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Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat

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Assam Agricultural University is the first institution of its kind in the whole of North-Eastern Region of India. The main goal of this institution is to produce globally competitive human resources in farm sectorand to carry out research in both conventional and frontier areas for production optimization as well as to disseminate the generated technologies as public good for benefitting the food growers/produces and traders involved in the sector while emphasizing on sustainability, equity and overall food security at household level. Genesis of AAU - The embryo of the agricultural research in the state of Assam was formed as early as 1897 with the establishment of the Upper Shillong Experimental Farm (now in Meghalaya) just after about a decade of creation of the agricultural department in 1882. However, the seeds of agricultural research in today’s Assam were sown in the dawn of the twentieth century with the establishment of two Rice Experimental Stations, one at Karimganj in Barak valley in 1913 and the other at Titabor in Brahmaputra valley in 1923. Subsequent to these research stations, a number of research stations were established to conduct research on important crops, more specifically, jute, pulses, oilseeds etc. The Assam Agricultural University was established on April 1, 1969 under The Assam Agricultural University Act, 1968’ with the mandate of imparting farm education, conduct research in agriculture and allied sciences and to effectively disseminate technologies so generated. Before establishment of the University, there were altogether 17 research schemes/projects in the state under the Department of Agriculture. By July 1973, all the research projects and 10 experimental farms were transferred by the Government of Assam to the AAU which already inherited the College of Agriculture and its farm at Barbheta, Jorhat and College of Veterinary Sciences at Khanapara, Guwahati. Subsequently, College of Community Science at Jorhat (1969), College of Fisheries at Raha (1988), Biswanath College of Agriculture at Biswanath Chariali (1988) and Lakhimpur College of Veterinary Science at Joyhing, North Lakhimpur (1988) were established. Presently, the University has three more colleges under its jurisdiction, viz., Sarat Chandra Singha College of Agriculture, Chapar, College of Horticulture, Nalbari & College of Sericulture, Titabar. Similarly, few more regional research stations at Shillongani, Diphu, Gossaigaon, Lakhimpur; and commodity research stations at Kahikuchi, Buralikson, Tinsukia, Kharua, Burnihat and Mandira were added to generate location and crop specific agricultural production packages.

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  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    AN EVALUATIVE STUDY OF TRAINING PROGRAMMES ON PANCHAYATI RAJ INSTITUTE CONDUCTED BY EXTENSION TRAINING CENTRE, JORHAT
    (2018) Mudoi, Mridupaban; Mishra, P.
    India is a vast country with many states that have a population of more than 1.3 billion. Democratically governing a country of this size necessitates several tiers of government. Keeping this in view Panchayati Raj Institutions have been introduced under the 73rd Amendment Act of the Constitution of India. Accordingly in view of the historic Constitution (73rd Amendment) Act, 1992, the Assam Panchayati Raj Act, 1994 was enacted and came to effect from 5th May, 1994. Preparing the Panchayat members for their new roles as local decision-makers, calls for education and training on a massive scale, for which appropriate tailor made training content, methods and tools are needed. The study was conducted with a view to measure the effectiveness of training programmes conducted by Extension Training Centre, Jorhat and to delineate the factors affecting training transfer by PRI members and the resultant transfer outcome. A purposive cum random sampling technique was followed for selection of total 120 nos. of respondents. Only 2 districts namely Jorhat and Golaghat were selected for the present study. In this study, first a database of the training programmes conducted by ETC, Jorhat for 3 years (2013-14 to 2015-16) was developed. The database of the training programme revealed that maximum numbers of training programmes were conducted during the period 2013-14 (140 nos.), followed by 2015-16 (77 nos.) of which majority (51.77%) of the trainees were female and belonged to OBC category (44.26%). Maximum (72.22%) numbers of training programmes were conducted for the trainees of Jorhat district and also majority (51.04%) of the training programmes were conducted on campus. The findings of this study revealed that majority (72.50%) of PRI members were in between 31 to 50 years and 11.67 per cent of PRI members were graduate followed by 40.83, per cent of PRI members belonged to OBC caste. Majority (56.67%) of the trainees were female with the experience of working in PRI ranging from 4 to 8 years (73.33%). Majority (84.17%) of the trainees were belonged to nuclear family. A healthy percentage (74.17%) of the PRI members possessed moderate level leadership behaviour. The study also showed that majority (78.33%) of the respondents possessed moderate level cosmopoliteness and have moderate level decision making ability. Regarding the effectiveness of training programmes in terms of perceived usefulness, knowledge gained and skill developed as a result of training programme, majority (75.83%) of the trainees opined that the training was moderately useful. On the other hand, 75.00 per cent trainees perceived that