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Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat

Assam Agricultural University is the first institution of its kind in the whole of North-Eastern Region of India. The main goal of this institution is to produce globally competitive human resources in farm sectorand to carry out research in both conventional and frontier areas for production optimization as well as to disseminate the generated technologies as public good for benefitting the food growers/produces and traders involved in the sector while emphasizing on sustainability, equity and overall food security at household level. Genesis of AAU - The embryo of the agricultural research in the state of Assam was formed as early as 1897 with the establishment of the Upper Shillong Experimental Farm (now in Meghalaya) just after about a decade of creation of the agricultural department in 1882. However, the seeds of agricultural research in today’s Assam were sown in the dawn of the twentieth century with the establishment of two Rice Experimental Stations, one at Karimganj in Barak valley in 1913 and the other at Titabor in Brahmaputra valley in 1923. Subsequent to these research stations, a number of research stations were established to conduct research on important crops, more specifically, jute, pulses, oilseeds etc. The Assam Agricultural University was established on April 1, 1969 under The Assam Agricultural University Act, 1968’ with the mandate of imparting farm education, conduct research in agriculture and allied sciences and to effectively disseminate technologies so generated. Before establishment of the University, there were altogether 17 research schemes/projects in the state under the Department of Agriculture. By July 1973, all the research projects and 10 experimental farms were transferred by the Government of Assam to the AAU which already inherited the College of Agriculture and its farm at Barbheta, Jorhat and College of Veterinary Sciences at Khanapara, Guwahati. Subsequently, College of Community Science at Jorhat (1969), College of Fisheries at Raha (1988), Biswanath College of Agriculture at Biswanath Chariali (1988) and Lakhimpur College of Veterinary Science at Joyhing, North Lakhimpur (1988) were established. Presently, the University has three more colleges under its jurisdiction, viz., Sarat Chandra Singha College of Agriculture, Chapar, College of Horticulture, Nalbari & College of Sericulture, Titabar. Similarly, few more regional research stations at Shillongani, Diphu, Gossaigaon, Lakhimpur; and commodity research stations at Kahikuchi, Buralikson, Tinsukia, Kharua, Burnihat and Mandira were added to generate location and crop specific agricultural production packages.


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Now showing 1 - 9 of 17
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Diagnosis and treatment of spinal affections in dogs and cats
    (College of Veterinary Science, Assam Agricultural University, Khanapara Campus, 2022-09) Das, Shantishree; Singh, Chandan Kumar
    A total of 3130 dogs and 533 cats were presented in the Department of Veterinary Surgery and Radiology and Surgery Out Patient Department (SOPD), Veterinary Clinical Complex, College of Veterinary Science, Assam Agricultural University, Khanapara during the period from 1st November 2021 to 31st July 2022. Overall incidence of spinal affections 0.73 percentage and 1.68 percentage was recorded in dogs and cats respectively. Incidence of spinal affections in male dogs (65.22 percentage) and in female cats (66.66 percentage) was highest. Non-descript dogs (30.43 percentage) and cats (88.88 percentage) were found to highly prone to spinal affections. Motor vehicle accident (30.43 percentage) and dog bites (44.44 percentage) was found to be the prime cause of spinal trauma in dogs and cats respectively. Thoracolumbar region was found to be at highest risk. Out of the total spinal affection cases presented, 13 dogs and 5 cats were taken under current study. The animals were evaluated clinically on the basis of physiological, Orthopedic and neurological examination. Survey and contrast radiography was taken for confirmation of the spinal affections. After confirmation, 7 dogs and 2 cats were treated conservatively out of which 2 dogs (28.57 percentage) and 1 cat (50 percentage) showed neurological recovery, whereas, 6 dogs and 3 cats were treated surgically (with pedicle screws, spinal stapling and hemilaminectomy) out of which 1 dog (16.66 percentage) and 2 cats (66.67 percentage) showed neurological recovery followed by physiotherapy using TENS, infrared light and hot fomentation. At 20th day post-treatment there was an insignificant rise in ALP concentration of dogs and cats which could be due to inflammatory phage of healing, osteoblastic activity and administration of the steroids. The mean value of LDH concentration was found to be highly significant. CSF was collected via cisternal tap and evaluated chemically, macroscopically and microscopically. Neutrophils were observed in high number at the reporting time. Animals reported within 24 hours of affection with intact deep pain reflex showed better recovery. So, earlier the case presented, better is the recovery.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Diagnosis of canine heart diseases with special reference to transthoracic echocardiography
