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Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat

Assam Agricultural University is the first institution of its kind in the whole of North-Eastern Region of India. The main goal of this institution is to produce globally competitive human resources in farm sectorand to carry out research in both conventional and frontier areas for production optimization as well as to disseminate the generated technologies as public good for benefitting the food growers/produces and traders involved in the sector while emphasizing on sustainability, equity and overall food security at household level. Genesis of AAU - The embryo of the agricultural research in the state of Assam was formed as early as 1897 with the establishment of the Upper Shillong Experimental Farm (now in Meghalaya) just after about a decade of creation of the agricultural department in 1882. However, the seeds of agricultural research in today’s Assam were sown in the dawn of the twentieth century with the establishment of two Rice Experimental Stations, one at Karimganj in Barak valley in 1913 and the other at Titabor in Brahmaputra valley in 1923. Subsequent to these research stations, a number of research stations were established to conduct research on important crops, more specifically, jute, pulses, oilseeds etc. The Assam Agricultural University was established on April 1, 1969 under The Assam Agricultural University Act, 1968’ with the mandate of imparting farm education, conduct research in agriculture and allied sciences and to effectively disseminate technologies so generated. Before establishment of the University, there were altogether 17 research schemes/projects in the state under the Department of Agriculture. By July 1973, all the research projects and 10 experimental farms were transferred by the Government of Assam to the AAU which already inherited the College of Agriculture and its farm at Barbheta, Jorhat and College of Veterinary Sciences at Khanapara, Guwahati. Subsequently, College of Community Science at Jorhat (1969), College of Fisheries at Raha (1988), Biswanath College of Agriculture at Biswanath Chariali (1988) and Lakhimpur College of Veterinary Science at Joyhing, North Lakhimpur (1988) were established. Presently, the University has three more colleges under its jurisdiction, viz., Sarat Chandra Singha College of Agriculture, Chapar, College of Horticulture, Nalbari & College of Sericulture, Titabar. Similarly, few more regional research stations at Shillongani, Diphu, Gossaigaon, Lakhimpur; and commodity research stations at Kahikuchi, Buralikson, Tinsukia, Kharua, Burnihat and Mandira were added to generate location and crop specific agricultural production packages.

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  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    ROLE AWARENESS OF EXTENSION FUNCTIONARIES IN FACILITATING AGRICULTURAL MARKETING IN ASSAM
    (2021) Patowary, Nipam; Borua, Sajib
    Agriculture remains as the main stay of Indian economy since time immemorial. With food being the crucial need of mankind, much emphasis has been given on facilitating agricultural marketing which involves marketing of food products. Agricultural extension in this present scenario has been recognized as an essential mechanism for delivering knowledge and information. The role of extension functionaries in facilitating marketing is now being emphasized in a big way, be it through FPO/FPCs (Farmers’ Producer Organizations/Farmer Producer Company), start-ups, agri-business ventures, agripreneurship, etc. Even though agri. extension focused earlier on (TOT) Transfer of Technology, there is a need to serve as facilitators in agricultural marketing. Hence the present study was done to understand the role awareness of extension functionaries in facilitating agricultural marketing. The present study was conducted in four districts of Assam, viz., Darrang, Barpeta, Goalpara and Kamrup in the year 2021 with three objectives: - 1. To study the socio-personal characteristics of extension functionaries 2. To assess the role awareness of extension functionaries in facilitating agricultural marketing 3. To find out the constraints faced by the extension functionaries in facilitating agricultural marketing The study encompassed 120 respondents in total by using purposive cum random sampling design. Data was collected using personal Interview schedule. Statistical tools and procedures employed to analyze the data were Frequency, Percentage, Mean, Standard deviation, Pearson product moment correlation coefficient, ‘t’ test and Chi-square test. The findings revealed that 60.80 per cent of the respondents belonged to the age group of 34 to 48 years, with majority (63.30 %) being male and most of them (51.70 %) had academic qualification of Master’s and above. Majority (46.70 %) had exposure of 4 to 6 training programmes relating to agriculture marketing in their service tenure. 62.50 per cent respondents had service experience between 5 to 14 years. Moreover, it was found that majority (64.20 %, 65.00 %, 60.90 %, 92.50 %) of the respondents had medium level of job involvement, job satisfaction, mass media exposure and cosmopoliteness, respectively, and 53.30 per cent had high level of achievement motivation. The study further revealed that majority (64.20 %) of the extension functionaries had partial level of role awareness in facilitating farmers towards agricultural marketing. Constraints faced by extension functionaries in facilitating agricultural marketing included absence of output grading facility, lack of proper supply and services of agricultural inputs, lack of proper technology and insufficient trainings, lack of transportation facilities, adulteration of produce and lack of quality control measures, etc. The findings of the study indicated that by raising the level of role awareness of extension functionaries through proper training, technical support and implementation of certain schemes in the right earnest would provide ample scope for benefit of the farmers in agricultural marketing. Extension functionaries shall have to be sensitized adequately to perceive their role in facilitating farmers in agricultural marketing.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    A STUDY ON IMPACT OF “BRINGING GREEN REVOLUTION TO EASTERN INDIA” (BGREI) PROGRAMME IN UBVZ OF ASSAM IN PROMOTION OF FARM MECHANIZATION
    (2021) Buragohain, Moromi; Neog, P.K.
