ThesisItem Open AccessCRITICAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS OF CLIMATE, SUSTAINABILITY, PREFERENCE AND PERFORMANCE OF LIVESTOCK IN ASSAM(College of Veterinary Science, Assam Agricultural University, Khanapara, Guwahati, 2017-07) TALUKDAR, JUPI; SAHARIA, K. K.A “Critical Component Analysis of Climate, Sustainability, Preference and Performance of Livestock Sector in Assam” has been planned with a random sampling technique in Kamrup, Dibrugarh and Bongaigaon districts of Assam to fulfill the above specified reasons. The method of random sampling technique got established when the Deputy Commissioners of each district were discussed. Further after going to the Block office, the villages were also selected as per the directive and facilitations provided by the block/field officials. It was in the village where Snow Ball sampling method was adopted. Based on the needs PCA method was also applied for getting the information relating to the social dynamics of animal husbandry in the study. Data were collected in three sets of pre-tested, reliable and valid interview schedule containing the features of climate, sustainability, preference, and performance. Collection of data were done based on the person actually who is involved in farming, considering analysis on the basis of 20 per cent confidence level and then finding the critical factors, analysis were done. The data such collected were arranged, tabulated, and analyzed so as to arrive at useful conclusion and interpretation so that they become benchmark for animal husbandry policies with regard to production system, supply chain and promotional livestock rearing. Results showed that the average age of the respondents was around 39 years. A good number of the respondents (45.67 %) had medium family size as high as 66.00 per cent of the respondents had nuclear type of family. The average educational qualification of majority (44.33%) of the respondents was of lower primary level. Educational status of majority (63.00 %) of the other member of the family of the respondents was higher secondary level. Average 14.58 numbers of livestock in the pooled sample could be considered towards a healthy sign considering the fact that large majority of farm people in whole of the districts had landless to marginal categories of farmers. The average annual family income of the respondents was Rs.1, 62,095/- and majority of them fell in middle income group. The average respondents own income was found to be Rs.116393/- and majority of them fell in middle income group. Majority (74.00%) of the respondent’s received medium income of Rs 29056 from livestock farming. The major sources of personal income of the respondents was Agriculture (29.80%) followed by animal husbandry (22.18), business (10.55%), fishing (8.28), art and culture (7.37%) , handicraft (5.90%), transport of item (5.62%), services (5.48) and household items (4.82%). Food (35.36%) and Education (22.66 %) were the two main areas in which maximum expenditures were made by the respondents in this study. Most of the respondents were having medium social participation with 3.47 numbers of times per year with the society and bringing it at a reflection of development, proliferation or non-orthodox atmosphere among the people of the districts. Most of the respondents were having medium to higher level of extension contact with 7.07 numbers of times per year among the respondents in different districts, which was definitely an encouraging phenomenon. More than 80 per cent of the farmers were having awareness about different farm related problems. Farmers involved in mass media contact belonged mostly to medium level category with 6.62 average numbers of areas per year. Majority of the respondents (76%) were involved in progressive livestock rearing practice. Land ownership was the most preferred indicator of progressive livestock farming in all the three districts. Different indicators of progressive livestock farming can be listed from highest to lowest impact as follows- Land ownership (6.19%), Association with the society (5.97%), Innovativeness (5.95%), Ideal family members to help farming (5.76%), More time to spend with animals (5.75%), Entrepreneurship Habit (5.73%), concern for quality (5.58%), Enduring livestock keeping (5.55%), Leadership Quality (5.51%), Willingness of people for farm products (5.27%), Contact with extension worker (5.18%), Economic orientation (5.06%), Self employment (4.87%), Religious mindedness (4.85%), Good market (4.83%), Educational qualification (4.72%), Good size of the farm (4.50%), Keeping hope for future generation (4.44%), Mass media contact (2.65%) and Political affiliation (1.64%). Most of the farmers realizing factors that affected animal husbandry development belonged to medium group level. Flood has been recognized as the most important factor affecting Animal Husbandry in all the three districts. Different micro-climatic factors affecting animal husbandry can be ordered in terms of their impact as follows- Flood (6.09%), Less availability of grass (5.82%), Parasitic infestation (5.72%), Education (5.66%), Draught (5.56%), Increasing cost of animal husbandry (5.39%), High temperature (5.37%), Less per capita availability of land (5.16%), Misunderstanding with neighbors (5.03%), Low rainfall (4.96%), Land used for infrastructure (4.83%), Social standing (4.71%), Lack of technical people in field (3.82%), No departmental support (3.66%), Pollution in water (3.62%), Soil erosion (3.41%), Job in public/private sector (3.22%), Frequency of visiting dignitaries (3.15%), General atmosphere (2.95%), Pollution (2.88%), Traditional rituals and festivals (2.78%), More dust in air (2.34%), Vehicular traffic (2.11%), Stringent rules and regulations (1.77%). Cattle was the highest preferred species in all the three districts, Kamrup (70.00%), Dibrugarh (65.00%), Bongaigaon (62.00%) while Bee keeping remained the least preferred farming practice in all the cases. Number of years of