    (College of Veterinary Science, Assam Agricultural University, Khanapara Campus, 2022-09) Das, Rimjhim; Kalita, Dwijen
    A total of 14050 dogs were registered; out of which 88 dogs were suspected for heart diseases based on clinical manifestations and 38 dogs with overall incidence rate of 0.27% were diagnosed with various heart diseases based on thoracic radiography, electrocardiography and two-dimensional, M-mode and colour-flow Doppler echocardiography. The incidence of cardiac affections were found to be highest in Labrador Retriever (39.47%), male dogs (63.15%), age group of >6-9 years (31.57%). Radiographically 20 dogs were diagnosed with cardiac affections and found Pleural effusion with highest occurrence (23.68%), followed by left sided cardiomegaly (21.05%) and right sided cardiomegaly (7.89%). Electrocardiographically 30 dogs were diagnosed positive for cardiac affections with highest occurrence of Sinus bradycardia (23.68%) followed by P-mitrale (18.42%), ventricular hypertrophy and pericardial effusion (7.89% each), 1st degree AV block, Ppulmonale and myocardial disease (5.26% each), ventricular septal enlargement and atrial fibrillation (2.63% each). However, transthoracic echocardiography was taken as gold standard diagnostic modality with which 38 dogs were diagnosed positive for heart diseases. The most frequently diagnosed cardiac disease using 2D-mode, M-mode were Dilated Cardiomyopathy (DCM) (47.36%), Left atrial (LA) enlargement (15.78%), Pericardial effusion, Left ventricular posterior wall (LVPW) hypertrophy (7.89%) and Right ventricular (RV) hypertrophy(5.26%). With Doppler mode echocardiography the occurrence of Mitral valve insufficiency was found to be highest (65.78%) followed by Tricuspid valve insufficiency (52.63%) and aortic valve insufficiency (10.52%). The haematological parameters i.e. TEC, TLC, thrombocytes, lymphocytes, granulocytes, monocytes and Hb and biochemical parameters i.e. SGPT, SGOT, BUN, Creatinine, Total protein, albumin, sodium and potassium revealed non-significant (p>0.05) role in diagnosis of cardiac affections in dogs. However, serum calcium and non-specific LDH appeared to be significantly (p≤0.05) influenced by occurrence of heart disease and both the parameters were found reliable for diagnosis of heart diseases. The serum Ca and non specific LDH can be used together in combination to improve the efficacy of diagnosis for cardiac affections. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of thoracic radiography was found to be 58.82%, 76.19% and 65.45% respectively upon taking echocardiography as gold standard diagnostic method. Whereas, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of electrocardiography was found to be 81.08 %, 60% and 76.60% respectively. Based on the present study electrocardiography was found to be more efficient in diagnosis of heart diseases for dogs in comparison to thoracic radiography. However, transthoracic echocardiography using two-dimensional, m-mode and colour-doppler has been found to be the most efficient diagnostic modality in diagnosis of heart diseases in dogs as 43.18% (n=38) were diagnosed positive out of 88 suspected cases for heart disease presented during the study period.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Ultrasound guided epidural analgesia for perioperative pain management in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy operation
    (College of Veterinary Science, Assam Agricultural University, Khanapara Campus, 2022) Mahanta, Bindiya; Nath, Parsha Jyoti