there was moderate gain in knowledge as result of the training programme and there were 77.50 per cent of the trainees perceived that the skill was moderately developed. Moreover, in terms of its perceived usefulness, the topic on “Community participation in Swachh Bharat Mission” (WMS= 2.79) was ranked “first”.In terms of perceived knowledge gained, the topic on “Pradhan Mantri Gram SadakYojana” (WMS= 2.71) was ranked “first”. Besides, effectiveness of training programme regarding its perceived skill developed, the topic, “Panchayati raj institution accountant software” (WMS= 2.90) was given “first” rank by the respondents. Moreover, “peer support” (WMS= 4.67) and “Strategic link” (WMS= 4.67), followed by “Supervisor support” (WMS= 4.64) and “General work environment” (WMS= 4.64) were considered to be major factors of training transfer and “Community participation under Swachh Bharat Mission reduces open defecation” (WMS= 4.68) followed by “MIS under MGNREGS improves decision making ability and communication” (WMS=4.68), “RKVY increases total production and reduces yield gap of important crops” (WMS= 4.68), “role played by GP in increasing livestock production and management increases nutritional status of the villagers” (WMS= 4.63), were considered to be the major training outcome of the training programmes. Findings of correlation analysis showed that age (r = 0.15*), work experience (r = 0.21**) and decision making ability (r = 0.19**) had positive and significant relationship with effectiveness of training programmes. However, It can be further seen from the analysis that the relationship between leadership behaviour (r= -0.15*) and effectiveness of the training programme were negatively significant.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    FARMERS’ UTILISATION PATTERN ON RECOMMENDATIONS OF SOIL HEALTH CARD IN SALI RICE - A STUDY IN DARRANG DISTRICT OF ASSAM
    (AAU, Jorhat, 2018) Rabha, Lohita; Barman, Utpal
    The imbalanced application of chemical fertilizer affects soil fertility, crop productivity and farmers’ net profit. Soil testing helps the farmer for judicious application of fertilizer to crops as it provides reliable information about the actual requirements of fertilizer dose. In India, the International Year of Soil was celebrated with the launch of an ambitious programme, i.e. Soil Health Card (SHCs) Scheme on 17 February 2015. So a research study was carried out during 2017-18 in order to examine the utilisation pattern of Soil Health Card by the beneficiaries on sali rice in Darrang district of Assam. In the first phase, 1000 farmers of 40 villages received the Soil Health Card at free of cost. A total of 10 numbers of villages were randomly selected for selecting the respondents who received the card. Total 150 respondents were selected through proportional allocation to size for the present study. The data were collected by personal interview method during 2017-18. The study investigated with ten profile variables of the respondents and two descriptive variables. Chi-square test was done in case of four profile variables to see the association of use of urea, DAP, SSP, and MOP. For analysing the data relevant descriptive statistical tools like Chi-Square test and paired “t” test was employed to conclude the result empirically. The findings showed that the mean age of the respondents was 44 years (SD=8.64) and majority of the respondents (34.67%) was upto primary school passed as far as their education was concerned. The mean family size of the respondents was 4.55 nos. The mean landholding of the respondents was 0.96 ha (SD=0.54). The mean gross annual income of the respondents was Rs.54,433.00 (SD= 29,495.68). Moreover, the average number of family members involved in sali rice cultivation was 1.31 (SD=0.83). Around 54.00 per cent of the respondents had a medium level of social participation. Most of the respondents had long experience in paddy cultivation (Mean=30.40 years and SD=10.49). In case of awareness about SHC programme before receiving the card, two third of the respondents (74.66%) were not aware of the scheme. Regarding the farmer's utilisation pattern on recommendations of SHC, the findings revealed that majority 74.66 per cent farmers didn’t apply fertilizers and other nutrients as per the SHC recommendation. It has also been observed that none of the farmers used secondary and micronutrients like sulphur, zinc, boron, iron, manganese, copper including biofertilizer and lime/gypsum as suggested by the SHC. For examining average change in terms of fertilizer application pattern, area and productivity of sali rice intended for before and after getting SHCs, no significant changes have been observed using paired t-test. The chi-square test showed that application of urea, SSP, MOP and DAP had higher association with increased age, education, landholding and gross annual income of respondents. In case of problems associated with utilisation of Soil Health Card’s recommendation in sali rice, all the respondents had perceived the problem of occurrence of the regular flood. No technical advice after distribution of SHC was the next pressing problem faced by the respondents which accounted for 96.66 per cent of the respondents. So it can be concluded that SHC scheme couldn’t bring any positive changes on sali rice in the initial year at Darrang district. Thus, the study has suggested initiating the mass awareness campaign using the concept of social marketing for judicious application of fertilizers and nutrient based on SHC report. It is also necessary to give technical backstopping to farmers on SHC recommendation and application to make the agriculture productive, profitable and sustainable.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    FARMERS’ ADOPTION BEHAVIOUR AND FACTORS AFFECTING THEIR ‘WILLINGNESS TO PAY’ (WTP) FOR CLIMATE SMART AGRICULTURE (CSA) IN ASSAM