involvement in farming by the farmers of the Dibrugarh district was highest against Kamrup district to be the lowest. The overall ranking of the six different livestock species in terms of their profitability was as follows, Cattle (1575.00), Pig (692.33), Goat (503.67), Buffalo (453.00), Sheep (128.67) and Bee keeping (95.33). Flood was regarded as the most serious problem by the respondents of Dibrugarh and Bongaigaon districts while the same for Kamrup was the scarcity of fodder. The average degrees of changing status of livestock farming were 2.56. This in equivalent value revealed that the sector was slowly progressing. Association of the respondent with the market of the district Kamrup was highest and for Bongaigaon was found to be the lowest. The price of the farm product of the district Kamrup was highest and for Bongaigaon was found to be the lowest and the mean prices in the three districts varied significantly from each other. The mean transaction in market among the respondents in the districts of Kamrup was significantly higher than that of Bongaigaon district but it was marginally lower than that of Dibrugarh district. Most of the respondents preferred to sell their livestock product and produces to whole sellers. The mean satisfaction of the Kamrup district was found to be highest and the same for Bogaigaon was the lowest. Whenever and wherever animal husbandry produces and products were traded, there was no difficulty in selling them off and as such the chance of spoilage was minimum. The local sources in different extent and that could be ranked (overall) in terms of the gradually decreasing local procurement as follows Cattle (79.49%), Pig (52.13%), Goat (47.50%), Honey bee (24.37%), Sheep (23.50%) and Buffalo (11.97%). Cattle enjoyed highest demand and high profit oriented, because of traditional more acceptance of cattle milk over the milk produced by other species. Majority of the changes taking place in livestock sector were in medium group of distribution i.e. 71.67%. Marketing (6.91%) is the highest degree of changes occurring in the livestock sector. ThesisItem Open AccessDYNAMICS OF URBANIZATION IN THE LIVELIHOOD OF LIVESTOCK FARMERS IN THE PERI-URBAN AREAS OF GUWAHATI CITY(College of Veterinary Science, Assam Agricultural University, Khanapara, Guwahati, 2021-12) Choudhury, Parag Sankar; Hazarika, PulinSince urbanization is described under specific conditions and time period so going by the changes in the livelihood of livestock farmers in the Deepor Beel areas a study entitled “Dynamics of Urbanization in the Livelihood of Livestock Farmers in the Peri-Urban Areas of Guwahati city” is taken up which will give an insight into the livelihood status of the villagers in a holistic way. The study was conducted in the peri-urban areas in and around Deepor Beel in five revenue villages which was purposively selected namely Pamehi, Mikirpara, Chakardoe, Lakhara and Azara with four objectives-1) To study the socio- economic status of the livestock farmers in the fringe areas of Deepor Beel. 2) To explore the implications of rural-urban linkages in the livelihood of livestock farmers in the study area. 3) To find out the factors that influences the intensity of market participation of the farmers in Deepor Beel. 4) To study the relationship of rural urban linkages and intensity of market participation on socio-economic status of the farmers. Livestock farmers having two or more species of animals including poultry birds in their backyard were taken into account as respondents in the study. 20 livestock farmers from 5 revenue villages were taken into account to make a total sample size of 100. The data was collected personally by visiting the selected respondents through the use of a pretested, reliable and valid interview schedule. Data so collected was compiled, analyzed, tabulated and interpreted using appropriate statistical methods and software. Majority of the respondents (68.00 per cent) belonged to middle age group and average age was found to be around 43.82 years. Again majority, i.e., 71.00 per cent of the respondents were male. Further, majority of the farmers (87.00 per cent) were married and again majority (78.00 per cent) resided as nuclear family. It was observed that 82.00 per cent of livestock farmers had medium sized family with 5-6 members and majority of them (39.00 per cent) belonged to Scheduled Tribe category. Moreover, 76.00 per cent of respondents had education up to high school level and it was found from the study that 73.00 per cent of the respondents had medium herd size ranging from 1.91 to 14.58 cattle equivalent units. Again, majority (67.00 per cent) of respondents had medium level of experience in livestock farming ranging from 13.26 years to 34.54 years. However, in case of land holdings, majority of them (68.00 per cent) had low land holding i.e., <0.76 acres. It was indicated that majority (59.00 per cent) of respondents revealed medium distance from home to market (2.62 kms to 6.61 kms) and 99.00 per cent of the respondents reported good transportation/access to market. Again, majority (64.00 per cent) of livestock farmers was found to have medium exposure to mass media and majority of them (48.00 per cent) had medium extension contact. Moreover, Majority (69.00 per cent) of livestock farmers had medium annual family income from livestock and poultry (Rs. 14339.84 to Rs. 33142.16). Majority (66.00 per cent) of the livestock farmers belonged to medium income category on including annual income from all sources (Rs. 17118.00 to Rs. 287942.00). On assessing four sub-areas of implications namely social implications, implications on asset-base, implications on information flow and implications of house hold economy it was indicated that implications on asset- based is highest followed by household economy on livelihood of livestock farmers. A sum of total implications on mean, S.D. and range was found to be 46.82, 4.57 and 32-54 respectively. On distribution of respondents