    The current study aimed at assessing the efficacy of Morphine and Buprenorphine as perioperative analgesics administered epidurally via a US guided lumbosacral approach in bitches undergoing elective ovariohysterectomy. Eighteen healthy female Pariah dogs of 1-4 years of age were selected that presented to the Department of Veterinary Surgery and Radiology and Veterinary Clinical Complex, College of Veterinary Science, Khanapara, Guwahati. The animals were randomly divided into 3 groups viz. Group A, Group B, Group C with 6 animals in each group. The animals of Group A and Group B were administered Morphine @ 0.1mg/kg b.wt and Buprenorphine @4μg /kg b.wt single dose epidurally under ultrasonographic guidance before the start of the operation. The animals of Group C were kept as control for the study without any analgesic till the end of observation period. Ultrasonographic visualization of epidural space was done by using the ultrasound probe in sagittal position. The lumbosacral intervertebral space could be accurately identified using ultrasonography. Successful deposition of analgesic into the epidural space was possible in animals of different body conditions. The physiological parameters were recorded at 0min, 15mins, 30mins, 45mins, 60mins, 75mins, 90mins and 120mins post epidural administration. The heart rate, respiration rate, rectal temperature and mean arterial pressure had significant variation (p<0.01) between the groups whereas oxygen concentration expressed significant variation between time intervals. All physiological parameters were found to be within physiological reference range in the study. The assessment of pain was done by using Glasgow Composite Measure Pain Scale- Short Form (CMPS-SF). The pain assessment was done preoperatively and postoperatively at 0 min, 1 hour, 3 hours, 6 hours, 12 hours and 24 hours. The CMPS-SF scores showed a significant (p<0.01) increase from baseline scores in the post operative period in all the groups at 3 hours postoperatively which gradually declined towards the end of the observation period. The animals in treatment groups had significantly lower pain scores postoperatively than the animals in the control group. The haematological and biochemical parameters were studied preoperatively and postoperatively at 0 min, 3 hours, 6 hours, 12 hours and 24 hours. Haemoglobin and packed cell volume varied non-significantly between different groups but changed significantly between time intervals. Total erythrocyte count increased significantly 12 hours post-operatively. Blood glucose and plasma cortisol concentration varied significantly (p<0.01) at 3 hours post operatively in all groups. The blood glucose levels of Group A and Group B were lower compared to Group C. The cortisol levels of Group B and Group C were comparable in the initial post-operative phase which declined gradually towards the end. The blood glucose levels expressed an increasing trend while the cortisol levels presented a decreasing trend towards the end of the study period in Group C. Alkaline Phosphatase levels expressed non-significant variation in the observation period in all groups. From the study it could be concluded that, ultrasonographic detection aided in identification of lumbosacral epidural space and deposition of analgesics which helped produce long lasting analgesia with Morphine providing better analgesia in the initial post-operative phase, which was comparable to buprenorphine for providing long lasting analgesia.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    (College of Veterinary Science, Assam Agricultural University, Khanapara, Guwahati, 2019-07) BAYAN, HITESH; Sarma, Kushal Konwar
    The study was conducted to evaluate the clinical, cardiopulmonary, haematobiochemical and immunological effects of isoflurane, propofol and ketamine anaesthesia in glycopyrrolate, dexmedetomidine and butorphanol premedicated dogs. The study was carried out on twenty four number of female dogs presented for elective ovariohysterectomy. The animals were randomly divided into four groups (A, B, C and D) comprising of six animals each. The animals in all the groups were administered with glycopyrrolate 0.01 mg/kg IM followed 15 min by dexmedetomidine 5μg/kg IV and Butorphanol 0.1mg/kg IV. Two min after administration of dexmedetomidine and butorphanol, induction of anaesthesia was done with propofol IV till effect in Groups A and B and with ketamine IV till effect in Groups C and D. The anaesthesia was maintained with isoflurane in Groups A and C. In Groups B and D, the anaesthesia was maintained with continuous rate infusion of propofol 0.2-0.5 mg/kg/min and ketamine 0.002-0.02 mg/kg/min, respectively. The induction doses of propofol were recorded as 0.67±0.07 mg/kg in Group A and 0.68± 0.06 mg/kg in Group B where as the induction doses of ketamine were recorded as 2.55± 0.24 mg/kg in Group C and 2.63±0.26 mg/kg in Group D. Induction was quick and smooth in all the groups enabling easy endotracheal intubation. The analgesia, muscle relaxation and depth of anaesthesia were sufficient for performing major abdominal operations. The mean maintenance dose (mg/kg/min) of propofol and ketamine were recorded as 0.24±0.01 and 0.013.17±0.60 respectively in groups B and D. The mean vaporizer settings (%) for isoflurane were recorded as 1.34±0.06 and 1.28±0.07, respectively in Groups A and C. The recovery time was shortest