    (2019-07) Barman, Sundar
    Agriculture has become a high-risk profession towards climate change and weather variability, which have direct impact on farmers’ socio-economic condition, and at the same time has to face challenge to provide food security for ever increasing population. So, there is a need to study the different aspects of climate smart agriculture. Keeping this in view primarily, the present study entitled ‘Farmers’ Adoption Behaviour and factors affecting their ‘Willingness to Pay’ (WTP) for Climate Smart Agriculture (CSA) in Assam’ was carried out in four districts of Assam namely Dibrugarh, Sonitpur, Dhubri and Cachar in which NICRA programme has been implemented since 2011. The objectives of the study are as follows: 1. To study the degree of farmers’ knowledge and adoption of CSA practices 2. To assess the farmers’ preferences and their ‘Willingness to Pay (WTP) for CSA practices and factors likely to influence thereon 3. To determine farmers’ attitude towards ‘Fee Based Extension Services’ (FBES) 4. To document farmers coping strategies for mitigating effect of climate change and variability. A purposive and proportionate random sampling method was used for selecting 400 farmers as respondents from four NICRA villages of respective districts. Appropriate statistical methods were used for analysis and interpretation of data. The profile analysis of respondents showed that majority of respondents (60%) belonged to age group of 35-50 years with formal educational experiences 6 to 10 years having family size more than 7 members with agriculture as main occupation. The dependency ratio of family was found 64.90 to 304.18 % with average size of land holding as 3.79 ha out of which more than 66 per cent was lowland with average cropping intensity of 135.20 %. The average annual income was Rs.1, 05,000 of which 54 % income came from farm activities. Major proportion of respondents (68 %) had training exposure of 1-3 days with medium level of farm information source relevancy (60 %), market accessibility (55.50%), degree of commercialization (70 %) and degree of innovative proneness (68.75%) with 12-24 years of farm experiences. The findings reveal that overall knowledge on selected CSA practices was of medium level for majority of respondents (69%).The adopters of overall selected practices were 79.85 per cent. The adoption consistency for overall selected CSA practices was of medium level for majority of respondents (58.25%). STVs, INM and IPM were found to be the most preferred and high degree of WTP while low degree of WTP was found for VC and MT. The LMR model showed that adoption consistency, degree of preference and WTP were expressed variation by selected explanatory variables with 23% (R2=0.23), 51% (R2=0.51) and 74%(R2=0.74) respectively. ‘Age’ (X1), ‘dependency ratio of family’ (X3), ‘proportion of low land’ (X4), ‘market accessibility’ (X7) and ‘cropping intensity’ (X9) were found to have positive and significant influence on adoption consistency while dependency ratio of family (X3)’ ‘proportion of low land’ (X4), institutional contact (X6)’, ‘market accessibility’ (X7) degree of commercialization’ (X10) and ‘adoption consistency’ (X13) recorded to have positive but age (X1)’, annual farm income (X5) and ‘farm experience’ (X8) have negative and significant influence on farmers’ degree of preferences. In case of WTP, educational experience’ (X2), ‘market accessibility’ (X7) ‘cropping intensity’ (X9), ‘adoption consistency’ (X13) and ‘degree of preferences to CSA practices’ (X14) were found to have positive while variable ‘age’ (X1) and ‘institutional contact’ (X6) have negative and significant influence on WTP. Perception of farmers about climate change was found complementary with realities as most of the farmers disagree with change of temperature, rainfall over last 20 years. Majority of respondents (54.75 per cent) had unfavorable attitude towards FBES while middle age group with occupation agriculture, agriculture +service and agriculture + wage earner had favourable attitude but medium and large farmers had unfavourable attitude towards FBES. Farmers with low and high institutional contact had favourable attitude but high income group farmers had unfavourable attitude. Farmers’ copping strategies such as ‘transplanting of Bao paddy during May-June instead of normal practice i.e. direct sowing during March-April’, ‘erecting solar electrical wire with low voltage in the boundary of crop cultivation area’ ‘selling of livestock before onset of summer season’ change of cropping sequence rice - rabi vegetables to rice-maize, staggered sowing of seed with high rate, Community seed bank for paddy crop were followed for mitigating adverse effect of climate change. Extension agencies, both public and private should put forward strategic effort to make farmers aware of climate change and its impact on food production, popularizing these technologies need to be taken care of in other similar areas, systematic assessment of other CSA practices available in the research front, different stakeholders (both public and private) in input and output chains should work in convergence mode as a common entity so that farmers get necessary environment for adoption of technologies.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    A STUDY ON TECHNOLOGICAL GAP IN ADOPTION OF SCIENTIFIC PRACTICES OF TEA CULTIVATION BY THE SMALL TEA GROWERS IN SONITPUR DISTRICT OF ASSAM
    (AAU, Jorhat, 2017-07) Parasar, Suman; Das, P. K.
