ThesisItem Open AccessCLINICAL, CARDIOPULMONARY, HAEMATOBIOCHEMICAL AND IMMUNOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF ISOFLURANE, PROPOFOL AND KETAMINE IN GLYCOPYRROLATE, DEXMEDETOMIDINE AND BUTORPHANOL PREMEDICATED DOGS(College of Veterinary Science, Assam Agricultural University, Khanapara, Guwahati, 2019-07) BAYAN, HITESH; Sarma, Kushal KonwarThe study was conducted to evaluate the clinical, cardiopulmonary, haematobiochemical and immunological effects of isoflurane, propofol and ketamine anaesthesia in glycopyrrolate, dexmedetomidine and butorphanol premedicated dogs. The study was carried out on twenty four number of female dogs presented for elective ovariohysterectomy. The animals were randomly divided into four groups (A, B, C and D) comprising of six animals each. The animals in all the groups were administered with glycopyrrolate 0.01 mg/kg IM followed 15 min by dexmedetomidine 5μg/kg IV and Butorphanol 0.1mg/kg IV. Two min after administration of dexmedetomidine and butorphanol, induction of anaesthesia was done with propofol IV till effect in Groups A and B and with ketamine IV till effect in Groups C and D. The anaesthesia was maintained with isoflurane in Groups A and C. In Groups B and D, the anaesthesia was maintained with continuous rate infusion of propofol 0.2-0.5 mg/kg/min and ketamine 0.002-0.02 mg/kg/min, respectively. The induction doses of propofol were recorded as 0.67±0.07 mg/kg in Group A and 0.68± 0.06 mg/kg in Group B where as the induction doses of ketamine were recorded as 2.55± 0.24 mg/kg in Group C and 2.63±0.26 mg/kg in Group D. Induction was quick and smooth in all the groups enabling easy endotracheal intubation. The analgesia, muscle relaxation and depth of anaesthesia were sufficient for performing major abdominal operations. The mean maintenance dose (mg/kg/min) of propofol and ketamine were recorded as 0.24±0.01 and 0.013.17±0.60 respectively in groups B and D. The mean vaporizer settings (%) for isoflurane were recorded as 1.34±0.06 and 1.28±0.07, respectively in Groups A and C. The recovery time was shortest in Group A and longest in Group D. The quality of recovery was better in Groups B, A & C in sequence as compared to Group D. The changes in the clinical parameters remained within the physiological limits in all the groups. Changes in blood pressure and ECG remained within the physiological limit in all the groups. The respiratory parameters were well maintained with isoflurane but the oxygen saturation values were near the critical level in Group D. The changes in haematological (haemoglobin, TEC, TLC, PCV, granulocytes, platelet and DLC) and biochemical (serum glucose, serum total protein, GGT, ALP, BUN, serum creatinine and LDH) parameters were found to be within physiological limits in all the animals. The immunological parameters exhibited immune suppressions but were transient in nature in all the groups. To conclude, all the anaesthetic combinations were safe and effective for major abdominal surgery in dogs. However, the respiratory parameters were more stable with inhalation agents used for maintenance and near the border line in particularly with ketamine CRI. The CRI with propofol was found to be better than with ketamine for maintenance in dogs premedicated with dexmedetomidine and butorphanol. ThesisItem Open AccessSILK BASED OSTEOINDUCTIVE SCAFFOLD FOR BONE TISSUE ENGINEERING(College of Veterinary Science, Assam Agricultural University, Khanapara, Guwahati, 2019-07) SHARMA, MANAV; Sarma, Kushal KonwarB. mori silk cocoons were processed by established state of the art protocol to obtain silk fibroin aqueous solution, which was further used for scaffold fabrication. Three types of highly porous three dimensional sponge feel scaffolds were fabricated using traditionally used herbal based medicine i.e. Curcumin & Cissus quadrangularis. They are Silk Fibroin scaffold (SF), Silk Fibroin blended with Curcumin (CuSF) and Silk Fibroin blended with Cissus quadrangularis extract (CqSF). FESEM revealed highly porous scaffold with homogenously distributed interconnected pores in all types of scaffolds with pore ranging from 45.73-121.1 μm, 42.37-137.8 μm and 50.95-103.4 μm for SF, Cu-SF and Cq-SF respectively. The average porosity for each scaffold obtained were 88.57 %, 91.47 %, 93.03 % for SF, CuSF, CqSF respectively. Swelling and Water Holding Capacity were calculated to be 4.14%, 2.14% and 2.43% and 89.37 %, 92.04 % and 93.75 % for SF, CqSF, CuSF respectively. 