in Group A and longest in Group D. The quality of recovery was better in Groups B, A & C in sequence as compared to Group D. The changes in the clinical parameters remained within the physiological limits in all the groups. Changes in blood pressure and ECG remained within the physiological limit in all the groups. The respiratory parameters were well maintained with isoflurane but the oxygen saturation values were near the critical level in Group D. The changes in haematological (haemoglobin, TEC, TLC, PCV, granulocytes, platelet and DLC) and biochemical (serum glucose, serum total protein, GGT, ALP, BUN, serum creatinine and LDH) parameters were found to be within physiological limits in all the animals. The immunological parameters exhibited immune suppressions but were transient in nature in all the groups. To conclude, all the anaesthetic combinations were safe and effective for major abdominal surgery in dogs. However, the respiratory parameters were more stable with inhalation agents used for maintenance and near the border line in particularly with ketamine CRI. The CRI with propofol was found to be better than with ketamine for maintenance in dogs premedicated with dexmedetomidine and butorphanol.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    (College of Veterinary Science, Assam Agricultural University, Khanapara, Guwahati, 2019-07) SHARMA, MANAV; Sarma, Kushal Konwar
    B. mori silk cocoons were processed by established state of the art protocol to obtain silk fibroin aqueous solution, which was further used for scaffold fabrication. Three types of highly porous three dimensional sponge feel scaffolds were fabricated using traditionally used herbal based medicine i.e. Curcumin & Cissus quadrangularis. They are Silk Fibroin scaffold (SF), Silk Fibroin blended with Curcumin (CuSF) and Silk Fibroin blended with Cissus quadrangularis extract (CqSF). FESEM revealed highly porous scaffold with homogenously distributed interconnected pores in all types of scaffolds with pore ranging from 45.73-121.1 μm, 42.37-137.8 μm and 50.95-103.4 μm for SF, Cu-SF and Cq-SF respectively. The average porosity for each scaffold obtained were 88.57 %, 91.47 %, 93.03 % for SF, CuSF, CqSF respectively. Swelling and Water Holding Capacity were calculated to be 4.14%, 2.14% and 2.43% and 89.37 %, 92.04 % and 93.75 % for SF, CqSF, CuSF respectively. 42 numbers of New Zealand White rabbits were procured from authorized supplier for the study after obtaining IAEC clearance. Scaffolds were implanted into critical size radius bone defect (1.5 to 2 cm) following state of the art anaesthetic protocol. 0.5ml autologous bone marrow (BM) was collected and seeded immediately after collection for each type of scaffold considering as a separate animal group. Satisfactory clear radiographic union could be observed as early as by 30th day and initiation of remodeling by 60th day for Cu-SF & Cu-SF-BM groups. SF & SF-BM group radiographic union was evidence by 60th day but with a less opaque area compared to Cu- SF & Cu-SF-BM group. Relatively satisfactory radiographic union was also observed by the end of the observation period in Cq-SF group. In contrast, Cq-SF-BM group revealed no radiographic union even up to the end of the observation period. Histological samples were collected at the end of the radiographic observation (90th day) and processed for H & E staining. New blood vessel, marrow cells and new bone tissue could also be demonstrated for both Cu-SF & Cu-SF-BM group. In both SF & SF-BM group fibrous connective tissue could be visualized, along with cartilaginous tissue in SF-BM group. In Cq-SF group also along with fibrous connective tissue with new boney tissue could be demonstrated. But in Cq-SF-BM group fibrous connective tissue could only be demonstrated. Finally it could be concluded that B. mori silk fibroin could effectively be used and biofunctionalized with traditionally known fracture healing herbal based ingredients for bone tissue engineering application as evidence by satisfactory radiographic and histological findings in Cu-SF, Cu-SF-BM and Cq-SF groups.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    (2021-06) DEKA, DEEPJYOTI; Sarma, Kushal Konwar