    The study entitled ‘A Study on Technological Gap in Adoption of Scientific Practices of Tea Cultivation by the Small Tea Growers in Sonitpur District of Assam’ was conducted in Sonitpur district of Assam with the following objectives: 1. Study the socioeconomic characteristics of Small Tea Growers of Sonitpur district of Assam 2. Determine the extent of technological gap in adoption of scientific practices of tea cultivation by Small Tea Growers 3. Identify the factors influencing the extent of technological gap in adoption of scientific practices of tea cultivation by Small Tea Growers 4. Identify the problems in production and marketing of green tea leaves as perceived by the Small Tea Growers Sonitpur district has three sub-divisions, namely, Tezpur, Biswanath and Gohpur. Out of which two sub-divisions (Tezpur and Biswanath) were selected at random. The sample of the study consisted of 100 respondents, out of these 50 respondents were selected from Tezpur sub-division and 50 respondents were selected from Biswanath sub-division. The data were collected with the help of a pre tested schedule by personal interview method. The statistical tools employed in the study included frequencies, percentage, mean, standard deviation, co-efficient of variation, multiple correlation co-efficient, multiple regression analysis and t- test were the statistical techniques used for analysis and interpretation of the data. Altogether 19 independent variables, viz., age, education, family type, family size, occupational status, institutional linkage, experience as tea grower, area under tea net annual income from tea , exposure to training, working capital availability for tea, utilization of information source, farm mechanization, economic motivation, management orientation, risk bearing ability, scientific orientation , decision making ability and knowledge level on scientific practices of tea and 1 dependent variable viz., extent of technological gap in adoption of scientific practices of tea cultivation were included in the study. The procedure followed by Das (2013) was used to measure the extent of technological gap in adoption of scientific practices of tea cultivation. Findings revealed that majority of the respondents (56.00%) belonged to the middle aged group while 25.00 per cent of the respondents belonged to the old aged ii group. Majority of the respondents (27.00%) had high school level of education followed by 24.00 percent respondents with middle school level of education. An equal proportion of them had higher secondary level of education. Majority of the respondents (77.00%) belonged to the nuclear family and had small family size (79.00%). Majority of the respondents (69.00%) had only cultivation as occupation followed by 18.00 per cent of respondents having cultivation + business as occupation. Majority of the respondents (38.00%) had membership of two or more organizations. Majority of the respondents (85.00%) had medium term (5 to 10 years) experience as a small tea grower followed by 15.00 per cent respondents with long term (more than 10 years) experience as a small tea grower. Most of them (78.00%) respondents having land area from 1.00 to 2.00 ha under tea cultivation followed by 18.00 per cent respondents having land area from 2.10 to 4.00 ha under tea cultivation. Majority of the respondents (82.00%) had medium net annual income from tea cultivation, medium level of working capital availability (90.00%) from tea cultivation. Majority of the respondents (83.00%) were not exposed to training on scientific tea cultivation. Majority of the respondents (59.00%) had medium information source utilization followed by 25.00 per cent with low information source utilization. Majority of the respondents (75.00%) had medium level of farm mechanization. Majority of the respondents (65.00%) had medium level of economic motivation, medium level of management orientation (55.00%), medium level of risk bearing ability (75.00%), medium level of scientific orientation (78.00%) and medium level of decision making ability (57.00%). Majority of the respondents (72.00%) had medium level of knowledge on scientific practices of tea cultivation, followed by 15.00 per cent respondents with low level of knowledge on scientific practices of tea cultivation. With regards to technological gap majority of the respondents (71.00%) had medium overall technological gap in adoption of scientific practices of tea cultivation followed by 17.00 per cent respondents with low overall technological gap in adoption of scientific practices of tea cultivation. A small percentage of them (12.00%) were found with high overall technological gap in adoption of scientific practices of tea cultivation. The findings also revealed that practice wise maximum average technological gap was found in adoption of Doses of YTD mixture (70.90%) followed by Size of planting pit and Number of ploughing and harrowing with average technological gap scores being 61.71% and 57.21% respectively. iii The findings of correlation analysis revealed that variables family type, area under tea, economic motivation, management orientation, scientific orientation, risk bearing ability, exposure to training, decision making ability, knowledge level on scientific practices of tea cultivation and working capital availability had significant negative correlation with the extent of technological gap in adoption of scientific practices of tea cultivation by the small tea growers. Variables age, education, family type, family size, institutional linkage, occupational status, net annual income from tea and farm mechanization had no significant positive correlation with the extent of technological gap in adoption of scientific practices of tea cultivation by the small tea growers. The variables which were significantly correlated with the extent of technological gap in scientific practices of tea cultivation were further considered for multiple regression where the value of R2 (0.5466) indicated that 10 independent variables could explain 54.66% of the variation in the extent of technological gap in adoption of scientific practices of tea cultivation by the small tea growers. The most important problems faced by the small tea growers in production of green tea leaf in order of importance were scarcity of labour (rank I), incidence of Tea Mosquito Bug in green tea bushes (rank II), lack of knowledge regarding organic tea cultivation (rank III), lack of knowledge on scientific tea cultivation (rank IV), lack of land patta to avail incentives/facilities given by TBI (rank V), lack of cooperation from bought leaf factories (rank IV), lack of opportunity for training on scientific tea cultivation (rank VII), threat from stray animals (rank VIII), erratic climate factors (rank IX), high cost of irrigation (rank X) and high cost of chemical(rank XI). The most important problems faced by the small tea growers in marketing of green tea leaf in order of importance were low price of green leaves provided by the factories (rank I), lack of market information (rank II) and limited number of bought leaf factories (rank III).
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    ASSESSMENT OF TRAINING NEEDS OF AGRICULTURE EXTENSION ASSISTANTS IN RECENT ADVANCES OF EXTENSION EDUCATION: A STUDY IN DIBRUGARH AND TINSUKIA DISTRICTS OF ASSAM
    (AAU, Jorhat, 2017-07) Senchowa, Jahnabi; Mishra, P.