42 numbers of New Zealand White rabbits were procured from authorized supplier for the study after obtaining IAEC clearance. Scaffolds were implanted into critical size radius bone defect (1.5 to 2 cm) following state of the art anaesthetic protocol. 0.5ml autologous bone marrow (BM) was collected and seeded immediately after collection for each type of scaffold considering as a separate animal group. Satisfactory clear radiographic union could be observed as early as by 30th day and initiation of remodeling by 60th day for Cu-SF & Cu-SF-BM groups. SF & SF-BM group radiographic union was evidence by 60th day but with a less opaque area compared to Cu- SF & Cu-SF-BM group. Relatively satisfactory radiographic union was also observed by the end of the observation period in Cq-SF group. In contrast, Cq-SF-BM group revealed no radiographic union even up to the end of the observation period. Histological samples were collected at the end of the radiographic observation (90th day) and processed for H & E staining. New blood vessel, marrow cells and new bone tissue could also be demonstrated for both Cu-SF & Cu-SF-BM group. In both SF & SF-BM group fibrous connective tissue could be visualized, along with cartilaginous tissue in SF-BM group. In Cq-SF group also along with fibrous connective tissue with new boney tissue could be demonstrated. But in Cq-SF-BM group fibrous connective tissue could only be demonstrated. Finally it could be concluded that B. mori silk fibroin could effectively be used and biofunctionalized with traditionally known fracture healing herbal based ingredients for bone tissue engineering application as evidence by satisfactory radiographic and histological findings in Cu-SF, Cu-SF-BM and Cq-SF groups. ThesisItem Open AccessSURGICAL STERILIZTION OF CAPTIVE SAMBAR DEER (Cervus unicolor)(2021-06) DEKA, DEEPJYOTI; Sarma, Kushal KonwarEighteen clinically healthy captive sambar stags, weighing 80-110kgs were divided into three groups, containing of 6 calves in each group, where group-A received xylazine hydrochloride @ 1.5 mg/kg and and ketamine hydrochloride @ 2.5 mg/kg bodyweight intramuscularly, group-B received xylazine hydrochloride @ 1.5 mg/kg and tiletamine-zolazepam @ 2.5mg/kg bodyweight intramuscularly and group-C received xylazine hydrochloride @ 1.5 mg/kg + and azaperone @ 1mg/kg bodyweight intramuscularly. The induction time and recovery time were 11.83 ± 1.07 and 36.66 ± 0.95 minutes respectively in group-A, 5.16 ± 0.30 and 59.83 ± 2.40 minutes respectively in group-B and 7.16 ± 0.30 and 45.25 ± 1.09 minutes respectively in group-C. Induction and recovery were smooth. Muscle relaxation and analgesia were good. Animals of all group exhibited signs of sedation with lowering of head, occasional bellowing, heavy upper eyelid (drowsiness), onset of salivation, reduced tail movement and signs of staggering. Polyuria was observed at recovery. Heart rate decreased significantly (p0.05) difference in all the three groups. Respiratory tidal volume increased non-significantly (p>0.05) and respiratory minute volume showed high significant (p0.05) in the group-A, B but in group-C, SpO2 increased significantly (p0.05) in group-A, B and C. Highly significant (p0.05) in group-A and B and decreased significantly (p0.05) increase group-A and significant increase in group-B and C. Based on the findings of the study, xylazine - Zoletil® 100 anaesthesia produced a balanced anaesthesia with excellent analgesia and muscle in sambar stags followed by the xylazine-azaperone. Caudectomy has got advantageous over vasectomy in terms of mean ABSTRACT time required to perform the surgery. No such behavioral and physical changes were observed among the operated sambar stags over a period of 1 year during the study. ThesisItem Open AccessSURGICAL AFFECTIONS IN FREE RANGING AND CAPTIVE WILDLIFE OF