on the basis of implications of rural-urban linkages in the livelihood of livestock farmers it was further observed that majority of respondents (71.00 per cent) were in medium category. Furthermore, on distribution of respondents on basis of Intensity of Market Participation of Livestock Farmers on basis of 13 indicator statements it was found that majority of livestock farmers (66.00 per cent) were in medium category. In co-relational analysis age with respect to implications had a positive and significant correlation (r= 0.223*) among the livelihood of livestock farmers in rural-urban linkage. However, years of experience on livestock farming of the livestock farmers to implications was negatively and significantly correlated (r= -0.197*). Mass media exposure was found to be positively and significantly correlated in the statistical level of significance (r= 0.213*) with intensity of market participation. Last but not the least, income from all sources was found to be positively and significantly correlated in the statistical level of significance (r= 0.196*) with intensity of market participation. ThesisItem Open AccessANIMAL HUSBANDRY INDUCED MARKETING AND MARKET LED EXTENSION IN ASSAM(College of Veterinary Science, Assam Agricultural University, Khanapara, Guwahati, 2019-07) KHUMAN, L. SANATHOI; BORGOHAIN, A.The study focused on the present scenario of animal husbandry induced marketing and to ascertain the status of market led extension in Assam. The research work was carried out in the three different markets namely Guwahati, North Lakhimpur and Dibrugarh of state of Assam where 35 traders or producer cum traders and 70 consumers were interviewed from each market along with 35 each market operators in the 2nd phase at various seasons and times of the year including the major events and happenings to estimate the variations caused and hence making a sample size of 420 respondents. The relevant data to fulfill these objectives were collected through a pretested, reliable and valid interview schedule. The study revealed that average age of trader and consumer was 35.48 and 43.32 years with average family size of 4.29 and 3.55 numbers. Majority of trader and consumer had nuclear family type with educational level of middle and graduate level, major occupation as business and service, average annual income of Rs. 9,41,327 and Rs. 3,67,358, social participation of 1 and 1.25. ‘Average daily income from selling the livestock and poultry produce and products’ among trader was Rs. 17,055, experience in market was 11.5 years, played the role of salesman in the market. Average price of livestock and poultry price among trader in piglet was Rs.2,556 in milk per lit. was Rs.52 (Fresh), Rs.48-52 (Purabi, AMUL & Sudha), Paneer Rs.400/kg, Egg was Rs.6 (Table), Rs.10 (Local) & Rs.5 (Quail), Chicken was Rs200/kg (Broiler), Rs. 366/kg (Local) & Rs.467/duck, Pork Rs.260/kg and Chevon Rs.531/kg. Among consumer, in milk was Rs. 53/lit, Curd Rs.112/kg, Paneer Rs.411/kg, Egg Rs.6, Chicken Rs.206/kg (Broiler), Rs.350/kg (Local), Pork Rs. 257/kg and Chevon Rs.501/kg. In regards to to ‘Marketing fluctuations in quantum and profit of livestock and poultry produce and products’ among the trader, increase and decrease in sale of milk was 181 and 180 percent, 103 and 100 percent in piglet, 215 and 211 percent in egg, 359 and 211 percent in chicken, 256 and 256 percent in pork and 284 and 274 percent in chevon. In case of ‘Types of livestock and poultry produce and products sold and reason for selling’ among traders, average number of piglet sold was 10 numbers with reason for selling being family business and high profit, while in case of milk it was 68 lit., chicken 64 kg, pork 149 kg, chevon 18 kg and egg was 1094 numbers and reason for selling being family business. In ‘Time for marketing for marketing of livestock produce and products’ among trader in case of piglet was 8-10 am, milk 4-6 pm, paneer, pork and chevon was 8-10 am, egg 4-6 pm and chicken 6 pm and after, while among consumers, in case of milk was 6-8 am, curd and chevon was 8-10 am, paneer 10-12 am and egg, chicken and pork was 6 pm and after and consumer mainly purchased for self rearing and consumption. Regarding, ‘Source of pprocurement of livestock and poultry produce and products’ among trader they always procured from middleman, vendor and wholesaler while mostly procured from farmer and occasionally procured from own farm, while among consumer, always procured from vendor and seller while occasionally from farmer. In case of to ‘Mode of transportation and distance taken for the livestock and poultry produce and products to reach the market’ among traders, the average distance and time required in piglet was 9.5 km and 0.3 hr, milk 14 km and 0.57 hr, egg 22 km and 0.82 hr, chicken 48.33 km and 2 hr, pork 29.67 km and 1.1 hr, chevon 47 km and 1.18 hr while mode of transportation were autovan, carrier van, tempo, bike. Major marketing channel present in the market was producer-wholesaler-retailer- consumer while minor marketing channel was producer-vendor-retailer-consumer. Both trader and consumer opined that middleman got the maximum benefit from the market. Both trader and consumer ranked 1st to ‘quality’ on basis of ‘Consumers’ preferences while purchasing the livestock and poultry produce and products’, while 2nd rank was ‘price’ in trader and ‘quantity’ and ‘cleanliness’ in consumer while 3rd was ‘availability on time’ in trader and ‘price’ in consumers. In regards to ‘Trustworthiness of the marketers’ in case of milk trader most trusted wholesaler while consumer most trusted producer, in paneer and pork trader trusted producer and consumer trusted seller, in curd consumer trusted producer, in egg trader trusted wholesaler and consumer trusted seller, in case of chicken and chevon, trader trusted vendor and consumer trusted seller while in piglet trader trusted producer. In regards to ‘Nature of amount of daily sale’, among average sale, local and outside sale, it was