    The economy of the state of Assam is basically based on Agriculture as the dependence of rural labour on Agriculture and allied activities was nearly 53 percent as per population census 2001. Majority of the Assamese community survives on Agriculture and its allied aspects as their livelihood. Improvements in the field of Agriculture is solely dependent upon the improvement of the personnel of the State Departments associated with this discipline. The Agriculture Extension Assistants has to play a vital role in effective transfer of agricultural technology. The Agriculture Extension Assistants has to motivate, educate and guide farmers to adopt new ideas and practices. Keeping this in view, the present study entitled , “Assessment of training needs of Agriculture Extension Assistants in recent advances of Extension Education – a study in Dibrugarh and Tinsukia districts of Assam” was undertaken with the major objective of Assessing training needs of Agriculture Extension Assistants in recent advances of Extension Education. The Findings of this study revealed that majority (65.00 %) of the Agriculture Extension Assistants were middle aged .Majority (47.50 %) of the respondents had educational qualification up to HSLC. Majority (62.50 %) of the respondents had Total Service Experience of 13-24 years. Majority (65.00 %) of the respondents had Training Exposure between 3- 14 in their service tenure. It is evident from the study that 100 per cent of the respondents had attended training on Subject Matter, 93.33 percent of them had attended training on Extension Methodology and 61.66 percent on other categories apart from Subject Matter and Extension Methodology. A very high majority (71.67 %) of the Respondents had moderately favourable Attitude towards Extension work. Maximum (74.16 %) Respondents are Moderately Satisfied in their Job. The study revealed that most important Sources of Information of the respondents is the “Progressive farmer”, and the Least Important Source is “Agents of Input Organizations”. The Motivational Profile of the study reveals that “Better Relationship with Superiors of the Department” is the most important Motivational Factor and “Better Relation with Co-Workers” is the least important motivational factor for the Respondents. Majority (67.50 %) of the Respondents had shown medium Role Conflict. Majority (70.83 %) of the Agriculture Extension Assistants had shown medium level of Role Awareness in their Designation. The Training need areas for AEAs were categorized into ten aspects- Application of ICT Based Extension, Prospects of Market led Extension, Prospects of Group led Extension, Approach to Participatory planning, Perspectives of Human Resource Management, Approach to Liberalization of Economy, Preparation of module for skill development of farmers, Knowledge on Private Extension and Privatization, Perspectives of Farm Journalism and Agri-preneurship Development. The most needed training need areas of Agricultural Extension Assistants identified were – “Fundamentals of Internet Browsing” (WMS= 2.94), “Concept of Market led Extension” (WMS= 2.95), “Promotion and practices of Group farming” (WMS=2.99), “Knowledge on PRA tools” (WMS=2.95), “Mainstreaming gender in Agriculture” (WMS=2.94), “Knowledge on Globalization of Economy” (WMS=2.91), “Formulation of Training design” (WMS=2.95), “Public Private Partnership in Agriculture” (WMS=2.96), “Knowledge and role of Mass Communication” (WMS=2.90), and “Concept of Agripreneurship” (WMS=2.96). The Study conducted revealed that majority (69.16%) of Agriculture Extension Assistants have Medium level of training needs , followed by high level of training needs (20.00%), and low level (10.84%) of Training needs. The findings of Co-relation analysis of the various selected Socio-personal characteristics of Agriculture Extension Assistants and their training needs revealed that Age (r=0.04); Service Experience (r=0.02), Attitude towards Extension Work (r=0.02), Job Satisfaction (r=0.01), Motivational profile (r=0.12), Role Conflict (r=-0.04) was found to be Non significant with Training needs, whereas Role Awareness (r=-0.15) was found to be negatively significant with Training needs.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    STUDY ON THE LEVEL OF UTILIZATION OF RESOURCE CONSERVATION TECHNOLOGIES BY THE FARMERS OF EAST SIANG DISTRICT IN ARUNACHAL PRADESH
    (AAU, Jorhat, 2018-07) MOYONG, LUCY; Das, P. K.