ASSAM WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO ELEPHANTSSURGICAL AFFECTIONS IN FREE RANGING AND CAPTIVE WILDLIFE OF ASSAM WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO ELEPHANTS(College of Veterinary Science, Assam Agricultural University, Khanapara, Guwahati, 2021-03) DONNELLY, GAYLE HUGH; Sarma, Kushal KonwarIn the present study, data was recorded regarding the surgical affections encountered in free-ranging and captive wildlife of Assam, with special reference to Asian elephants and the incidence was calculated according to species, place, age and sex. A systematic record of the treatment schedule followed was maintained and samples were collected from elephants to conduct bacteriological, haematological and biochemical studies. A total of 674 wild animals were studied for the presence of surgical affections. Of these, 149 animals were found to be affected, therefore reflecting the incidence of surgical affections in wild animals at 22.11 per cent. The incidence of surgical affections in mammalian and avian species was relatively similar at 22.30% and 23.08%, respectively and the incidence in reptilian species was much lower at 11.77%. Among all mammals, the highest incidence of surgical affections was seen in Asiatic Lion, Golden Cat, Pig-tailed Macaque and Capped Langur at 100%. Surgical affections were also noted in other species such as Four-horned Antelope (88.34%), Golden Langur (71.43%), Blue Bull (70%), Greater One-horned Rhinoceros (62.50%), Jungle Cat (57.15%), Black Panther (50%), White Tiger (50%), Stump-tailed Macaque (42.86%), Hoolock Gibbon (42.86%), Bengal Tiger (33.34%), Asian Elephant (29.52%), Slow Loris (28.58%), Asiatic Brush-tailed porcupine(25%), Small Indian Civet (25%), Common Leopard (21.74%), Common Palm Civet (14.29%), Jackal (11.12%), Himalayan Black Bear (10%), Sambar Deer (7.57%), Indian Mouse Deer (6.67%), Barking Deer (6.56%) and Leopard Cat (5.27%). In Aves, the incidence of surgical affections was highest in Slender-billed Vulture (100%), followed by Lesser Adjutant Stork (80%), Egyptian Vulture (50%), Indian Pied Hornbill (50%), Greater Adjutant Stork (36.37%), Emu (33.34%), Indian Peafowl (25%), Himalayan Griffon Vulture (9.09%), and Great White Pelican (3.85%). Whereas, in reptilian species, the incidence was 14.28% in Common Indian Monitor 10% in Indian Soft-shelled Turtle species. The occurrence of surgical affections was higher in males (24.81%) as compared to females (21.69%). Among all species, 12 types of surgical affections were seen, with the highest incidence in open wounds (16.77%), followed by leg/foot affections (1.93%), cutaneous myiasis (1.48%), closed wounds (1.48%), fracture (0.89%), ocular affections (0.59%), growths (0.3%), paraphimosis (0.3%), navel ill (0.3%), umbilical hernia (0.15%), posterior paralysis (0.15%) and postpartum bleeding (0.15%). When considering cases of only Asian elephants, a total of 166 elephants were examined under the present study, and the total incidence of surgical affections was 29.52%. Concerning spatial distribution, the incidence of surgical affections among 103 captive - Forest Department elephants and 22 free-ranging wild elephants was 22.34% and 18.19%, respectively. The highest incidence of surgical affections was noted in the 41 captive privately owned elephants - 53.66%. When considering age, the highest incidence of surgical affections was seen in the age group 31 - 40 years (84.21%), followed by the age group 41 - 50 years (71.43%) which constituted working Elephants. The overall sex-wise incidence of surgical affections was noted to be higher in females (67.35%) than males (32.66%). Individually, however, the higher incidence was noted in captive male elephants belonging to the Forest Department (26.20%) and free-ranging wild male elephants (30.77%). Conversely, in the case of captive privately owned elephants, a higher incidence of surgical affections was recorded in females (56.76%). Among affected Asian Elephants, seven types of surgical affections were recorded. In reference to types of surgical affections, the highest incidence was seen in cases of open wounds (43.37%) followed by closed wounds (10.84%), leg /foot affections (10.84%), ocular affections (3.61%), paraphimosis (1.2%), growths (1.2%) and umbilical hernia (1.2%). Standard therapeutic regimens adopted in all cases of surgical affections yielded positive results. The duration of treatment was highest in Asiatic Lion (Pantheraleoleo) at an average of 58 days, followed by Asian Elephant (Elephasmaximus) at 27 days. All other species required 1-15 days of treatment depending upon the severity of surgical affection. Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Pseudomonas, Escherichia coli,Klebsiella and Enterobacter species were the most commonly isolated species. Out of 24 Staphylococcus isolates, 15 were coagulase positive. The Antibiotic sensitivity pattern indicated the highest effectiveness of Ceftriaxone and Tazobactam and Enrofloxacin, followed by Ciprofloxacin. The haematological profile reflected elevated levels of neutrophils and monocytes, and a decrease in haemoglobin (Hb), red blood cell (RBC), packed cell volume (PCV) and lymphocyte levels. Serum chemistry indicated a mild increase in SGPT, Total Bilirubin, Glucose values and a significant increase in BUN. ThesisItem Open AccessSURGICAL AFFECTIONS IN PIGS WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO UMBILICAL HERNIA(Assam Agricultural University, Khanapara, Guwahati, 2016-07) BUCHEM, Y. BAUAN; Gogoi, DimbeswarThe survey work on pigs were carried out at AICRP, MSP and 30 Sow Teaching Unit of C.V.Sc. pig farms and places of ambulatory classes viz. Kamalpur Veterinary Dispensary, Hajo Veterinary Hospital and Halogaon Veterinary Dispensary from 1st February 2015 to 31st January 2016 to study the incidence of different surgical problems in pigs. A total of 2,820 numbers of pigs were surveyed and out of which 77 numbers (2.73 %) of pigs were affected with various surgical affections. Age group between 0-3 months 44 (57.14 %) recorded the highest incidence rate and the lowest 1 year and above 6 (7.80 %), male had higher incidence rate 44 (57.14 %) to female 33 (42.86 %). Breed wise incidence of different surgically affected pigs were found to be non-significant as all the animals surveyed were of only cross breeds. On the basis of different surgical affections, umbilical hernia recorded the highest incidence rate 27 (35.07%), while wound and inguinal hernia were the lowest with 5 (6.49%). Summer season recorded the highest incidence 32 (41.56%) and winter the lowest 8 (10.39%). C.V.Sc pig farms recorded higher incidence rate 36 (46.75 %) in comparison to the other three surveyed places. From the surveyed animals, 12 numbers of pigs affected with umbilical hernia were selected for the present study and were divided into 2 groups irrespective of the age, sex and breed. Group I animals, where the hernial ring was less than 4 cm (approximately 2 fingers breadth) were rendered herniorrhaphy with prolene suture while Group II animals, where the hernial ring was more than 4 cm (approximately 4 fingers breadth) hernioplasty with prolene mesh was carried out. The clinical parameters viz. pulse rate, respiration rate and rectal temperature and haematological parameters viz. Hb, PCV, TEC, TLC and DLC were recorded on the day before the surgery and on 3rd, 7th and 14th post-operative days to evaluate the efficacy of the surgical procedure. The recorded parameters did not show any significant changes. There was slight increase or decrease in their values during the recorded days which were within the physiological range. The rendered surgical procedure of herniorrhaphy with polypropylene suture in group I and hernioplasty with polypropylene mesh in group II to the pigs affected with umbilical hernia were found to be effective without any post-operative complications. Evaluation of healing was done on the 3rd, 7th and 14th post-operative days to record the changes. There were peripheral swelling and exudation during the initial stage of wound healing which were followed by scab formation on the 7th day and complete healing was noticed in both the groups by 14th day. These were normal phenomenon characterized in the course of wound healing. The healing process of