    Agricultural mechanization technology plays a key role in improving agricultural production in developing counties, and should be considered as an essential input to agriculture. In Assam most of the farm operations are done using animal power, hence, there is great scope of selective mechanizing in Assam where, small hand tools are used involving drudgery. In order to bring about a change, a programme under Farm Asset Building Activity has also been proposed under BGREI programme. The major component of the BGREI programme is farm mechanization, and promotion of farm mechanization has been recognized as one of the essential requirement and need of the hour for agricultural development in Assam especially in rice cultivation. Keeping this in view primarily, the present study entitled- “A study on impact of Bringing Green Revolution to Eastern India (BGREI) programme in UBVZ of Assam in promotion of farm mechanization” was carried out in three district of Assam namely Golaghat, Johan and Sivasagar. The objectives of the study are as follows: OBJECTIVES:- 1. To assess the extent of utilization of farm machineries by the beneficiary and neighbouring farmers 2. To determine the level of knowledge on operation of different farm machineries and extent of adoption on scientific practices of applying farm machineries and tools in selected crops 3. To analyze the factors influencing the extent of utilization of farm machineries and tools. 4. To study the change in farming in terms of cropping intensity, cropping pattern, crop, diversification, intensification, productivity and profitability as a result of using farm machineries. 5. To identify the constraints face by the beneficiary and non beneficiary farmers in utilization and application of farm machineries and to pool suggestions thereof. A multistage purposive cum random sampling design was used for selecting 300 farmers as respondents. Approprite statistical methods were used for analysis and interpretation of data. The findings reveal that majority (57.33%) and (49.33%) of the BGREI beneficiary farmers and non-beneficiary farmers had medium and low level of utilization for farm machineries and tools respectively. Majority (68.67%) and (55.33%) of the beneficiary farmers and non-beneficiary farmers had medium and low level of knowledge on different farm machineries and tools respectively. Majority (60.00%) and (53.33 %) of the BGREI beneficiary farmers and non-beneficiary farmers belong to medium and low adoption category towards scientific practices of farm machineries and tools respectively. Paired “t” test was applied to compare between the BGREI beneficiaries’ farmers and non-beneficiaries farmers related to their extent of utilization of farm machineries and tools and it revealed that the beneficiary’s farmers had significantly higher utilization as compared to non-beneficiaries farmers. Likewise, beneficiary’s farmers had significantly higher level of knowledge on operation of farm machineries and tools as well as higher adoption on scientific practices of applying farm machineries and tools as compared to non-beneficiaries farmers. For extent of utilization of farm machineries and tools of the BGREI beneficiary farmers, correlation table revealed a positive and significant relationship between annual income, information source utilization, credit orientation, mass media and social media use and attitude towards farm mechanization. In case of non-beneficiary farmers, correlation table revealed a positive and significant relationship between social participation and labour availability. For level of knowledge on operation of different farm machineries and tools of the BGREI beneficiary farmers, correlation table revealed a positive and significant relationship between information source utilization, credit orientation, scientific orientation and attitude toward farm mechanization. In case of non-beneficiary farmers, correlation table revealed a positive and significant relationship between age, annual income, scientific orientation, extension contact and mass media and social media use. For extent of adoption on scientific practices of applying farm machineries and tools of the BGREI beneficiary farmers, correlation table revealed a positive and significant relationship between age, size of operational land holdings, annual income, information source utilization, mass media and social media use, and participation in farm machineries related training. In case of nonbeneficiary farmers, correlation table revealed a positive and significant relationship between size of operational land holdings, annual income, labour availability, mass media and social media use, participation in farm machineries related training and attitude towards farm mechanization. Among economic factors, social factors, personal factors and organizational factors subsidies availability, after seeing neighbours development, self-reliance or independence and guidance from ADO respectively were the major factors influencing the extent of utilization of farm machineries and tools for majority of the BGREI beneficiary farmers and nonbeneficiary farmers. The changes has taken place for more than 50 per cent of the beneficiary farmers in terms of cropping intensity, cropping pattern, crop diversification, productivity and profitability. The constraints face by the beneficiary and non-beneficiary farmers in utilization and application of farm machineries and tools are as follows: Economic constraints includes high initial cost of implements (Rank I), Infrastructural constraints includes non availability of spare parts in nearby places (Rank I), Information constraints includes farmers faced lack of skilled labour to operate farm machineries and tools (Rank I), The major situational constraint faced by the respondents was most of the farm machines and tools were not suitable for women farmer (Rank I) and frequent repairing (Rank I) was the most felt technological constraint by the BGREI beneficiary and non-beneficiary farmers
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    DETERMINANTS OF ADOPTION IN REGARD TO RECOMMENDED CULTIVATION PRACTICES OF RICE (Oryza sativa) and MAIZE (Zea mays) IN THE STATE OF NAGALAND
    (2021) KHUVUNG, ZUJANBEMO; Mishra, Prasanta
    Agriculture is considered as the backbone of Nagaland‟s economy where the majority of the population depends on agriculture. Major variants of cereals produced in Nagaland are rice, maize and millet. The two methods of cultivation among the Naga tribes are jhum and terrace cultivation which makes about 86 per cent of the total cultivable area in Nagaland. Emphasis on improving the production and productivity of agriculture is crucial to bridge the gap between the demand and supply of food grains. The present study on Determinants of adoption in regard to recommended cultivation practices of rice (Oryza sativa) and maize (Zea mays) in Nagaland was carried out in the state of Nagaland. The objectives of the study were measure the extent of adoption in regard to recommended cultivation practices of rice and maize in Nagaland, find out determinants of adoption of rice & maize production technology, identify the constraints faced by the farmers while adopting recommended cultivation practices, solicit suggestions from the research scientists, development workers and policy makers on measures for enhancing the production and productivity of rice and maize in Nagaland and develop a strategy to increase the rate of adoption of recommended rice and maize production technology. Thestudywastakenupinsixdistricts of Nagalandwithasamplesizeof 300farmers.Eighteenindependentvariables