observed that in case piglet, it was 10, 5 and 5 numbers, milk was 68, 53 and 15 lit., in chicken was 64, 53 and 11 kg, in chevon was 18, 17 and 1 kg and egg was 1094, 993 and 101 numbers. In case of ‘market demand’ 86 percent of the total demand was served by local population while rest 14 percent was served by outside population. While in case of ‘Occasional/Seasonal variations in demand’ in milk, the demand increased during Lakshi Puja and Saraswati Puja, in piglet and chicken it was Winter, in pork it was Winter, Bihu and New year and in egg no such season, festival or occasion was reported. In regards to ‘Ancillary benefits and development from establishment of the market extent while transportation, quality of produce and products, local production, consumption rate, increase in nos. of employees, road and communication, regularity in supply and boost to local produces benefitted and developed to a moderate extent while among consumer opined that transportation, quantum of people, local production, consumption rate, market hours, increase in nos. of employees, regularity in supply and boost to local produces benefitted and developed to a large extent meanwhile banking, quality of produce and products, environment improvement, investment in market, road and communication, boost to local produces, government initiatives, association of NGOs & local bodies benefitted and developed to a moderate extent while price stability benefitted and developed to a least extent. In regards to ‘Additional livelihood activities promoted by livestock and poultry market’ among traders believed that ‘vegetable seller’ and among consumers believed that transport was promoted by livestock and poultry marketing. In ‘Presence of livestock and poultry market in the area’ both trader and consumer opined that livestock and poultry marketing was present in the area. While in case of ‘Creation of livestock and poultry market in the area’, majority of the trader agreed but consumer opined negatively to the statement. In regards to ‘Trend of livestock and poultry market’ according to trader was economic affluent while in consumer it was cosmopoliteness. The average value for ‘benefits of market led extension to the primary stakeholders’ among trader was 18.93 and majority were clubbed under medium group. In relational analysis it was observed that ‘age’, ‘family size’, ‘educational status’ and ‘experience in market’ were positively and highly significantly (P<0.01) correlated to Benefits of market led extension to the primary stakeholders. Further details were observed through multiple regression analysis where it was revealed that age, educational status and experience in market were found to be positively and significantly affected benefits of market led extension to the primary stakeholders. ThesisItem Open AccessECOPROSPECTING LOCAL CATTLE TO NAVIGATE CULTURAL VALUES IN LOWER ASSAM(College of Veterinary Science, Assam Agricultural University, Khanapara, Guwahati, 2019-01) HUSSAIN, LIAKOT; Borgohain, A.Agriculture is the mainstay of the rural people for earning their livelihood and animal husbandry is a subsidiary occupation. Rain fed agro-ecosystem has a distinct place in Indian agriculture, occupying more than 50% of the cultivated area, contributing 44% of the food grains and supporting 40% of the human and 65% of the livestock population. Animal husbandry acts as the buffer in crop failure by providing the subsidiary income to the farming communities by sale of milk, meat, egg, hide, manure and sometimes living animals. The country among the largest population of cattle and buffaloes in the world and all the breeds are admired for their heat tolerance and inherent resistance to so many diseases including ability to thrive under different climatic condition. The contribution of livestock sector to the national economy in terms of GDP is 4.11 per cent and 25.60 per cent of total contribution of the agricultural sectors to GDP (19th Livestock Census, 2012). India with about 190 million cattle (as per 19th Livestock Census, 2012) has 14.50 per cent of the world cattle population of this 151 million are indigenous. Indigenous cattle are robust and resilient and are particularly suited to the climate and environment of their respective breeding tracts. Indigenous cattle can be improved with organized breeding programs, cultivated pastures, and silos for storage. Because stronger oxen would pull the plough faster, they could work multiple plots of land, allowing farmers to share their animals. Fewer healthy, well fed cows could provide Indians with more milk. Ecosystem, animal husbandry and sustainability have an inclusive relationship with far reaching impact on world civilization and cultural evolution. The draught bullocks are a main source of farm power for small farmer to certain extent for medium farmers and for certain operation with large farmer. Livestock sector not only provides essential proteins and nutritious human diet through milk, egg, meat etc. but livestock also provides raw materials and byproducts such as hides and skins, blood, bone, fat etc. which have huge economic importance. Women in the North East have a different status. Rural women form the most important productive work force in the economy of majority of the developing nations including India. Agriculture, the single largest production endeavor in India, contributing around 17.00 per cent of GDP, is increasingly becoming a female activity. The demand for meat and meat products is more in Assam and other North- Eastern States because of the higher tenancy towards non-vegetarian foods of the inhabitants of this region. Marketing comprises of the economic activities involving the movement of the produce from the point of production to the point of consumption. Apparently, it is known that local cattle are raised for purposes like drafting, ploughing, cart pulling, fertilizer, social-economic security and milk production for household consumption. But there might be some