wound in both the groups were found to be good with no untoward complications. ThesisItem Open AccessSURVEILLANCE OF FOOT AFFECTIONS IN STALL FED DAIRY CATTLE AND THEIR SURGICO-MEDICAL MANAGEMENT(Assam Agricultural University, Khanapara, Guwahati, 2016-07) BHAGABATI, KRISHANU KR.; Sarma, Kushal KonwarBovines are the productive animals. Any sort of disease or discomfort of these sensitive animals may lead to decreased production and corresponding economic losses to the farmers. Healthy feet and legs are of utmost concern for dairy cows’ well-being and performance, but the same is intimately related to the management conditions and floor patterns. Feet affections occur when the integrity of climate and structure of floor where animals are kept is rendered defective. Challanges of diseases are also increasing with the increase of the cross bred dairy animal population to meet up the increasing demand and needs of milk augments. Many cases of foot affections in the stall fed dairy cows in and around Khanapara, Guwahati city have been noticed by the practitioners but a systematic study and record of the diseases is still lacking. So the present experiment was undertaken to study incidence of the affections, haematological and biochemical changes in foot affections in relation to clinically healthy animals and to evaluate few prevailing therapeutic measures. Incidence was studied in terms of type of affections, age, season, flooring pattern, lactation number, foot affected and feeding practices. Five animals affected in each summer and winter season with feet affections were considered for investigation. A total of 1760 (one thousand seven hundred and sixty) dairy cows were surveyed in the present investigation out of which 98 (5.568%) animals were found to be affected with various foot lesions. Different types of foot affections were Hoof overgrowth (59.184%), Scissor Claw (30.612%), Heel Erosion (6.122%) and Interdigital Hyperplasia (4.082%). Highest incidence of foot affections were found in the age group of 4-6 years (55.102%) and lowest for 0-2 year’s age group (1.020%). Out of three different floor patterns observed in the area of survey, highest incidence was found for those animals which were maintained in brick floor (65.307%), second highest for wooden floor (23.469%) and lowest for concrete floor (11.224%). Seasonal variation was also found for the incidence of the affections. Highest for summer (60.204%) followed by winter (39.796%). Out of total affected animals fore foot affections were comparatively high than hind foot (50% and 32.653% respectively). In 17.347 percent animals foot affections could be noted on both fore and hind limbs. Highest incidence of the disease was found in animals of 3rd lactation (51.020%). Out of total affected animals foot affections were comparatively high in those that were provided high concentrate ration (67.347%). Haematological investigation showed that mean values of Hb, Lymphocyte and Monocyte did not differ significantly between normal and affected animals in both summer and winter season. Mean values of RBC, WBC and PMN in affected animals were significant in summer with values being 5.74±0.623, 5.97±1.692 and 33.6±1.435 compared to the mean values of normal animals. Mean value of TLC in affected animals were significant in winter with value being 9±1.048. While the mean values of PCV, Neutrophil, Eosinophil and Basophil were significant between normal and affected animals in both the two seasons. Biochemical test revealed that mean values of ALP and Creatinine were significant in winter with values being 211.6±52.384 and 1.0044±0.173 respectively compared to the mean values of normal animals. While the mean values of AST and Creatine Kinase were significant between normal and affected animals in both the two seasons. Bacteriological investigation revealed both Gram positive and Gram negative organisms from infected hoof lesions. Three samples out of ten showed Streptococcus and Staphylococcus organisms and rest of the samples showed Gram negative coccobacilli. Sensitivity test of samples showed resistance to Enrofloxacin, Erythromycin, Ampicillin and Amoxicillin