    The present study entitled “Study on the level of utilization of resource conservation technologies by the farmers of East Siang District in Arunachal Pradesh” was carried out with the following objectives: 1) To identify the different resource conservation technologies followed by farmers 2) To determine the level of utilization of resource conservation technologies by the farmers 3) To identify the factors influencing the level of utilization of resource conservation technologies by the farmers 4) To identify the problems in utilization of resource conservation technologies as perceived by the farmers The study was conducted in Arunachal Pradesh. It consists of 21 districts, out of which 1 district, East Siang district was selected purposively for the present study. From the district, 2 sub-divisions, viz., Mebo and Ruksin, were selected at random. From each of the selected sub- divisions, two ADO circles were selected randomly. Thus, Ruksin and Bilat circles from Ruksin sub-division and Mebo and Namsing circles from Mebo sub- division were selected randomly. From each of the selected ADO circles, one AFA (Agricultural Field Assistant) area was selected randomly. Thus, from four ADO circles, four AFA areas were selected randomly. From each selected AFA area, two villages were selected randomly thus making a total of 8 villages. The eight selected villages were- Ayeng, Mangnang, Motum, Mebo, Rani, Sika Tode, Sika Bamin and Sigar. A list of farmers of each of the selected villages was prepared with the help of the concerned AFAs. Then from each village, farmers were selected by adopting proportionate –cum–random sampling method to obtain a sample size of 120 respondents. The data for the study were collected by the personal interview method with the help of a structured research schedule. Keeping in view the objectives of the study a set of 15 independent and 1 dependent variables were selected for the study. The dependent variable selected for the study was of level of utilization of RCTs by the farmers. In order to identify the factors influencing the dependent variables, correlation of the dependent variables with 15 independent variables was worked out. The 15 independent variables were age, educational level, family type, occupational status, social participation, farming experience, operational land holding, annual income, training exposure, availability of working capital, farm mechanization, use of information sources, economic motivation, risk bearing ability and scientific orientation The statistical techniques and tests used in the study for analysis and interpretation of the data were frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, multiple correlations, multiple regression and t-test. The findings revealed that majority of the respondents (51.66%) belonged to middle aged category with higher secondary level of education (25.83%), joint family (59.17%), cultivation+skill labour as occupation (40.00%), membership of 1 ii organization (75%),small size of land area(39.16%), medium net annual income (65%), 1 day training on agricultural farming (75%), medium level of working capital availability(56.67%), medium level of farm mechanization(80%),47.50) , medium level of use of information sources ( 64.17) medium level of social participation (47.50), medium level of economic motivation(74.17%) ,medium level of risk bearing ability (76.67%), medium level of scientific orientation (66.67%). Findings revealed that the majority of the respondents (75.00%) utilized mixed farming followed by 35.00 per cent who utilized direct seeding and 34.17 per cent who utilized contour farming. A sizeable proportion of the respondents (30.83%) were found to be utilizers of zero tillage followed by 30.00 per cent respondents who utilized intercropping in their situation. The rest 15.00 per cent respondents were found to be utilizers of mulching and rain water harvesting. Findings revealed that majority of the respondents (65.85%) had medium level of utilization of contour farming, medium level of utilization of direct seeding (64.28%), medium level of utilization of intercropping (72.22%) , medium level of utilization of mulching (70.00%), medium level of utilization of zero tillage (75.68%), medium level of utilization of rain water harvesting (66.67%) and medium level of utilization of mixed farming (64.45%). Findings revealed that the majority of the respondents (75.83%) had medium level of utilization of seven RCTs considered in the study, followed by 13.33 per cent with low level of utilization of those RCTs. Only 10.84 per cent of the respondents were with high level of utilization of those seven RCTs. Findings of correlation analysis indicated that 11 independent variables were significantly correlated with the level of utilization of resource conservation technologies. The variables viz., educational level, social participation, use of information sources, farming experience, operational land holding, annual net farm income, exposure to training, farm mechanization, economic motivation, risk bearing ability and scientific orientation showed significant and positive relationship with the level of utilization in relation to resource conservation technologies at 0.01 level of probability. Three variables viz., education level, exposure to training and farm mechanization had significant contribution towards the variation in the level of utilization of RCTs at 0.05 level of probability. Two variables viz., occupational status and scientific orientation showed significant contribution towards the variation in the level of utilization of RCTs at 0.01 level of probability. The 11 independent variables fitted in the linear regression analysis could predict 74.50 per cent of the variation in the level of utilization in relation to resource conservation technologies. Majority of the respondents (67.50%) reported that lack of awareness about different RCTs as the most important problem (ranked first) faced by the in utilization of resource conservation technologies. The other problems faced by the farmers in utilization of RCTs were lack of exposure to training on RCTs (63.33%), lack of technical support from extension agents regarding use of RCTs in different crops (51.67%), scarcity of labour during peak season(49.17%) and untimely supply of critical inputs (44.17%) which were ranked second, third, fourth and fifth, respectively.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    A STUDY ON THE TECHNOLOGICAL GAP IN CROP BASED FARMING SYSTEMS IN DIFFERENT AGRO-ECOLOGICAL SITUATIONS IN BISWANATH DISTRICT OF ASSAM
    (AAU, Jorhat, 2018-07) Dutta, Priyankur; Das, P. K.