other unseen and unknown reasons as well. Therefore, to have an empirical study on utility pattern of indigenous cattle rearing by the farmers of lower Assam, the study on “Ecoprospecting Local Cattle to Navigate Cultural Values in Lower Assam’’ was undertaken. Keeping the topic of the study and its objectives in view, the present study was carried out in the ten lower Assam districts of the state namely, South Salmara- Mankachar, Dhubri, Goalpara, Bongaigaon, Baksa, Chirang, Barpeta, Nalbari, Darrang and Udalguri. From each of the selected district, two blocks were randomly selected and from where Twenty Five (25) local cattle rearing farmers representing each block were chosen as respondents. Thus, a total of 500 local cattle rearing farmers (fifty from each selected district) formed the sample size for the present investigation. By and large a random sampling technique was followed for the study. A pre-tested, reliable and valid interview schedule was used for data collection by the researcher personally and the responses were collected on the interview schedule comprising of independent and dependent variables. Based on the data collected and the results obtained the conclusions were drawn and findings were expressed. ThesisItem Open AccessIMPACT OF FEMALE PARTICIPATION IN LIVESTOCK AND POULTRY ENTERPRISES IN ENSURING WOMEN EMPOWERMENT AND HOUSEHOLD FOOD SECURITY AMONG SELECTED TRIBES/ ETHNIC GROUP IN GOALPARA DISTRICT OF ASSAM(College of Veterinary Science, Assam Agricultural University, Khanapara, Guwahati, 2022-01) ROY, DEEPJYOTI; RAY, M. N.A study titled “Impact of Female Participation in Livestock and Poultry Enterprises in Ensuring Women Empowerment and Household Food Security among Selected Tribes/ Ethnic Group in Goalpara District of Assam” was conducted with a view to investigate gender participation in livestock enterprises, to find the socio-personal, socio-economic and psychological parameters of the women of four tribes/ ethnic group along with their time spent in livestock related activities, their nature and extent of participation and to assess the impact of their participation in these activities on their overall household empowerment and food security. The Goalpara district of Assam was purposively selected, from where a total of two hundred respondents- fifty each from Rabha, Garo, Hajong and Koch-Rajbongshi communities were surveyed for the study, the selection being done via snowball sampling method. The study revealed that majority of the respondents belonged to young age category (54.00 per cent), had small sized family (54.00 per cent), lived in a joint family system (56.50 per cent), had small land holding (69.00 per cent), possessed small sized herd (59.50 per cent) and had low level of education (37.00 per cent), social participation (65.50 per cent), mass media exposure (65.00 per cent) and extension contact (55.50 per cent). They also earned low annual income from livestock and poultry rearing (61.50 per cent), from other sources (67.20 per cent) and as well as from all sources (66.00 per cent). In respect of experience in livestock and poultry rearing majority (61.50 per cent) of them had short experience, had favourable attitude towards improved livestock farming (51.00 per cent) and high level of liking for information sources (46.50 per cent). Majority (54.50 per cent) of the respondents considered animal husbandry as a secondary source of income. The highest number (38.00 per cent) of the respondents spent medium time engaged in various livestock rearing activities. Significant difference was observed among the communities in respect of their level of education (15.799**, P<0.01), level of social participation (6.029**, P<0.01), level of experience in livestock rearing (4.131**, P<0.01), level of mass media exposure (16.890, P<0.01), level of extension contact (13.496**, P<0.01), herd size (3.021*, P<0.05), land holding (10.166**, P<0.01), annual income from livestock and poultry rearing (7.197**, P<0.01), annual income from sources other than livestock and poultry rearing (8.962**, P<0.01), total annual income from all sources (9.552**, P<0.01), liking of information sources (17.560**, P<0.01), attitude towards improves livestock farming (19.586**, P<0.01), time spent in livestock activities (7.595**, P<0.01). Gender-wise it was seen that all the activities involved the participation of both males and females. No such activity was observed where only lone male or lone female participation was present. The chi-square analysis revealed that the activities like ‘collection of fodder’ (18.361*), ‘milking’ (12.989*), ‘selling of milk and milk products’ (14.633*), ‘preparation of milk products’ (14.010*), ‘collection of dung’ (13.448*), ‘preparation of dung cake’ (13.448*) and ‘bathing of animals’ (19.215*) revealed significant chi-square values at P<0.05 level of probability which indicated that gender was significantly associated with tribe/ethnicity in respect of these activities. In respect of nature of participation, respondents alone participated in higher number in most of the activities in comparison to with husband, with in-laws, with children or together. In respect of extent of participation it was seen that the respondents regularly participated in the activities common to both livestock and poultry rearing. The percentage of women who perceived high level of women empowerment through their participation in livestock and poultry rearing was 52.00 per cent while majority (71.00 per cent) of the respondents had a high level of perception that their participation in such activities ensured household food security. Relational analysis was conducted between independent variables and the extent of participation, women empowerment and household food security which revealed that herd size (r=0.292**, P<0.01), land size (r=0.208**, P<0.01), attitude towards improved livestock farming (r=0.409**, P<0.01), time spent in livestock activities (r=0.302**, P<0.01) showed highly significant and