but sensitive to Gentamicin and Tetracycline. Four samples out of ten showed sensitivity to ceftiofur but 6 samples were resistance to ceftiofur. Affected animals were treated according to the type of affections. Secondary bacterial infection as seen in bacterial culture and sensitivity test were treated with specific antibiotics. Meloxicam @15ml/375 kg b.w was administered intra muscularly in cases where pain was evidenced. Hoof trimming was done under sedation with Xylazine Hydrochloride @0.05-0.22mg/kg b.w in cases of hoof overgrowth and scissor claw. Cases of inter-digital hyperplasia with associated wound were treated with local application of antiseptic and antibiotic powder followed by a course of systemic antibiotic. Animals with heel horn erosion condition were managed by reducing both the heels to the same height. ThesisItem Open AccessCOMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF NANOSILVER, UNPASTEURIZED HONEY AND TURMERIC IN THE TREATMENT OF FULL THICKNESS CONTAMINATED CUTANEOUS WOUND IN RABBITS(Assam Agricultural University, Khanapara, Guwahati, 2016-07) PRADHAN, EKTA; Sarma, K. K.The present study was carried out on experimentally created full-thickness contaminated cutaneous wounds in New Zealand White rabbits with an aim to evaluate the healing efficacy of nanosilver, unpasteurized honey and turmeric. The experiment was carried out on 15 apparently healthy New Zealand White rabbits of either sex, divided into 3 equal groups. Full-thickness cutaneous wounds of 4x4 cm were created on the thoraco-lumbar region on either sides of the vertebral column under general anaesthesia and were left unattended for 48 hours to render it contaminated. Group A, Group B and Group C were subjected to ‘Silverkind Nanofine’ (nanosilver), unpasteurized honey and turmeric paste respectively. The rate of wound healing and macroscopic changes were recorded on the 3rd, 7th, 10th, 15th and 20th days of post wound creation. The bacteriological and biochemical investigation were performed on the 3rd, 5th, 7th and 10th days of post-wound creation and the histopathological investigations on the 3rd, 10th and 28th days of experiment. The rate of wound healing was found to be the fastest in nanosilver treated group, followed by the ones with unpasteurized honey and turmeric till the 28th day of experiment. Various macroscopic changes were observed during the course of treatment viz. peripheral swelling, serous exudation, dry casts over the wound, proliferating pinkish granulation tissue and fast contracting wound edges with re-epithelialization. However, clinically complete wound healing was observed on the 20th day of post-wound creation in Group A. The bacteriological investigation revealed presence of coagulase positive Staphylococcus spp., coagulase negative Staphylococcus spp. and Escherichia coli at the initial stages and eventually became a sterile wound by the 10th day of post-wound creation in both nanosilver based ointment and unpasteurized honey. Higher levels of total protein and carbohydrate were observed in Group B and Group C while the enzymatic investigations revealed decreasing levels of creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase which was more significant in Group A (P<0.01). The histopathological studies on the 28th day of post-wound creation revealed clinically complete healing in Group A with regeneration of all the epidermal layers and associated adnexa and better reorganization of the thick collagen bundles. From the above findings, it could be drawn that use of nanosilver based ointment was found to more effective in terms of wound healing of contaminated cutaneous wounds compared to the other two treatment regimes. ThesisItem Open AccessCOMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN INTERLOCKING NAILING (ILN) AND INTRAMEDULLARY PINNING FOR THE TREATMENT OF FRACTURE OF FEMUR IN CANINE(Assam Agricultural University, Khanapara, Guwahati, 2016-07) BAPAT, CHANDRASHEKHAR GIRISH; Sarma, K. K.The present study was undertaken to compare the use of Interlocking nailing (ILN) and Intramedullary Pinning for the treatment of canine femur fracture cases. A total of 773 cases