    Eighteen clinically healthy captive sambar stags, weighing 80-110kgs were divided into three groups, containing of 6 calves in each group, where group-A received xylazine hydrochloride @ 1.5 mg/kg and and ketamine hydrochloride @ 2.5 mg/kg bodyweight intramuscularly, group-B received xylazine hydrochloride @ 1.5 mg/kg and tiletamine-zolazepam @ 2.5mg/kg bodyweight intramuscularly and group-C received xylazine hydrochloride @ 1.5 mg/kg + and azaperone @ 1mg/kg bodyweight intramuscularly. The induction time and recovery time were 11.83 ± 1.07 and 36.66 ± 0.95 minutes respectively in group-A, 5.16 ± 0.30 and 59.83 ± 2.40 minutes respectively in group-B and 7.16 ± 0.30 and 45.25 ± 1.09 minutes respectively in group-C. Induction and recovery were smooth. Muscle relaxation and analgesia were good. Animals of all group exhibited signs of sedation with lowering of head, occasional bellowing, heavy upper eyelid (drowsiness), onset of salivation, reduced tail movement and signs of staggering. Polyuria was observed at recovery. Heart rate decreased significantly (p0.05) difference in all the three groups. Respiratory tidal volume increased non-significantly (p>0.05) and respiratory minute volume showed high significant (p0.05) in the group-A, B but in group-C, SpO2 increased significantly (p0.05) in group-A, B and C. Highly significant (p0.05) in group-A and B and decreased significantly (p0.05) increase group-A and significant increase in group-B and C. Based on the findings of the study, xylazine - Zoletil® 100 anaesthesia produced a balanced anaesthesia with excellent analgesia and muscle in sambar stags followed by the xylazine-azaperone. Caudectomy has got advantageous over vasectomy in terms of mean ABSTRACT time required to perform the surgery. No such behavioral and physical changes were observed among the operated sambar stags over a period of 1 year during the study.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    (College of Veterinary Science, Assam Agricultural University, Khanapara, Guwahati, 2021-03) DONNELLY, GAYLE HUGH; Sarma, Kushal Konwar
    In the present study, data was recorded regarding the surgical affections encountered in free-ranging and captive wildlife of Assam, with special reference to Asian elephants and the incidence was calculated according to species, place, age and sex. A systematic record of the treatment schedule followed was maintained and samples were collected from elephants to conduct bacteriological, haematological and biochemical studies. A total of 674 wild animals were studied for the presence of surgical affections. Of these, 149 animals were found to be affected, therefore reflecting the incidence of surgical affections in wild animals at 22.11 per cent. The incidence of surgical affections in mammalian and avian species was relatively similar at 22.30% and 23.08%, respectively and the incidence in reptilian species was much lower at 11.77%. Among all mammals, the highest incidence of surgical affections was seen in Asiatic Lion, Golden Cat, Pig-tailed Macaque and Capped Langur at 100%. Surgical affections were also noted in other species such as Four-horned Antelope (88.34%), Golden Langur (71.43%), Blue Bull (70%), Greater One-horned Rhinoceros (62.50%), Jungle Cat (57.15%), Black Panther (50%), White Tiger (50%), Stump-tailed Macaque (42.86%), Hoolock Gibbon (42.86%), Bengal Tiger (33.34%), Asian Elephant (29.52%), Slow Loris (28.58%), Asiatic Brush-tailed porcupine(25%), Small Indian Civet (25%), Common Leopard (21.74%), Common Palm Civet (14.29%), Jackal (11.12%), Himalayan Black Bear (10%), Sambar Deer (7.57%), Indian Mouse Deer (6.67%), Barking Deer (6.56%) and Leopard Cat (5.27%). In Aves, the incidence of surgical affections was highest in Slender-billed Vulture (100%), followed by Lesser Adjutant Stork (80%), Egyptian Vulture (50%), Indian Pied Hornbill (50%), Greater Adjutant Stork (36.37%), Emu (33.34%), Indian Peafowl (25%), Himalayan Griffon Vulture (9.09%), and Great White Pelican (3.85%). Whereas, in reptilian species, the incidence was 14.28% in Common Indian Monitor 10% in Indian Soft-shelled Turtle species. The occurrence of surgical affections was higher in males (24.81%) as compared to females (21.69%). Among all species, 12 types of surgical affections were seen, with the highest incidence in open wounds (16.77%), followed by leg/foot affections (1.93%), cutaneous myiasis (1.48%), closed wounds (1.48%), fracture (0.89%), ocular affections (0.59%), growths (0.3%), paraphimosis (0.3%), navel ill (0.3%), umbilical hernia (0.15%), posterior paralysis (0.15%) and postpartum bleeding (0.15%). When considering cases of only Asian elephants, a total of 166 elephants were examined under the present study, and the total incidence of surgical affections was 29.52%. Concerning spatial distribution, the incidence of surgical affections among 103 captive - Forest Department elephants and 22 free-ranging wild elephants was 22.34% and 18.19%, respectively. The highest incidence of surgical affections was noted in the 41 captive privately owned elephants - 53.66%. When considering age, the highest incidence of surgical affections was seen in the age group 31 - 40 years (84.21%), followed by the age group 41 - 50 years (71.43%) which constituted working Elephants. The overall sex-wise incidence of surgical affections was noted to be higher in