    The study entitled as ‘A study on the technological gap in crop based farming systems in different agro-ecological situations in Biswanath district of Assam’ was conducted with the following objectives: 1. To identify the major crop based farming systems practised by the farmers 2. To find out the technological gap in major crop enterprises in crop based farming systems practised by the farmers 3. To identify the problems in adoption of recommended technologies in selected major crop enterprises in different farming systems as perceived by farmers The present study was conducted at Biswanath district of Assam. A multistage purposive cum random sampling design was followed for selection of district, agroecological situations and villages for the study. A proportionate-cum-random sampling (probability proportionate to size) technique was followed for selection of 150 respondents which constituted the sample for the study. The head of each farm household was the respondent of the study. The major tool used for collection of primary data in the study was a pretested schedule by personal interview method. The statistical tools used for analysis and interpretation of data included frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation and coefficient of variation. Findings revealed that (52.67%) belonged to middle aged category with higher secondary level of education (42.00%), single family (66.00%), small family size (70.00%), with membership of 1 organization (38.00%), ‘only cultivation’ as occupation (50.00%), medium information exposure (64.00%), marginal size of land area (50.67%), with medium level of working capital availability (66.00%), medium level of farm mechanization (69.33%) and medium gross annual farm income (86.67%). Findings revealed that 6 different types of crop based farming systems across the five agro-ecological situations were identified, viz., Crop-Hort- Dairy (FS-1), Crop-Hort -Pig-Poultry (FS-2), Crop- Pig- Fish-Poultry (FS-3), Crop-Hort-Fish-Dairy- Poultry-Duck (FS-4), Crop-Dairy-Hort-Goat-Poultry (FS-5) and Crop-Hort-Fish- Dairy- Goat (FS-6). After identification of different types of major crop based farming systems prevailing in the study area, the crop enterprises which were found to be practiced by more than 50 per cent of farmers in each of the five AES were considered as major crop enterprises in the respective AES. In both the case of AES I and AES II, major enterprise selected were Sali rice, potato and mustard. In case of AES III, three crop enterprises selected were Bao rice, potato and mustard. In case of AES IV, three crop enterprises were Ahu rice, potato and mustard and in case of AES V, three selected crop enterprises were Bao rice, Ahu rice and Mustard. In case of AES I, in Sali rice, full gap was found with respect to the practices, viz., seed treatment (86.84%), water management (52.63%), pest management (21.05%) and disease management (21.05%). In potato, full gap was found with the ii farmers with respect to the practices, viz., mulching (100.00%), seed treatment (83.33%), varieties (41.66%), disease management (25.00%) and pest management (16.67%). In mustard, full gap was found with respect to the practices, viz., land management (100.00%), micronutrient (68.18%) and pest management (18.18%). In case of AES II, in Sali rice, full gap was found with respect to the practices, viz., seed treatment (85.71%), disease management (20.00%) and pest management (14.28%). In potato, full gap was found with respect to the practices, viz., mulching (100.00%), seed treatment (70.00%), varieties (25.00%), pest management (11.76%) and disease management (10.00%).In mustard, full gap was found with respect to the practices, viz., land management (100.00%), micro nutrient (64.29%), pest management (28.57%) and water management (21.43%). In case of AES III, three crop enterprises which were cultivated by more than 50 percent of the respondents were Bao rice, potato and mustard. In Bao rice, full gap was found with respect to the practices, viz., seed treatment (100.00%), dose of fertilizer (100.00%), pest management (31.81%) and varieties (18.18%). In potato, full gap was found with respect to the practices, viz., mulching (100.00%), seed treatment (70.00%), dose of fertilizers (70.00%), method of application of fertilizers (70.00%), varieties (41.67%) and pest management (10.00%). In mustard, all the mustard growing farmers (100.00%) found to have full gap with respect to the practices, viz., land management, water management, micro-nutrient, method of application of fertilizers, dose of fertilizer and followed by pest management (23.07%). In case of AES IV, in Ahu rice, full gap was found with respect to the practices, viz., seed treatment (83.33%), water management (41.66%) and pest management (16.67%). In potato, full gap was found with respect to the practices, viz., mulching (90.00%), seed treatment (65.00%), disease management (10.00%) and pest management (10.00%). In mustard, full gap was found with respect to the practices, viz., land management (100.00%), micro nutrient (100.00%), pest management (43.75%) and water management (31.25%). In case of AES V, in Bao rice, full gap was found with respect to the practices, viz., seed treatment (100.00%), dose of fertilizers (100.00%), pest management (68.18%) and varieties (18.18%). In Ahu rice, full gap was found with respect to the practices, viz., dose of fertilizer (100.00%), seed treatment (100.00%), method of application of fertilizers (100.00%), weed management (100.00%) and pest management (40.00%). In mustard, full gap was found with respect to the practices, viz., land management (100.00%), micro nutrient (100.00%), water management (66.67%), pest management (66.67%) and dose of fertilizer (50.00%). The problems in adoption of recommended technologies in Sali rice in different farming systems as perceived by farmers were non availability of quality seed, poor economic conditions, fragmented and small size of land holdings, low availability of farm power, poor irrigation facility, poor sale price of the produce/products, scarcity of labour during peak period, poor and irregular extension service and flood damage. iii The problems in adoption of recommended technologies in potato in different farming systems as perceived by farmers were lack of scientific knowledge of cultivation, high cost of cultivation, high fluctuation in market prices, non- availability of quality seeds, lack of irrigation facilities, poor and irregular extension contact and non-availability of any suitable local method of storage. The problems in adoption of recommended technologies in mustard in different farming systems as perceived by farmers were lack of scientific knowledge of cultivation, lack of HYV varieties and non availability of quality seed at proper time, inadequate availability of irrigation and poor and irregular extension contact. The problems in adoption of recommended technologies in Ahu rice in different farming systems as perceived by farmers were weed infestation, small and fragmented land holdings, low and erratic rainfall, scarcity of labour during peak period and poor and limited resource with farmers, poor animal draft power, stray cattle menace and poor and irregular extension contact. The problems in adoption of recommended technologies in Bao rice in different farming systems as perceived by farmers were small and fragmented land holdings, non availability of suitable varieties, scarcity of labour during peak period and poor and irregular extension contact.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    A STUDY ON MOTIVATIONAL CLIMATE AS PERCEIVED BY THE SUBJECT MATTER SPECIALISTS OF KRISHI VIGYAN KENDRAS UNDER ASSAM AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY
    (AAU, Jorhat, 2018-07) Saikia, Dipankar; Das, P. K.
