The costs of blended yarn were got reduced in comparison to that of 100 per cent eri-silk yarn and it was also observed that the cost of blended union fabrics of different proportion that got reduced in comparison to that of controlled eri silk fabrics. ThesisItem Open AccessANTIMICROBIAL EFFECT OF HERBAL PLANTS ON COTTON FABRICS(AAU, Jorhat, 2016-07) Choudhury, Swapna; Phukan, Ava RaniThe study comprises of an investigation on antimicrobial effect of herbal plants on cotton fabric. Antimicrobial finish on textiles is a large research focus in the textiles industry. The population explosion and the environmental pollution in the recent years forced the researchers to find new health and hygiene related products for the well being of mankind. The nuisance caused by microbes is numerous and the problem is still aggravated in tropical and subtropical regions. Pathogenic microorganisms transfer infectious diseases and develop lung related disorders. Mold and fungi cause staining, discolouration and degradation of textile substrates. The Antimicrobial textiles are becoming important to avoid cross infection by pathogenic microorganisms, especially bacteria to control the infestation by microbes and to arrest metabolism in microbes in order to reduce the formation of odor. Textiles for medical and hygienic use have become important areas in the textile industry. Therefore, to reduce/prevent infections, various antibacterial compounds have been used for all types of textiles. The solutions of disinfectant used are generally active in vitro, but, it is also necessary to know the effectiveness of disinfected cloths while in use. In the current study, eco-friendly natural antimicrobial finishes have been prepared from the plant extracts for textile application. Out of 35 plants having antimicrobial properties ten (10) nos. of plants have been selected on the basis of availability as well as knowing its antimicrobial function. The different parts of the plants such as root and leaf were extracted using different solvents like ethanol, methanol, acetone and aqueous solution. These extracts were tested by diffusion method against three isolated bacteria associated with cotton fabrics to confirm the antimicrobial activity. The durability of the fresh and aged extract up to 6 month with their effectiveness against all isolated bacteria were also examined. Finally five herbal extracts from Achyranthes aspera, Adhatoca vasica, Ageratum conyzoides, Bambusa tulda and Chromolaena odorata with methanol have been applied on cotton fabrics by direct application method. Different concentrations of herbal extracts (100%, 50%, 25%, 12.5%, 6.25% and 3.125%) were applied to 100% cotton material for developing antimicrobial finish on the material. All tests done on organisms showed results up to 25% concentration except Adhatoca vasica, which showed results up to 3.125% concentration (Isolate II) and Ageratum conyzoides showed results only at 100% concentration in case of isolate I. All the treatments with methanol extracts showed good antimicrobial properties. The wash durability of the fabrics up to 10(ten) wash cycles against bacteria were done to evaluate the durability of the finished fabrics. The results of the present study showed that the most susceptible bacteria were Bacillus clausii bacteria in all standard test methods. It has been observed that there is a decreasing trend on the antibacterial activity of the finish material with every wash cycle. The treated fabrics were then analyzed for physical properties such as stiffness, crease recovery angle, tensile strength, elongation, wicking height etc. Decrease in tensile strength was observed in both warp and weft direction which could be due to the various treatment given to the material. Results showed that the effect of Adhatoca vasica extract was stronger than other herbal extract used in the study. It was also observed from the research findings carried out by other research workers that the antimicrobial effect of plant extract varies from one plant to another and also from place to place. This may be due to many factors such as the effect of climate, soil composition, age and vegetation cycle of plant, quality, quantity and composition of extracted product and different bacterial strains. ThesisItem Open AccessEFFECT OF STRUCTURAL DESIGN ON THE PERFORMANCE OF ERI-UNION FABRICS(AAU, Jorhat, 2017-07) Duarah, Pomima; Kaur, SatvinderThis study on “Effect of structural design on the performance of eri-union fabrics” was carried out with the following objectives: 1. To construct eri union fabrics of different structure using selected yarns. 2. To study the physical and comfort properties of the constructed fabrics. 