females (67.35%) than males (32.66%). Individually, however, the higher incidence was noted in captive male elephants belonging to the Forest Department (26.20%) and free-ranging wild male elephants (30.77%). Conversely, in the case of captive privately owned elephants, a higher incidence of surgical affections was recorded in females (56.76%). Among affected Asian Elephants, seven types of surgical affections were recorded. In reference to types of surgical affections, the highest incidence was seen in cases of open wounds (43.37%) followed by closed wounds (10.84%), leg /foot affections (10.84%), ocular affections (3.61%), paraphimosis (1.2%), growths (1.2%) and umbilical hernia (1.2%). Standard therapeutic regimens adopted in all cases of surgical affections yielded positive results. The duration of treatment was highest in Asiatic Lion (Pantheraleoleo) at an average of 58 days, followed by Asian Elephant (Elephasmaximus) at 27 days. All other species required 1-15 days of treatment depending upon the severity of surgical affection. Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Pseudomonas, Escherichia coli,Klebsiella and Enterobacter species were the most commonly isolated species. Out of 24 Staphylococcus isolates, 15 were coagulase positive. The Antibiotic sensitivity pattern indicated the highest effectiveness of Ceftriaxone and Tazobactam and Enrofloxacin, followed by Ciprofloxacin. The haematological profile reflected elevated levels of neutrophils and monocytes, and a decrease in haemoglobin (Hb), red blood cell (RBC), packed cell volume (PCV) and lymphocyte levels. Serum chemistry indicated a mild increase in SGPT, Total Bilirubin, Glucose values and a significant increase in BUN.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    (Assam Agricultural University, Khanapara, Guwahati, 2016-07) BUCHEM, Y. BAUAN; Gogoi, Dimbeswar
    The survey work on pigs were carried out at AICRP, MSP and 30 Sow Teaching Unit of C.V.Sc. pig farms and places of ambulatory classes viz. Kamalpur Veterinary Dispensary, Hajo Veterinary Hospital and Halogaon Veterinary Dispensary from 1st February 2015 to 31st January 2016 to study the incidence of different surgical problems in pigs. A total of 2,820 numbers of pigs were surveyed and out of which 77 numbers (2.73 %) of pigs were affected with various surgical affections. Age group between 0-3 months 44 (57.14 %) recorded the highest incidence rate and the lowest 1 year and above 6 (7.80 %), male had higher incidence rate 44 (57.14 %) to female 33 (42.86 %). Breed wise incidence of different surgically affected pigs were found to be non-significant as all the animals surveyed were of only cross breeds. On the basis of different surgical affections, umbilical hernia recorded the highest incidence rate 27 (35.07%), while wound and inguinal hernia were the lowest with 5 (6.49%). Summer season recorded the highest incidence 32 (41.56%) and winter the lowest 8 (10.39%). C.V.Sc pig farms recorded higher incidence rate 36 (46.75 %) in comparison to the other three surveyed places. From the surveyed animals, 12 numbers of pigs affected with umbilical hernia were selected for the present study and were divided into 2 groups irrespective of the age, sex and breed. Group I animals, where the hernial ring was less than 4 cm (approximately 2 fingers breadth) were rendered herniorrhaphy with prolene suture while Group II animals, where the hernial ring was more than 4 cm (approximately 4 fingers breadth) hernioplasty with prolene mesh was carried out. The clinical parameters viz. pulse rate, respiration rate and rectal temperature and haematological parameters viz. Hb, PCV, TEC, TLC and DLC were recorded on the day before the surgery and on 3rd, 7th and 14th post-operative days to evaluate the efficacy of the surgical procedure. The recorded parameters did not show any significant changes. There was slight increase or decrease in their values during the recorded days which were within the physiological range. The rendered surgical procedure of herniorrhaphy with polypropylene suture in group I and hernioplasty with polypropylene mesh in group II to the pigs affected with umbilical hernia were found to be effective without any post-operative complications. Evaluation of healing was done on the 3rd, 7th and 14th post-operative days to record the changes. There were peripheral swelling and exudation during the initial stage of wound healing which were followed by scab formation on the 7th day and complete healing was noticed in both the groups by 14th day. These were normal phenomenon characterized in the course of wound healing. The healing process of wound in both the groups were found to be good with no untoward complications.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    (Assam Agricultural University, Khanapara, Guwahati, 2016-07) BHAGABATI, KRISHANU KR.; Sarma, Kushal Konwar