viz., age, gender, education, family type, family size, occupation, operational land holding, annual income, farming experience, social participation, information sources utilization, extension contact, cosmopoliteness, innovativeness, economic motivation, scientific orientation, achievement motivation and attitude towards shifting cultivationwithextentof adoptionasdependentvariableswerestudied.Therespondentswereinterviewedpersonally with the help of structuredinterviewschedule.Thedatacollectedwerecoded, tabulated and analyzed usingfrequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation, co-efficient of variance, Karl Pearson‟s co-efficient of correlation and multiple linear regression analysis. The profile ofthefarmersrevealed that more than half(59.7%)of the respondentswere medium aged and were males (65.7%), less than one-third of them were illiterates (31.7%), majority belonged to nuclear family type (86%) and more than half (51.7%) of them hadfamily size of 3-5 members. A little more than two-third (67.7%) of the farmers did cultivation as occupation, majority (46%) had marginal operational land holding, 80.67 per cent had medium (Rs. 80905) income 8 level, more than half (57.7%) of them had 13-32 years of farming experience, less than half (49.3%) of the farmers had no membership in any organization, 47.67 per cent of them had medium level of information sources utilization and 51.67 per cent had medium level of extension contact. Majority (23.66%) of them had contact with ATMA officials, 67 per cent of them visited town for agriculture purpose. More than half (69.67%) of the respondents had medium level ofinnovativeness, 45.67 per cent had medium level of economic motivation, 62 per centhaving medium level of scientific orientation, 56.67 per centhaving medium level of achievement motivation while 63.7 per cent of them had moderate level of attitude towards shifting cultivation. Majority (60.67%) of the farmershadmediumlevelofadoptionof recommended cultivation practices of irrigated rice, 60 per cent had mediumlevelofadoptionof recommended cultivation practices ofupland riceand 69 per cent had medium level of adoption of recommended cultivation practices of maize. The computed correlation coefficient value of family size (r=0.946*) showed a positive significant relationship with extent of adoption of recommended cultivation practicesof irrigated rice, while sixteen independent variables with the extent of adoption of recommended practices of irrigated rice taken on multiple linear regression analysis gave the co-efficient of multiple determination (R2) value of 0.913. The variables namely family size (b=2.209*), social participation (b=0.377*) and economic motivation (b=1.121*) were found to be positively significant and can be termed as good predictors of extent of adoption of recommended cultivation practices of irrigated rice. The computed correlation coefficient values of family size (r=0.944*) and annual income (r=0.160*) were positively and significantly correlated with the extent of adoption of recommended cultivation practices of upland rice, while sixteen independent variables with the extent of adoption of recommended practices of upland rice by the farmers taken on multiple linear regression analysis gave the co-efficient of multiple determination (R2) value of 0.905. The variables namely age (b=0.103*), family size (b=3.449*) and scientific orientation (b=0.121*) were found to be positively significant and can be termed as good predictors of extent of adoption of recommended cultivation practices of upland rice. The computed correlation coefficient values of operational land holding (r=0.197*), information sources utilization (r=0.931*), extension contact (=0.905*), innovativeness (r=0.958*), economic motivation (r=0.941*) and achievement motivation (r=0.945*) were positively and significantly correlated with the extent of adoption of recommended cultivation practices of maize 9 and annual income (r=-0.263*) was found to be negatively significant. Sixteen independent variables with the extent of adoption of recommended practices of maize by the farmers taken on multiple linear regression analysis gave the co-efficient of multiple determination (R2) value of 0.954. Variables namely family size (b=0.097*), information sources utilization (b=2.050*) and innovativeness (b=1.067*) were found to be positively significant and can be termed as good predictors of extent of adoption of recommended cultivation practices of maize. Whereas annual income (b=-4.685*) and extension contact (b=-0.452*) were found to be negatively significant with extent of adoption of recommended cultivation practices of maize. Non-availability of quality seeds, lack of proper financial assistance and subsidies, non-availability of timely farm inputs and machineries, pest and disease incidence, lack of storage facilities and processing units, low market value for crops, lack of marketing facilities and channels, lack of proper interactions between farmers and extension service providers, lack of result-oriented trainings and demonstrations, weather uncertainty, high cost of fertilizers and lack of knowledge of government schemes and incentives and proper irrigation and drainage facilities were some of the major constraints highlighted by the farmers while adopting recommended cultivation practices of rice and maize. Some of the strategy proposed to increase the production of rice and maize in Nagaland were timely supply and use of high yielding varieties and hybrid seeds, System of Rice Intensification, Crop Diversification in maize crop, Integrated Nutrient Management (INM), Integrated Pest & Disease Management (IP&DM), Water Resource Management, Improved farm mechanization, Integrated Farming System (IFS) Approach and Participatory Research and Development.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    A STUDY ON SUSTAINABLE DRY FARMING IN CENTRAL DRY ZONE OF KARNATAKA
    (2021) R., SACHIN, V.; Mishra, Prasanta
    This study entitled ‘A Study on Sustainable Dry Farming in Central Dry Zone of Karnataka’ was taken in the central dry zone (agro-climatic zone) of Karnataka state. Thorough review of literature revealed that very less investigations happened in the field of sustainable dry farming. Hence an attempt has been made to make an initial footprints in this untouched but very important field of investigation by framing five specific objectives. The primary data was collected from both dry farmers (N=250) and extension personnel (N=75) by selecting them with the help of multi-stage random sampling technique and the proportionate stratified random sampling technique respectively. The findings of the study in case of profile of the dry farmers revealed that majority of them were found to be 36 to 62 years old (65.60 %), educated up to high school (32.00 %) with 3 to 26 years farming experience (51.20 %) and had 2 to 6 members in their family (86.80 %). Majority of them were small land holders (48.40 %) who were fell in low level in case of their level of HYV index (55.60 %), level of organic manure (86.80 %), level of fertilizers (78.00 %), level of pesticides (98.80 %) and farm power mechanization (75.60 %). While, majority were found in medium level in case of their extension contact (58.40 %), mass media utilization (56.40 %), economic motivation (84.00 %), management orientation (69.20 %), achievement motivation (67.60 %), level of aspiration (93.20 %), decision making pattern (62.00 %) and innovativeness (72.80 %). Whereas, majority were fell in high level in case of their level of rain water harvesting and moisture