3. To study the effect of laundering on the constructed fabrics. 4. To study the suitability of the fabrics for different garments. For the purpose of the study eri, red eri, cotton, polyester, acrylic and rayon yarns were used to construct the eri union fabrics on the fly shuttle handloom to create plain eri union fabrics and using jacquard attachment with jacquard accessories like lingoes, mail eye etc. to create patterned eri union fabrics. Eri was used as warp and red eri, cotton, polyester, acrylic and rayon yarns were used as weft. Five plain weave eri union fabrics and five patterned eri union fabrics were woven. The constructed eri union fabrics were tested with standard test methods for mechanical properties (weight, thickness, thread count, cover factor), physical properties (strength, elongation, pilling, abrasion, tearing, and stiffness) and comfort properties (absorption, wicking, air permeability, and thermal conductivity), drapability test done and analysed using suitable statistical techniques. Visual assessment was also done for the woven eri union fabrics with the help of a structured questionnaire. Opinion of the respondents was taken regarding the general appearance, lustre, and handle, texture of the woven eri union fabrics and also the effect of laundering on the fabrics. Findings revealed that the patterned eri union fabrics highly suitable for garments. Laundering did not show noticeable change in the fabric samples. Further, garments were designed and constructed using the woven patterned eri union fabrics and opinion of the respondents was taken on the suitability of the patterned fabrics for the garments which revealed that the patterned eri union fabrics are suitable for different garments. ThesisItem Open AccessDESIGNING AND CREATING OF APPARELS INSPIRED FROM TRADITIONAL MOTIFS OF MISHING COMMUNITY OF ASSAM(AAU, Jorhat, 2017-01) Chungkrang, Lizamoni; Phukan, Ava RaniDesigns are of great importance when it comes to give an enchanting and intriguing look to the textile products. Textile designing is full of creativity and scope with vast horizon, and is a demanding and emerging field. With the changing world of fashion, the field of textile demands for unique, different and fresh designs which give us the opportunity to use the adapted traditional motifs. Escalating demands of consumers requires modification in the fashion industry with respect to design, colour, style and technique. So, an attempt was made to designing apparels inspired from traditional motifs Mishing community of the Assam with following objectives- 1. To study and document the traditional motifs and designs of Mishing Community of Assam 2. To develop and create patterns for apparel using the existing motifs in a diversified way 3. To construct selected apparels for adolescents 4. To assess the consumer acceptability of the products. Through this study the investigator attempts to popularize the traditional textile motifs of Mishing community and its value addition to different apparels. To carry out the study, wide range of Mishing traditional textile motifs were documented and collected from six selected districts of Assam- Dhemaji, Lakhimpur, Dibrugarh, Sibasagar, Jorhat and Golaghat through personal visit to common textile weavers. A preliminary study was conducted on the selection of the motifs. A set of fifty two numbers of ladies and gents apparels suitable for adolescents were designed and sketched with different colour combination and placed the chosen motifs for their opinion. Out of fifty two, fourteen designs were selected based on the results of the survey conducted. The selected designs were: 1(W), 2(W), 3(F), 4(W), 5(E), 6(W), 6(F), 7(E), 8(B), 9(B), 10(W), 11(W), 12(W), and 13(W). For woven techniques, peg plans were prepared in REACH Tax Software for each and every motif and carried out the weaving process. For other three techniques, the patterns of motifs were developed in Coral Draw Software. The basic blocks were prepared and drafted based on the standardized body measurements. The cost of each constructed garments were calculated by considering the cost of material, cost of accessories used, labour cost and the profit. The constructed apparels with different techniques were: Tunic (woven), Short summer dress (woven), Long gown (fabric painting), Top and Capri (woven), Palazzo (embroidery), Kurti (woven), Kurti (fabric painting), Fitted skirt and top (embroidery), Stole (block printing), Mekhela chadar (block printing), Neck tie (woven), Gent’s formal shirt (woven), Nehru jacket (woven) and Gent’s waist jacket (woven). The constructed apparels were displayed at the Department of Textiles and Apparel Designing, Faculty