positive correlation with extent of participation while education (r= -0.195**, P<0.01) and total annual income from all sources (r= -0.200**, P<0.01) exhibited highly significant and negative correlation with extent of participation. While mass media exposure (r= -0.179*, P<0.05) showed significant and negative correlation with extent of participation. Regression analysis showed that herd size (2.706**, P<0.01), land size (2.635**, P <0.01), attitude towards improved livestock farming (4.953**, P<0.01) and time spent in livestock activities (3.335**, P<0.01) showed a highly significant effect on the extent of participation. The coefficient of determination (R2) was found to be 0.369 which indicated that 36.90 per cent of variation in extent of participation could be explained by these variables. The F value (7.164) was found to be positive and highly significant and indicated that these variables were good predictors of extent of participation. In respect of women empowerment, it was observed that 7 out of 15 variables viz. age (r= 0.249**, P<0.01), social participation (r= 0.363**, P<0.01), experience in livestock farming (r= 0.235**, P<0.01), extension contact (r= 0.323**, P<0.01), annual income from livestock rearing (r= 0.335**, P<0.01), attitude towards improved livestock farming (r= 0.278**, P<0.01), time spent in livestock activities (r= 0.459**, P<0.01) exhibited highly significant and positive correlation with household women empowerment while family size (r=-0. 211**, P<0.01) showed highly significant and negative correlation with household women empowerment. On the other hand, multiple regression analysis showed that age (2.680**, P<0.01), social participation (4.208**, P<0.01), herd size (-3.950**, P<0.01), attitude towards improved livestock farming (5.456**, P<0.01) and time spent in livestock activities (4.227**, P<0.01) showed a highly significant contributing effect on household women empowerment and liking of information sources (-2.274*, P<0.05) showed a significant contributing effect on women empowerment. The coefficient of determination (R2) was found to be 0.466 which indicated that 46.60 per cent of variation in household women empowerment could be explained by these variables. The F value (9.968) was found to be positive and highly significant and indicated that these variables were good predictors of household women empowerment. While in case of household food security, out of 15 independent variables social participation (r= 0.242**, P<0.01), mass media exposure (r= 0.216**, P<0.01), annual income from livestock farming (r= 0.276**, P<0.01), attitude towards improved livestock rearing (r= 0.343**, P<0.01), liking of information sources (r= 0.204**, P<0.01), time spent in livestock activities (r= 0.228**, P<0.01) exhibited highly significant and positive correlation with household food security while extension contact (r= 0.162*, P<0.05) showed significant and positive relationship with household food security. The regression analysis further revealed that social participation (3.680**, P<0.01), mass media exposure (2.678**, P<0.01), attitude towards improved livestock farming (5.262**, P<0.01) showed highly significant effect on household food security while herd size (-2.065*, P<0.05) had significant effect on the same. The coefficient of determination (R2) was found to be 0.334 which indicated that 33.40 per cent of variation in food security could be explained by these variables. The F value (6.144) was found to be positive and highly significant and indicated that these variables were good predictors of the household food security. Further correlation co-efficient was calculated of extent of participation with that of women empowerment and household food security. No significant relation between the extent of participation of the respondents in livestock and poultry enterprises with the level of household empowerment of women or household food security was present. ThesisItem Open AccessAVENUES OF EMPLOYMENT AND WELFARE FROM PIG FARMING IN AIZAWL, MIZORAM(College of Veterinary Science, Assam Agricultural University, Khanapara, Guwahati-781022, 2017-07) Fanai, Vanlalhmangaihi; Saharia, K. K. ThesisItem Open AccessETHNICITY IN LIVESTOCK REARING AMONG THE NYISHI TRIBES OF ARUNACHAL PRADESH(College of Veterinary Science, Assam Agricultural University, Khanapara, Guwahati-781022, 2017-07) Yadik, Nich; Borgohain, A.An investigation was undertaken to study the ethnicity in livestock rearing among the Nyishi Tribes of Arunachal Pradesh .Two predominantly Nyishi dominated districts namely Papum Pare and Lower Subansiri district were purposively selected. Four villages were selected and 15 respondents from each village were selected, making the sample size 120.Only the farmers having at least one animal were selected for the study in consultation with the officials of Department of Animal Husbandry, Veterinary and Dairy, Government of Arunachal Pradesh for the study purpose. Two sets of variables viz., independent and dependent variables were chosen for the study in consultation with available literature, faculties in college of veterinary science AAU, Khanapara, Guwahati, Assam. Data were collected by personally by interviewing the respondents. Study revealed that majority of the respondents, 65.84 per cent belonged to middle age group, and about 62.50 per cent of them were male and 100.00 per cent were married. Majority 75.83 per cent had nuclear family type with 70.80 per cent medium family size. Almost 54.20 per cent were illiterate educational level and majority 73.30 per cent of the respondents were involved in agriculture as their main occupation. Majority of the respondents 70.00 per cent had medium herd size of livestock other than mithun,75.83 per cent had medium mithun herd size .Most of them had medium family income (rupees 90000-190000) of which majority of the respondents 79.17 per cent belonged to medium category. Majority 85.00 per cent of the respondents had medium income from livestock (rupees 60000-90000).About 55.83 per cent of the respondents had medium extension contact and 62.50 per cent of the respondents had social participation. As regards to socio-cultural practices associated with livestock rearing, 100 per cent of the respondents used mithun and poultry during festivals, 100.00 per cent the respondents used mithun, pig and poultry during marriage, 100.00 per cent of respondents used poultry in rituals, 100.00 per cent in birth ceremony, 95.00 per cent of the respondents used mithun in barter system and 95.00 per cent of the respondents used mithun in legal laws. The study revealed that larger herd size enhances livelihood (89.17 per cent), more numbers of livestock increase social status (74.17 per cent), availability of transportation facilities enhances livestock rearing (77.50 per cent), animal husbandry provides supplementary income (76.66 per cent) and livestock provides social status (70.83) were the different type of assets which played major role in livelihood support of the farmers. As per the preferred means of identification of livestock in order to avoid disputes 60.00 per cent of the respondents responds practiced ear notching, followed by 50.08 per cent of the respondents by different colour pattern and 50.08 per cent by horn. Majority of the respondents 95.83 per cent preferred means of processing of livestock meat and followed 63 per cent by drying. In respect of ethno-veterinary practices leaves, roots and stems of different plants like garlic, guava, ginger, taro, mugorut, white seed, fern, banana etc were used by Nyishi tribe for treatment of different ailments of livestock. Constraints such as non availability of labourers, lack of fodder and good quality seed and lack of proper marketing channel has been identified as sever constraints perceived by the Nyishis’ in performing their livestock rearing practices. ThesisItem Open AccessTRANSITION IN ETHNO-CULTURAL LIVESTOCK PREFERENCES AMONG FARMERS IN KAMRUP (R) DISTRICT OF ASSAM(College of Veterinary Science, Assam Agricultural University, Khanapara, Guwahati-781022, 2017-07) Das, Gayatri; Saharia, K. K.ndia is predominantly an agrarian society where animal husbandry is an integral part of the agricultural system and as such helps forming the backbone of national economy. The scale of production in animal husbandry has been subsistent in nature and method of rearing, traditional in nature. Commercial or market oriented production systems have not developed much. The composition of livestock population of Assam consists of 63.3 percent cattle followed by goat (21 percent). Buffalo accounts for 5.8 percent while the share of pig is 8.62 percent and sheep is the lowest, i.e. 0.66 percent. Assam does not have any economically important breeds of livestock except the indigenous bullock (2.06 million) on which most of the agricultural operations depend. Because of constantly changing atmosphere in addition to many other factors, animal husbandry in the traditional society in the state has been in transition necessitating the preferences in the farmers’ priorities. therefore a study entitled as “Transition in ethno-cultural livestock preferences among farmers in Kamrup (Rural) district, Assam “was taken up to study with the objectives- (i) Personal profile and the traditional livestock reared by the farmers. (ii)The ethno-cultural values the farmers endow to livestock (iii) The change in number and pattern of animals reared and the transition, if any since the time of his/her father (iv) The reasons of perceived transition among the farmers in livestock rearing (v) The relationship among the ethno-cultural values, transitions of livestock rearing and the reasons behind such a situation. The study was conducted in four selected developmental blocks of Kamrup (Rural) District of Assam situated to the East, West, North and South directions from the headquarters. These four blocks were Bejera, Hajo, Rangia and Boko. Twenty five farmers having at least one milch cow were selected randomly as respondents from each of the blocks thus making the sample size 100. A pre-tested, reliable and valid interview schedule was used for data collection by the researcher personally and the responses were collected on the interview schedule comprising of independent and dependent variables. Based on the data collected and the results obtained the conclusions were drawn and findings were expressed. The salient findings were- Majority of the farmers belonged to middle age group (38-50 year), Majority of respondents were male (72.00 percent), Quite a high majority of the respondents were married (94.00 percent),Quite a good number of the respondents had low educational status (46.00 percent), Majority (79.00 percent) of the respondents had medium sized families (4-7 number) Majority of the respondents belonged to nuclear family type (84.00 per cent), Majority (51.00 percent) of the respondents were medium land holders (3-5 bighas), Quite a good number had agriculture as their primary occupation (43.00 percent), Majority (81.00 percent) of the respondents belonged to middle income group (Rs.48,000-217000) of family income from all source, Majority (83.00 percent) of the respondents belonged to middle income group of (Rs. 4000 to 10,000) of family income from animal husbandry or livestock sector, A good number of the respondents (49.00 per cent) had medium (Rs. 3000- to Rs. 5000/-) respondent’s own monthly income, Majority of farmers (75.00 per cent) had maintained medium herd size (3-6 numbers) presently. Majority of farmers (77.00 percent) had maintained medium herd size (2-3 numbers of equivalent cattle units) 5 yrs. back. Quite a good number (47.00 percent) respondents had medium level of social participation. Majority of farmer (54.00 per cent) were categorized ABSTRACT in medium extension contact, Among the farmers, 34.00 per cent respondents had high level of exposure to various information sources. Highest respondents (6.08 percent) reared livestock