conservation measures (50.80 %), change proneness (64.00 %), risk orientation (76.40 %) and farming commitment (62.80 %). The findings of the study in case of profile of the extension personnel disclosed that majority were found to be 38 to 59 years old (50.67 %), had master degree in agricultural science (70.67 %), had 1 to 16 years work experience (82.67 %) in the department with 42 to 51 hours work load (49.33 %) in a week and majority were found to have rural background i.e., born in rural areas (84.00 %). Whereas, majority were fell in medium level in case of their mass media exposure (76.00 %), extension service orientation (60.00 %), empathy (82.67 %), job satisfaction (64.00 %), career growth opportunities (88.00 %) and job stress (90.67 %). But majority were reported to have low level of training (65.33 %) in the department, The findings of the study in case of the infrastructure facilities revealed that ‘coordination of activities’ (89.33 %), ‘authority & responsibility’ (89.33 %) and ‘monitoring & evaluation’ (89.33 %) were the most ‘timely available and adequate’ infrastructure facilities. Whereas, ‘training facilities to farmers’ (45.33 %), ‘resource persons’ (30.67 %) and ‘vehicles for mobility’ (25.33 %) were the least ‘timely available and adequate’ infrastructure facilities. The findings of the study in case of extension tools and techniques revealed that ‘group meeting’ (98.67 %) and ‘exhibitions’ (98.67 %) were the most used extension methods. ‘Farm and home visit’ (90.67 %) was found to be the most suitable extension method to promote sustainable dry farming. The findings of the study in case of extension programmes disclosed that eight extension programmes were found to have cent per cent functional implementation. ‘Raita Siri Programme’ (94.67 %) was found to be the most suitable extension programme to promote sustainable dry farming. The findings of the study in case of organizational climate revealed that majority of the extension personnel perceived it as congenial at low level (53.33 %). The ‘planning aspect’ was found to be the most congenial dimension of the organizational climate. The findings of the study in case of knowledge level of dry farmers on sustainable dry farming disclosed that majority were found to possess medium level (55.60 %) of knowledge. The independent variables of the dry farmers viz., family size (r=0.1235*), landholding (r=0.1360**), index of HYV (r=0.1062*), rain water harvesting and moisture conservation (r=0.3000***), farm power mechanization (r=0.1930***), extension contact (r=0.5240***), mass media utilization (r=0.3150***), economic motivation (r=0.2620***), change proneness (r=0.2450***), risk orientation (r=0.2220***), management orientation (r=0.1900***), farming commitment (r=0.3190***), level of aspiration (r=0.1770***), decision making pattern (r=0.2540***) and achievement motivation (r=0.1490**) were found to have positive and significant influence over their level of knowledge. Whereas, the variables viz., level of use of organic manure (r=0.0776NS), level of use of fertilisers (r=0.0331NS) and level of use of pesticides (r=0.0775NS) were had positive and non-significant influence over their level of knowledge. The remaining independent variables viz., age (r=-0.0786NS), farming experience (r=-0.0742NS) and innovativeness (r=-0.0952NS) were had negative and non-significant correlation with the level of knowledge of dry farmers. Also chi-square test revealed that level of education had non-significant association (x2=84.650NS) with the level of knowledge of dry farmers. Finally the multiple regression revealed that the variables viz., family size (B=0.1357*), landholding (B=0.0838**), extension contact (B=0.2599***), mass media utilization (B=0.0898*), economic motivation (B=0.3093**), farming commitment (B=0.0753**) and decision making pattern (B=0.0257**) were found to be the determinant factors of the level of knowledge of dry farmers with the R square value 0.428 (F=8.120***). The findings of the study in case of the knowledge level of extension personnel on sustainable dry farming disclosed that majority were found to possess medium level (61.33 %) of knowledge. The independent variables viz., work load (rs=0.371***), training undergone (rs=0.325***), extension service orientation (rs=0.440***), empathy (rs=0.243**) and carrier/professional growth (rs=0.283**) were had positive and significant relationship with their knowledge level. Whereas, the variables viz., age (rs=-0.321***) and work experience (rs=-0.255**) were had negative and significant influence over the level of knowledge. From the remaining variables, mass media exposure (rs=0.136NS) and job stress (rs=0.072NS) were had positive and non-significant relationship and the job satisfaction (rs=-0.059NS) had negative and non-significant correlation with the knowledge level of extension personnel. The chi-square analysis revealed that the level of education (x2=53.897*) had significant association and the rural-urban background (x2=36.034NS) had non-significant association with the level of knowledge of extension personnel. The findings of the study in case of resource availability and their extent of adoption revealed that the ‘sprinkler irrigation system’ (96.00 %) and the ‘agricultural labour’ (8.00 %) were the most and the least ‘timely available and adequate’ resources in the central dry zone of Karnataka respectively. Whereas, the ‘quality fertilizers’ (76.00 %) and the ‘vermicompost’ (11.60 %) were the resources which got the most and the least full scale adoption in the central dry zone of Karnataka respectively. The ‘sprinkler irrigation system’ (60.80 %) was the resource which had highest availability-adoption gap. The findings of the study in case of the performance level of extension personnel in promoting sustainable dry farming revealed that majority were found to have medium (rs=81.33 %) performance level. The independent variable carrier/professional growth (rs=0.327***) had positive and significant influence over the performance level. Whereas, the variable job stress (rs=-0.246**) had negative and significant correlation with the performance level. From the remaining variables, work load (rs=0.187NS), training undergone (rs=0.039NS), mass media exposure (rs=0.088NS), extension service orientation (rs=0.105NS), empathy (rs=0.155NS) and job satisfaction (rs=0.086NS) were had positive and non-significant influence and the variables, age (rs=-0.058NS) and work experience (rs=-0.011NS) were had negative and non-significant influence over the performance level of extension personnel. ‘Depleting underground water’ (87.60 %) and ‘seasonal labour non-availability’ (80.00 %) were the top two problems of dry farmers. Whereas, ‘need to make MSP to all agricultural crops’ (73.60 %) and ‘need to fill local water bodies at least once in a year through irrigation channels’ (58.00 %) were the top two suggestions of dry farmers to increase the adoption of sustainable dry farming practices. ‘Supporting micro irrigation technologies with subsidies’ (93.33 %), ‘awareness creation about long term benefits of the sustainable dry farming at village levels’ (89.33 %) and ‘intensification of utilizing MGNREGA scheme to construct water conservation structures’ (86.66 %) were the top three suggestions of the extension personnel to increase the adoption of sustainable dry farming practices.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    ADOPTION OF TEA CULTIVATION PRACTICES BY TRAINED AND UNTRAINED SMALL TEA GROWERS- AN EVALUATIVE STUDY IN UPPER BRAHMAPUTRA VALLEY ZONE OF ASSAM
    (2021) SAIKIA, PURNIMA; Bhattacharyya, A.K.