were presented in the Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex (Surgery Unit) and Department of Veterinary Surgery and Radiology, College of Veterinary Science, A.A.U., Khanapara during the period of 1st April, 2015 to 31st March, 2016. Out of 265 orthopedic cases 197 (74.34%) were found in canine. According to the distribution of the canine cases with signs of lameness, it was found that fracture incidences were the highest (65.48%) followed by dislocations (18.27%) and neurological disorders (16.24%). Further, fracture distribution in bones was recorded and highest was in femur (44.19%) followed by tibia/fibula (13.18%) and radius/ulna (10.85%). Ten clinical cases of canine diphyseal fracture of femur irrespective of age and sex were randomly divided into two groups. In Group A and Group B, correction of fracture was done by using intramedullary pinning and interlocking nailing respectively. Hematological and biochemical analysis were done on 0 day, 5th, 10th and 20th days post-operatively while radiographic evaluation and weight bearing test were done on 0 day, 10th, 20th, 30th and 60th days post-operatively. The cost of surgery and time taken for surgery were compared. Hematological estimation of Hb, TEC, TLC, ESR and PCV were done. Biochemical estimation of Alkaline phosphatase, Creatine kinase, Serum Calcium, Serum Phosphorous and total protein were done. Haematological parameters and Biochemical parameters showed non-significant alterations for both the groups except ALP levels showed significant difference within normal limits. Radiographic evaluation revealed secondary healing with hard callus formation in group A and primary healing with negligible callus formation in group B. Weight Bearing Test revealed 100% recovery in 2 out of 5 cases (40%) and 4 out of 5 cases (80%) in group A and group B respectively. Cost of implants was lesser in group A (Rs. 276/-) than group B (Rs. 1440/-). Time required for surgery was longer in group B (101 minutes) than group A (42 minutes). Based on the present findings, interlocking nailing was considered better than intramedullary pinning. ThesisItem Open AccessROMIFIDINE AND ITS COMBINATION WITH KETAMINE IN DOG(Assam Agricultural University, Khanapara, Guwahati, 2016-07) SAIKIA, ANANGSHA; Sarma, B.Fifteen clinically affected dogs of either sex and different age groups were divided into three groups consisting of five dogs in each. Intramuscular injection of romifidine @ 40 µg/kg b. wt. was injected to group I; romifidine @ 30 µg/kg b. wt. and ketamine @ 5 mg/kg b. wt. to group II and romifidine @ 40 µg/kg b. wt. along with ketamine @ 5mg/kg b. wt. to group III. The induction time of 12.80 ± 0.80, 8.40 ± 0.24 and 5.80 ± 0.37 mins; duration of anaesthesia of 50.20 ± 1.11, 64.40 ±0.81 and 76.20 ± 0.96 mins and recovery time of 69.40 ± 2.29, 86.40 ± 0.74 and 94.40 ± 0.67 mins were recorded in group I, II and III. Complete analgesia was present in group III. All the animals exhibited muscle relaxation, cessation of tail movement and salivation. Smooth induction and recovery were recorded in all the groups. In dogs of all the groups heart rate, respiration rate, rectal temperature, tidal volume, minute volume and oxygen saturation decreased significantly (p < 0.05). Mean arterial pressure increased significantly (p < 0.05) in all three groups. Haemoglobin and total erythrocyte count decreased significantly (p < 0.05) in all the groups. Non-significant (p > 0.05) reduction of packed cell volume was recorded in group I while significant (p < 0.05) decreased level was recorded in group II and III. Total protein decreased non-significantly (p>0.05) in group I but significant (p<0.05) decrease of total protein was recorded in other two groups. GGT, blood glucose, alkaline phosphatase, BUN, creatinine and cortisol increased significantly (p<0.05) in all the groups. Based on the observation, romifidine @ 40 g/kg b. wt. and ketamine @ 5 mg/kg b. wt. could be recommended for surgical procedures. Romifidine @ 30 g/kg b. wt. and ketamine @ 5mg/kg b. wt. is suggestive for minor surgical procedure while romifidine @ 40g /kg b. wt. is not recommended for clinical use.