    The study entitled as ‘A study on motivational climate as perceived by the Subject Matter Specialists of Krishi Vigyan Kendras under Assam Agricultural University’ was conducted with the following objectives: 1. To measure the existing motivational climate as perceived by the Subject Matter Specialists (SMSs) of Krishi Vigyan Kendras (KVKs) under Assam Agricultural University (AAU) 2. To measure the desired motivational climate as perceived by the SMSs of KVKs under AAU 3. To find out the gap between the existing and desired motivational climate as perceived by the SMSs of KVKs under AAU 4. To find out the association between the motivational climate as perceived by the SMSs of KVKs and their socio-personal and organizational characteristics The present study was conducted at the KVKs functioning under the administrative control of the Directorate of Extension Education, Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat, Assam. A multistage purposive sampling method was followed for selection of the respondents of the study. All the 23 KVKs functioning under the administrative control of Assam Agricultural University were selected purposively for the study. Motivational climate, the dependent variable, in the present study was conceptualized as the environment prevailing in the KVKs, which activates, energizes and directs (hence motivates) the SMSs towards the achievement of organizational and personal goals. Motivational climate was measured on six motive dimensions, viz, achievement, affiliation, extension, dependency, control and expert power. Eleven organizational dimensions, viz., orientation, interpersonal relationship, supervision, communication, decision making, trust, managing problems, managing mistakes, managing conflicts, managing rewards and risk taking were also considered for the purpose of measuring the six motive dimensions. A total of seven socio-personal and organizational variables, viz., age, educational level, service experience, level of aspiration, job involvement, attitude towards KVK and job satisfaction were selected as independent variables for the study. The major tool used for collection of primary data in the study was a structured pretested questionnaire. The questionnaire for collection of data was mailed through registered post to 112 SMSs working in 23 KVKs. The total number of SMSs returning the filled-in questionnaire was 65. Finally, 65 SMSs from 18 KVKs constituted the sample of respondents for the study. Various descriptive and inferential statistical measures were employed to analyze the data. The statistical techniques and tests used for analysis and interpretation of data included frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, ‘t’ test, and chi square test. As regards perceived existing motivational climate, the mean perception score of dependency climate motive (41.69) was the highest among the six motives, followed closely by control climate motive (40.84). These were followed by achievement climate motive (38.73), expert power climate motive (35.52), affiliation climate motive (33.29) and extension climate motive (32.87) in decreasing order of existing motivational climate strength. Findings revealed that the dominant existing motivational climate pattern in the KVKs was Dependency-Control. By and large the ii respondents had medium level of perception for each of the six motive dimensions of the existing motivational climate. Among the high perception categories, highest proportion of respondents (16.92%) was for dependency climate motive. Among the medium perception categories, highest proportion of respondents (76.92%) was for control climate dimension. Among the low perception categories, highest proportion of respondents (43.07%) was for expert power climate dimension. As regards perceived desired motivational climate, the mean perception score of extension climate motive (44.57) was the highest among the six desired motives, followed closely by expert power climate motive (41.12). These were followed by affiliation climate motive (40.49), achievement climate motive (37.78), dependency climate motive (35.26) and control climate motive (34.46) in decreasing order of desired motivational climate strength. Among the high perception categories of desired motivational climate, highest proportion of respondents (24.61%) was for extension climate motive. Among the medium perception categories, highest proportion of respondents (83.07%) was for achievement climate dimension. Among the low perception categories, highest proportion of respondents (29.23%) was for extension climate dimension. Findings revealed that a decrease in the climate motives of dependency and control was desired by the respondents over the existing. An augmentation in the climate strengths with respect to extension, affiliation and expert power climates was perceived by the SMSs as their existing strengths were lower than what was desired by them. The values of coefficients of variation and standard deviation scores indicated that respondents were mostly homogeneous with respect to the variables of job satisfaction (SD 6.31 & CV 8.10%) and job involvement (SD 7.02 & CV 10.50%). This was followed by Attitude towards KVK (SD 9.11& CV 12.77%) and age (SD 5.94 & CV 14.57%). On the other hand, respondents were relatively heterogeneous or scattered in their responses on the variables of level of aspiration (CV 54.90%) followed by, service experience (CV 44.04%) and education level (CV 34.83%). Findings revealed that that majority of the respondents were middle aged (67.69%) with Master degree in Agriculture or allied sciences (78.46%). Majority of them had medium service experience (56.92%) with medium level of aspiration (60%). Majority of them perceived medium level of job involvement (66.15%), medium level of job satisfaction (55.38%) and had favourable attitude towards KVK (66.15%). The results of chi square (χ²) tests between characteristics of respondents and perceived existing motivational climate revealed significant association of ‘level of aspiration’ with ‘control’ (χ²=21.96), ‘level of aspiration’ with ‘expert power’ (χ²=11.45), and ‘job satisfaction’ with ‘dependency’ (χ²=13.89). The results of chi square (χ²) tests between characteristics of respondents and perceived desired motivational climate revealed significant association of ‘service experience’ with ‘expert power’ (χ²=10.21) and ‘level of aspiration with ‘affiliation’ (χ²=13.92).