    The study entitled “Adoption of tea cultivation practices by trained and untrained small tea growers- An evaluative study in Upper Brahmaputra Valley Zone of Assam” was carried out during 2020-21. Multistage purposive cum random sampling design was used for selection of respondents. A total of 400 (200 trained and 200 untrained) respondents constituted the sample of the study. Data collection was done by adopting the personal interview technique administering a structured schedule. Frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, ‘t’ test, weighted mean score, rank analysis, two sample ‘t’ test for comparing two means, correlation and multiple regression were the statistical techniques used for the analysis of data. The study revealed that majority of the trained respondents (50.00%) were belonged to young age group. On the other hand majority of the untrained respondents (49.50%) were belonged to young age group. Majority of the trained respondents (25.00%) and untrained respondents (26.50%) were middle school level and primary school level, respectively. Moreover, majority of the trained respondents (78.50%) and untrained respondents (73.50%) had nuclear type of family. In case of operational land holding, majority of the trained respondents (52.00%) and untrained respondents (58.50%) were small farmers. It was found that majority of the trained (55.00%) and untrained (59.00%) respondents had medium level of annual income. It was observed that majority of the trained respondents (54.50%) and untrained respondents (63.00%) had only cultivation as occupation. In case of experience of tea growers 58.50 per cent of the trained respondents and 57.50 per cent of the untrained respondents had average experience (5-10 years). It was found that majority (40.50%) of the respondents had attended 2 days training programme. Majority of the trained (67.50%) and untrained (76.50%) respondents had medium level of mass media exposure. It was also observed that majority of the trained (60.50%) and untrained (72.00%) respondents had medium level of extension contact. Majority of the trained (77.00%) and untrained (90.50%) respondents had medium level of social participation. Majority (57.50%) and (57.00%) of the trained and untrained small tea growers possessed medium level of achievement motivation, respectively. In case of marketing orientation, it was found that majority (69.50%) and (74.50%) of the trained and untrained small tea growers possessed medium level of marketing orientation, respectively. It has been also observed that majority of the trained (64.50 %) and untrained (69.50 %) small tea growers possessed medium level of economic motivation. Moreover, majority of the trained (71.00%) and untrained (75.50%) respondents had medium level of risk preference ability. The findings of the study revealed that majority of the trained (70.50%) and untrained (68.50%) respondents had medium level of scientific orientation. Regarding decision making ability majority of the trained (81.00%) and untrained (85.00%) respondents had medium level of decision making ability. The study further revealed that majority of the trained (64.50%) and untrained (70.00%) respondents had medium level of extent of adoption, followed by 18.00 per cent of the trained and 16.50 per cent of the untrained respondents having low level of extent of adoption of recommended tea cultivation practices. Moreover, 17.50 per cent of the trained and 13.50 per cent of the untrained respondents had high level of extent of adoption of recommended tea cultivation practices. A positive and significant relationship was found between extent of adoption and annual income, mass media exposure, extension contact, achievement motivation and scientific orientation of the trained small tea growers. On the other hand, size of operational land holding had a negative and significant relationship with the extent of adoption. A positive and significant relationship was found between extent of adoption and mass media exposure and achievement motivation of the untrained small tea growers. The two sample ‘t’ test between independent variables result revealed that there was positive and significant difference between trained and untrained small tea growers with respect to type of family, mass media exposure and extension contact. The two sample ‘t’ test between dependent variable result revealed that there was positive and significant difference between trained and untrained small tea growers with respect to extent of adoption of recommended tea cultivation practices. It has been observed that trained small tea growers were good adopter of recommended tea cultivation practices than the untrained small tea growers. The major problem faced by the small tea growers in adopting recommended cultivation practices as perceived by them were high cost of planting materials, inadequate knowledge regarding infilling, high cost of some fungicides and fertilizer, inadequate knowledge in the use of pesticides, inadequate knowledge on soil pH and its management, lack of awareness about the method of propagation and advantages of mulching, non availability of pruning machine, lack of courage in taking risk, lack of proper guidance from linkage organisations, inadequate availability of land as per the activity to be carried out, poor economic status of STGs hamper mobilization of labour, lack of knowledge about proper techniques of marketing, high rate of interest of loan/credit, lack of proper transportation facilities and adequate training for skill development.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    EVALUATION OF SMALL AND MARGINAL FARMERS’ LIVELIHOOD STRATEGIES, CHANGING TRENDS AND PREFERENCES FOR INCOME-GENERATING ACTIVITIES FOR FUTURE IN ASSAM
    (2021) Phukan, Pallabi; Barman, Utpal
    Rural livelihood in India is complex, involving multiple activities and strategies. Agriculture is an integral part of daily life on the Indian subcontinent, with 82 per cent of farmers being small. Despite occupying only 44% of arable land, small farms are the country's primary food and nutritional security providers. Even so, they lack access to markets and technology. Small and marginal families are contributing more to the national food supply and agricultural GDP; they account for more than half of the hungry and poor. Small and marginal farmers lack access to capital and inputs. This has hampered their competitiveness in both domestic and international markets. The high-value segment of the agricultural sector is expected to benefit smallholders more than cereals because it requires more labour and yields more than cereals. Assam's agriculture is a mix of peasant and tenant farming, with most farmers being marginal (62.2%) or small (20.9%). Various economic factors (e.g., fragmented land) contribute to the state's lagging agricultural sector. Small and marginal farmers earn between Rs. 35,000/- and 40,000/- per year. Many farmers in Assam lacked collateral due to a lack of proper land inheritance documentation and inadequate land (due to land fragmentation). Already Assamese farmers are reluctant to adopt farming as a source of livelihood for small and marginal farmers. Rural youth are no longer interested in farming as a source of livelihood. In reality, most farmers in Assam own less than two acres of land. Therefore, the present study has been proposed to be undertaken to find out the small and marginal farmers' livelihood options and perceived profitable agricultural activities in future; thereby, one can prepare the right strategy to strengthen the livelihood of small and marginal farmers with following objectives: 1. To assess livelihood strategies pursued by small and marginal farmers in the study area. 2. To describe changing trends of livelihood strategies among small and marginal farmers in the study area. 3. To determine the choice of income-generating activities for future livelihood strategies. 