    Bovines are the productive animals. Any sort of disease or discomfort of these sensitive animals may lead to decreased production and corresponding economic losses to the farmers. Healthy feet and legs are of utmost concern for dairy cows’ well-being and performance, but the same is intimately related to the management conditions and floor patterns. Feet affections occur when the integrity of climate and structure of floor where animals are kept is rendered defective. Challanges of diseases are also increasing with the increase of the cross bred dairy animal population to meet up the increasing demand and needs of milk augments. Many cases of foot affections in the stall fed dairy cows in and around Khanapara, Guwahati city have been noticed by the practitioners but a systematic study and record of the diseases is still lacking. So the present experiment was undertaken to study incidence of the affections, haematological and biochemical changes in foot affections in relation to clinically healthy animals and to evaluate few prevailing therapeutic measures. Incidence was studied in terms of type of affections, age, season, flooring pattern, lactation number, foot affected and feeding practices. Five animals affected in each summer and winter season with feet affections were considered for investigation. A total of 1760 (one thousand seven hundred and sixty) dairy cows were surveyed in the present investigation out of which 98 (5.568%) animals were found to be affected with various foot lesions. Different types of foot affections were Hoof overgrowth (59.184%), Scissor Claw (30.612%), Heel Erosion (6.122%) and Interdigital Hyperplasia (4.082%). Highest incidence of foot affections were found in the age group of 4-6 years (55.102%) and lowest for 0-2 year’s age group (1.020%). Out of three different floor patterns observed in the area of survey, highest incidence was found for those animals which were maintained in brick floor (65.307%), second highest for wooden floor (23.469%) and lowest for concrete floor (11.224%). Seasonal variation was also found for the incidence of the affections. Highest for summer (60.204%) followed by winter (39.796%). Out of total affected animals fore foot affections were comparatively high than hind foot (50% and 32.653% respectively). In 17.347 percent animals foot affections could be noted on both fore and hind limbs. Highest incidence of the disease was found in animals of 3rd lactation (51.020%). Out of total affected animals foot affections were comparatively high in those that were provided high concentrate ration (67.347%). Haematological investigation showed that mean values of Hb, Lymphocyte and Monocyte did not differ significantly between normal and affected animals in both summer and winter season. Mean values of RBC, WBC and PMN in affected animals were significant in summer with values being 5.74±0.623, 5.97±1.692 and 33.6±1.435 compared to the mean values of normal animals. Mean value of TLC in affected animals were significant in winter with value being 9±1.048. While the mean values of PCV, Neutrophil, Eosinophil and Basophil were significant between normal and affected animals in both the two seasons. Biochemical test revealed that mean values of ALP and Creatinine were significant in winter with values being 211.6±52.384 and 1.0044±0.173 respectively compared to the mean values of normal animals. While the mean values of AST and Creatine Kinase were significant between normal and affected animals in both the two seasons. Bacteriological investigation revealed both Gram positive and Gram negative organisms from infected hoof lesions. Three samples out of ten showed Streptococcus and Staphylococcus organisms and rest of the samples showed Gram negative coccobacilli. Sensitivity test of samples showed resistance to Enrofloxacin, Erythromycin, Ampicillin and Amoxicillin but sensitive to Gentamicin and Tetracycline. Four samples out of ten showed sensitivity to ceftiofur but 6 samples were resistance to ceftiofur. Affected animals were treated according to the type of affections. Secondary bacterial infection as seen in bacterial culture and sensitivity test were treated with specific antibiotics. Meloxicam @15ml/375 kg b.w was administered intra muscularly in cases where pain was evidenced. Hoof trimming was done under sedation with Xylazine Hydrochloride @0.05-0.22mg/kg b.w in cases of hoof overgrowth and scissor claw. Cases of inter-digital hyperplasia with associated wound were treated with local application of antiseptic and antibiotic powder followed by a course of systemic antibiotic. Animals with heel horn erosion condition were managed by reducing both the heels to the same height.