for agricultural purposes mainly for draft and manure. Cattle were highly preferred (40.83 percent) among the various farm animals, Majority (87.00 percent) of farmers had kutcha type of house, Majority of farmers (61.00 per cent) were categorized in medium risk orientation group towards animal husbandry practices. Quite a good number (49.00 percent) had medium level of attitude towards animal husbandry. Highest respondents (4.73 percent) kept animals let loose throughout the day &gave shelter at night, Highest respondents (8.90 percent) fed colostrum to the new born calves followed by regular vaccination against infectious diseases. In ‘t ‘test mean number of livestock between the two phases of study i.e. five years back and at the time of conducting the study, significantly differed and showed increase from earlier,(6.84 p=<.01),In relational analysis age of the respondents was positively and high significantly related (r=0.29, p=<.01)to mass media exposure. Whereas it was positively and significantly correlated (r=0.20,p=<.05) with earlier (5 years back) herd size , Educational qualification had positive and high significantly related (r=0.31,p=<.01) to annual family income from all sources and mass media exposure ,Whereas it had positive and significant correlation (r=0.20,p=<.05) with earlier (5 years back) herd size. Family size was found to be positively and high significantly related(r=0.27, p=<.01) to land holding, whereas it was found to be negatively and high significantly related to mass media exposure, Land holding was positively and high significantly related to occupation and risk orientation, Annual family income from all sources was found to be positively and high significantly related to educational qualification , Annual family income from livestock was positively and high significantly related to with annual family income from all sources, Social participation was positively and high significantly (r=0.31, p=<.01) related to annual family income from all sources, herd size, preference of livestock ,Mass media exposure was positively and high significantly related to age, educational qualification and social participation, whereas it had significant correlation with respondent own income per month ,Risk orientation was positively and high significantly related (r=0.25, p=<.01)to land holding ,Purpose of livestock rearing was positively and high significantly related to respondent own income per month, Preferences of livestock was positively and highly significantly(r=0.18, p=<.01) related to annual family income from all sources and annual family income from livestock, Herd size (5 yrs. earlier) was positively and high significantly(r=0.79, p=<.01) related to herd size (at the time of data collection). Whereas it had significant correlation with Age, Educational qualification, annual family income from all sources and Social participation, In multiple regression out of 12 independent variables, family size, occupation, Extension contact, and risk orientation had positive and significant influence on purpose of livestock rearing. The coefficient of determination R square =0.98, indicating that 98.00 percent variation in the purpose of livestock rearing was explained by 12 independent variables taken together. ‘F’ value for R= 4.41** which is highly significant. ThesisItem Open AccessISSUES AROUND NIANG MEGHA BREED OF PIG REARING IN MEGHALAYA(College of Veterinary Science Assam Agricultural University Khanapara, Guwahati-781022, 2016-07) Suchiang, Rimiki; Ray, M. N.A research study was undertaken to study the issues regarding Niang megha breed of pig in two purposively selected districts of Meghalaya namely, East Khasi Hills and West Khasi Hills district. From each district four villages were purposively selected and from each village 15 Niang megha farmers were randomly selected making the total sample size to 120. Two sets of variables viz., independent and dependent were chosen for the study in consultation with available literature and experts of the field. Data were collected by personally interviewing the selected respondents with the reliable and valid interview schedule. The respondents were interviewed personally at their residence/ farm during the month of November 2015 to April 2016. The study revealed that the average age of the respondents was around 43 years. Majority of the respondents read up to primary school (30.84%), had nuclear families (60.83%) with mean family size of about 7 and were married (90.00%). Agriculture was their primary occupation with their mean annual income from pig farming being Rs. 11336 and mean annual income from all sources being Rs. 76,847. Most of them had medium experience of rearing Niang megha, with an average of about 34 years with about 4 numbers of pigs and mostly rearing for both breeding and fattening purpose (63.33%). Most of them had medium level of social participation (71.66%) and extension contact (68.33%). Majority of the respondents’ attitude towards piggery enterprise was neutral with medium level of liking towards information source. A total of 8 green forages and 10 medicinal herbs were identified which were used for feeding and treatment of Niang megha respectively. Most of them reared their pigs in semi-intensive system (55.84%), mostly hiring a boar for breeding purpose (44.17%). Most of them feed their pigs with garbage feeds (84.17%) and most of them had weaned (45.83%) and castrated their pigs (59.17%) and sometimes treated and dewormed them (48.33%). The common marketing channel of pigs was through local trader and the piglets were normally bought through the co-farmers and the common mode of marketing pork was through local trader. A total of fourteen constraints were identified through Rank Based Quotient (RBQ) technique, where high cost of feed was found to occupy the Rank 1 among the constraints in both the districts with a rank correlation coefficient of 0.70** and 0.95** in East Khasi Hills and West Khasi Hills district respectively.