4. To identify the determinants of small and marginal farmers' choices of livelihood strategies. The respondents were initially chosen using a random sampling technique. However, due to the lockdown and pandemic situation surrounding Covid-19, the survey could not begin on time or as planned. Data collection was conducted using a flexible sampling strategy in which final respondents from the villages were randomly selected. However, during the pandemic, various international organisations such as the World Bank, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), and the International Food Policy Research Institute conducted surveys without a sampling plan. They note that it is impossible to follow a proper sampling design during pandemic situations. It surveyed a total of 300 farmers and collected data using a personal interview technique with a structured schedule. Data analysis was conducted using appropriate statistical tools. About 40.00 per cent of the respondents were under the age group 44-53 years. In the case of marital status, family type, Job card, BPL card, holding of bank account, access to market, access to credit, member of social organisation, and SHGs, there was a significant association between 2010 and 2020. As the income was increasing in 2020 as compared to 2010, but price index was 95.63%. Result of the study also evidenced that marginal farmers were more in positive trend in respect of all independent variables as compared to the small farmers. It was observed that the non-farm sector contributed more to the annual income than the farm sector. The majority (17.33%) of the respondents preferred ‘field crops+ vegetable cultivation+ piggery’ as their current livelihood strategy. Though livelihood diversification had occurred, there was no prominent/ dominant livelihood strategy, and most of them were moderately diversified. The study also asserted a significant association of education, job card, and BPL card with the extent of livelihood diversification. In the case of annual income and operational land holding, there was a significant relationship with the extent of diversification. Likewise, in changing trends of small and marginal farmers' livelihood diversification, mostly in marginal farmers, there was an increasingly positive trend concerning all independent variables. It was also noticed that livelihood diversification occurred but at an almost equal level. All the respondents (100%) wanted alternate livelihood options if they got a second chance. About 14.33 per cent of respondents preferred 'paddy+ fishery+ vegetable cultivation' as their livelihood option and ranked I. However, it was indicated from the study that the livestock sector was selected as their livelihood option, where 80.00 per cent of respondents preferred fishery as their livelihood option. Pareto chart analysis identified the determinants that were responsible for selection of fishery, vegetable cultivation, piggery, and paddy as their livelihood options. Mostly 5-6 determinants like 47 years, Rs 40,000/-, up to primary passed and up to HSLC passed, 0.01-0.04 ha, 1.00-2.00 ha, access to credit, migration, were responsible in selection livelihood option. The study discovered that land size is almost similar in both the year i.e., 2010 and 2020 and they realized that fragmented land would not increase their income. In last ten years farmers were living in a joint family to intake their land holding and making it as a livelihood strategy. Although the income was increasing but according to the price index income is less in true sense. The findings also reported that livelihood diversification had occurred but there was no prominent strategy was followed till date. The study was conducted in micro level which had identified significant outcomes and some differences in livelihood activities among marginal and small farmers were found. As a result, the research suggests that policymakers of government further would go for more micro level study would help to develop different policies for small and marginal farmers. The result asserted that most of the farmers preferred livestock sector along with the farm sector, so emphasis should be given to livestock so that it can improve the livelihood of small and marginal farmers of Assam.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    A MIXED-METHOD ANALYSIS ON EFFECTIVENESS OF INFORMATION FLOW MECHANISM AMONG THE STAKEHOLDERS OF POST T&V SYSTEM AND ATMA MODEL IN ASSAM
    (2021) Saikia, Dipanjali; Barman, Utpal
    Access to knowledge and information has become an instrumental component to society’s progress. Information utilization in agriculture has played a key role in boosting agricultural productivity and in overall progress of the farm sector. If properly utilized, information can help in improvement of the farm household economy. The sources of information utilized may however vary. The suitability of these sources utilized also varies according to their needs and the situation they are in. The Indian public agricultural extension system has been a world leader in knowledge and information dissemination. Extension workers and researchers work together to improve farmer productivity and profitability through technology transfer, it is necessary to know the information sources consulted and used by the public extension system and farmers in various situations and times to develop an effective extension system The present study was carried out in the Lakhimpur district of Assam to discover the information flow mechanism among public extension stakeholders (ATMA model and Post T&V phase). Multi-stage sampling design was followed to select farmers and other stakeholders of the ATMA model and Post T&V system; a cent percentage population was taken for the study. A set of structured schedules was used to collect data. For the analysis, the data were grouped into frequency distributions. They paired t-tests using Karl Pearson's coefficient of correlation and Fisher's exact test. The mean age of the agricultural scientists was 40.67 years and