of Home Science, AAU, Jorhat and systematically evaluated by a panel of 50 judges including staff members and Ph.D scholars based on criteria’s like proper placement of the motifs, forms of existing motifs, colour combination, fitness and overall appearance of the apparel. The constructed apparels were again evaluated by 50 consumers from different fields of textiles, to assess the consumer’s acceptability in terms of general appearance, design of the apparel, colour combination of the apparels, selection of the traditional motif, arrangement of the motif, colour combination of the motifs. The evaluation was carried out in Faculty of Home Science, Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat-13, Department of Fashion Technology, Women’s University, Jorhat and Jorhat market, including faculty members; Post graduate students, Ph.D scholars and Fashion designers. The evaluation was carried out with the help of a structured questionnaire. From the results of the survey, majority of the respondents rated as excellent in terms of general appearance, design of apparels, colour combination, selection of the motifs, techniques used for developing the motifs, arrangement of the motifs and overall appearance of the constructed apparel. They also stated that all selected motifs were nicely incorporated in the respective apparels with exclusive colour combinations. Among all the 14 numbers of constructed apparel, the Design No. 1(W) was rated 1st rank whereas Design No. 6(F), 12(W), 10(W), 11(W), 8(B), 6(W), 3(D), 13(W), 5(E), 9(B), 2(W), 4(W) and 7(E) were rated rank from 2nd to 14th respectively. From the above findings it can be concluded that it is possible to develop new and interesting designs from the existing Mishing traditional motifs to meet the excessive demands of contemporary designs in the fashion and apparel fields and also increase the variety of designs in the field of textiles. This study will help the fashion designers for creating more innovative ideas in the field of fashion designing and also it will help the motivates people to come up with an ingenious work, which indirectly help in upgrading the art and craft of Assam as well as India’s. ThesisItem Open AccessDESIGNING AND CONSTRUCTION OF SKIRTS FOR TEENAGE GIRLS(AAU, Jorhat, 2019-07) Sangma, Anchie Maliva A.; Baruah, BulbulA study was planned to design and construct skirts for teenagers of age group 18 - 19 years. The objectives were to standardize the body measurements required to construct basic skirt block, to develop design of skirts for teenagers, to construct skirts out of suitable fabrics based on preferences of teenagers and to assess the preferences of respondents regarding the constructed skirt. One hundred samples of teenage girls (18 - 19 years) were selected to take body measurements from the Under Graduate class of Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat. A measurement sheet was prepared with all basic information and required measurements for construction of a skirt. After taking measurements the data were coded and analyzed carefully to find out the mode value of the measurements. The three numbers of basic skirt blocks were drafted by following instructions of Thomas (1993), Jindal (1998) and Sodhia (2005). The blocks were prepared by using the standard body measurements. The constructed basic skirts were tried on the body of teenage girl whose measurements were nearest to the mode value and fitting was observed under the supervision of major advisor. Out of the three basic skirt blocks, the block drafted by following the instruction given by Thomas (1993), gave a satisfactory result and it was used to construct the skirts of different designs. Total thirty numbers of designs were drawn on chart paper. To develop the designs, the investigator took the help of magazines, books, advertisement, etc. The skirt top was kept constant for all the skirts. On the chart paper the developed design of the skirts were colored so that they appear prominently. The thirty designs were displayed infront of teenage girls for their preferences. With the help of rank order eight designs were selected and constructed using suitable material. The constructed skirts were tried on the model to see the fitting of the skirts and photographs were taken for front and back view of the model. Again the preferences of teenagers were taken through interview schedule. The interview schedule covered the points like design, color combination, decoration, material used, fasteners used, finishes, fitting of the skirts etc. The rank orders of preferences of constructed skirts were found out. Data were coded and analyzed. The cost estimation of each skirt was found out.