they had attained postgraduate degrees in their field. Most agricultural scientists (83.33%) had medium service experience (6-11 years). It was also found that 50.00per cent of the agricultural scientists attended two training sessions last year. The agricultural scientists can use mobile telephony, printing, typing, photocopying, projector, exhibition, computer, internet, periodicals and transportation for updating their knowledge. To transfer agricultural information, 33.33 per cent of agricultural scientists used low, medium, or high communication methods. The mean age of the extension personnel were 42.12 years. While 39.39 per cent of extension personnel had completed high school, 27.27per cent had attained education up to graduation level (agriculture), 25.76 per cent had completed post-graduation (agriculture) and only 7.58 had completed graduation (non-agriculture). It was also found that 78.79 per cent of extension workers were men, and 21.11 per cent women. Majority (81.82%) of extension workers were from rural areas. Majority of (65.15%) of extension personnel had a medium aspirational level and 96.97per cent had a medium service length. The study also revealed that last year, 54.54 per cent of extension personnel received medium training, in comparison, 22.73 per cent received low and 22.73 per cent received high training. 86.36 per cent of extension personnel had medium level facilities to transfer agricultural technologies, while 13.64 per cent had high-level facilities. The study also revealed that of all extension personnel, 72.73 per cent used medium communication methods, 16.67 per cent used low communication methods, and 10.60 per cent used high communication methods to transfer information. The average age of farmers was 43.43 years old, with 49.05 per cent of them having attained secondary education. 87.04 per cent of the farmers were men. Farmers owned an average land holding of 1.137 ha. About 90 per cent of farmers had a medium annual income. It was also found that 77.73 per cent of farmers were members of one-single organisation. The majority of farmers were cosmopolite, and 61.54 per cent can be categorized as innovative. 68.42per cent of farmers preferred medium risk, 62.75 per cent of farmers preferred medium media exposure and 71.66 per cent of farmers preferred medium scientific orientation. The marketing personnel had an average age of 43.36 years and 45.46 per cent had graduated from college, followed by graduate school (36.36%) and high school (18.18%). It was observed that 100per cent of marketing personnel were men from rural backgrounds. They had an average service experience of 10.27 years and majority (54.55%) of them received no training last year. The majority of marketing personnel (55.54 %) belonged to one organization. The linkage effectiveness between research and extension was found to be71.97per cent, and that of between research and farmers was at 51.97 per cent. While the linkage effectiveness between extension and farmers was found to be higher (79.43%), no linkage could be found between extension and market. In the ATMA model the linkage between farmers and market the linkage effectiveness score was 14.53 per cent, in the Post T&V system, linkage between research and extension, the linkage effectiveness score was 53.83 per cent, linkage between research (KVK Scientist) and farmers, the linkage effectiveness score was 51.91 per cent, the linkage between research (KVK Scientist) and market, the linkage effectiveness score was nil (0.00%), the linkage between extension and farmers, the linkage effectiveness score was 64.32 per cent, the linkage between extension and market, the linkage effectiveness score was 8.40 per cent and the linkage between farmers and market, the linkage effectiveness score was 14.53 per cent. The study also found no significant differences in the linkage effectiveness mean score between the two systems. The study found that 63.64 per cent of agricultural scientists used agricultural information sources only moderately. The study also revealed that textbooks and the internet were more commonly used than other information sources. Majority (69.70%) of extension personnel used agricultural information sources moderately. Among the most common personal information sources used by the extension personnel were colleagues, followed by mobile phones, senior extension officers, agricultural scientists, friends, progressive farmers, farmers committee and local leaders. Training was the most frequently used source of agricultural information for extension personnel, followed by group discussion, meeting, and tour. Agricultural literature was the most frequently used source of information by extension personnel. Majority (70.04%) of farmers also were found to be using agricultural information sources moderately. Progressive farmers were the most frequently used informal source of information for them, followed by neighbours, family members, friends/relatives and local leaders. The most useful source of formal agricultural information sources to farmers were ATMA personnel, followed by ADO, AEA, KVK, input dealers and marketing officials. The majority of farmers were found to be using the internet, followed by mobile phones, TV, newspaper, radio, agricultural literature and demonstrations for information. Among all the agricultural information sources available to marketing people, the most commonly used sources were internal, salesman, and internet, followed by colleagues, periodicals, dealers, newspaper, published market surveys, Govt. publications & reports and senior management. Extension personnel's education, training, and facilities correlated positively with agricultural information source usage. Age and total service time had a negative and significant relationship. An age profile variable accounted for 49.2 per cent of the variance in agricultural information source utilisation patterns. The agricultural information source utilisation pattern of farmers positively correlated with their profile variables education, social participation, innovativeness, media exposure, and scientific orientation, and age. This equation explains 53.8 per cent of the variation in farmers' use of agricultural information sources. The study also found a link between marketing personnel’s agricultural information sources and their profile variables - education, training received last year, and social participation. The study also revealed respondents’ views on the effectiveness of the system ATMA model and the Post T&V system. The main findings were that both the public extension system ATMA and the Post T&V system have an information flow gap. The study suggested that it is the right time to amalgamated ATMA with a post-T&V system by incorporating positive aspects of both.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    A STUDY ON FARMERS’ PERSPECTIVE TOWARDS AGRICULTURE IN THE LAST FIVE DECADES IN THE STATE OF ASSAM
    (2021) Baruah, Bhargab; Kalita, Hemanga Kr.
    A lack of approach towards agricultural activities can be observed in the rural areas of Assam despite having economic crisis at the household level. While the notion of disenchantment of farmers towards the profession and the likelihood of many farmers willing to leave agriculture has caught steam in the country, considering how important agriculture is to the lives and livelihood of rural population in Assam the present study was taken up to develop insights into the reasons behind decline in preference of the farmers in Assam to continue performing agriculture as their primary livelihood activity. This study proposes that farmers’ psychologically constituted attitude, values and goals towards life domains shall help us understand the foundational basis of preferences and choices of farmers to engage in agriculture as a profession and for fulfillment lifestyle goals under changed circumstances to perform agriculture as a livelihood. The present study was conducted in five districts across Assam, viz., Jorhat, Morigaon, Barpeta, North Lakhimpur, and Cachar. Data was mainly collected through personal interview channels, and employing psychometric assessment techniques - Likert-scale and Q-methodology. Multi-stage purposive and random sampling techniques was used to draw out a sample of 400 respondents proportionately from three stratums based on age categories. A purposively drawn sub-sample of respondents was used for Q-study. Cluster analysis and factor analysis were used for interpretation of the data. Other appropriate analytical tools were also used for analysis of data. The study revealed that although food production was simply seen as a means to meet a minimum level of subsistence through collective action of family members during phase 1, the farmers did not face economic crisis at household level. Farming was more about maintenance of traditional rural/agricultural values, than economic rationality and modern technological innovations had very little importance in farming. Farming was mainly constrained by damage due to floods, lack of policies to safeguard farm household economy against crop loss and access to for credit channels. While there was shift in preferences among expanders, contended believers and potential escapees during phase 2 to utilize their farm holdings for earning a real income from farming most others preferred to farm at subsistence level. Family remained central to the management of farms and farmers drew comfort from being part of his private social world, while many started to see farmers being viewed as inferior section of the society. Farmers became aware that the resources that were accessible and affordable to them would not be enough for a settled life in farming. Farmers were unhappy with the prices of farm produce and the smaller farmers felt that they were relegated to poorer section of the society. Although there was increase in use of modern technologies in farming, the quality planting materials were costly and the situation in marketing did not allow farmers to get a remunerative price. Access to irrigation and credit was also limited. Role of extension was passive and improvements in mechanization was not achieved. Damage to crops due to floods remained a primary concern for the farmers. Economic rationality in food production took over the idealistic values of being a farmer embedded in the traditionalist rural/agricultural culture during phase 3. Leaving aside the potential escapees, it appeared that the others view their farm household enterprise to be of considerable importance for their livelihood, although their livelihood strategies differed. For the expanders maintenance of traditional and cultural values in farming and opportunity of self-expression in farming occupation was as important as economic rationality in farming. They enjoyed better wellbeing and status and saw prospects of expansion of their farm business. Otherwise oriented towards commercial cultivation, some of the contended believers have been quite selective in making changes to their farming systems during phase 3. Although some contended conservators prefer to be commercially oriented, for most of them food production at subsistence or semi-subsistence level seems quite the preferable choice. Being oriented towards farming at subsistence level, the continuing bottomliners believed that farming must be carried out with collective action of family members. The symbolic status of owning agricultural land and performance of work tasks, preserving their lands for the future generation and working hard in the land to grow a good crop no longer ensures economic rewards in farming. Change in the institutional life-world within which the farmers are embedded, threatened the traditional values in farming and forced the farmers to question their self-worth. Unsatisfactory performance of extension service, credit and insurance, non-existence of storage facilities, intuitional support in marketing constrained progress of farmers. Irrigation and mechanization improved, while modern quality inputs were easily available. The growth in non-farm employment, within and outside rural areas, made family farming more attractive. While only 8.95 per cent farm households reported to have off-farm source of livelihood during phase 1, 72.50 per cent of households indicated that they had off-farm sources of income during phase 3. While potential escapees had at least one off-farm source of income during phase 3, the contended believers less frequently had an off-farm source of income in their household (56.25%). While 93.68 per cent farmers reported that they were highly dependent on agriculture for livelihood during phase 1, only 49.75 per cent reported that their dependence on agriculture was high during phase 3. While majority of potential escapees (69.64%) reported to have very low dependence on agriculture; majority of expanders (67.05%) and contended believers (65.18%) reported that they were highly dependent on agriculture during phase 3. Although there are fewer households in phase 3 that get their principal income from cultivation than in phase 1 and phase 2, majority of farmers (68.75%) still get their principal income from cultivation. Other off-farm enterprises (10.25%) was the most utilized form of employment for principal income by the farmers during phase 3 next to cultivation, followed by salaried employment (9.50%), and other wage employment (7.5%). Other off-farm enterprises (37.50%), salaried income (25%), and other wage employment (21.42%) were the most prominent principal sources of income for the potential escapees. Only as few as 5.50 per cent of the farmers reported that they were dependent on single source of income for livelihood during phase 3. As many as 38.50 per cent of farmers reported that they depended on three sources of income, while another 16.50 per cent farmers depended on four or more sources of income during phase 3. Other sources category of income was frequently utilized by the expanders, potential escapees and contended believers. Salaried income was an important source of income for potential escapees, expanders and contended believers. The contended conservators can be frequently found to be either a wage labour in nonfarm or operating a petty business while the continuing bottomliners are more likely to be involved in wage labour - nonfarm or in blue collar jobs.