ThesisItem Open AccessQualitative assessment of okra seed based on capsule position(Seed Science and Technology, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, Nadia – 741252, 2023-12-21) Roy Pappu; Dr. Prabir ChakrabortiOkra is an important vegetable crops, belongs to family Malvaceae that is extensively grown throughout the world in tropical, subtropical, and warm temperate climates. It is a good source of fiber, vitamins C and K, and minerals such as potassium and magnesium. Okra plants produce multiple capsules either on main stem or side branch. It was reported that a smaller number of capsule was produced when grown for seed production purpose than in case of vegetable purpose. The size, shape, and texture of the seed are significantly influenced by the location of the capsule on stem and branches. The seed quality in capsule produced on main stem and side branches are also determined by various factors, including genetics, environmental conditions, and cultural practices. In the present experiment manipulating the position and number of capsule produced on main stem and side branches was a practiced through termination of apical growth by de-topping operation at ten days after first flowering. The field experiment was conducted during post kharif 2022 at C-Block Research Farm, Kalyani (Nadia) in West Bengal by considering eight genotype, two plant type (Normal and De-topped plant) and also two branching conditions. (Main stem and Side Branch) following factorial randomized block design (RBD). Evaluation of phenological characters revealed that the T1 (normal plant) was prominent in most of the cases though T2 (de-topped plant) was prominent in capsule weight in addition to capsule number and 1000 seed weight. Similar to this, capsule demonstrated a notable impact of detopping on its capsule weight, capsule wall weight, and capsule number. Branching conditions revealed superiority of main branch (B1) in most of the cases though B2 (side branch) was prominent in days to flowering, capsule length, and capsule volume. Among the genotype, V4 was prominent for seed and capsule weight, V7 was dominant on capsule and seed number. Other promising genotypes included V8, V3, and others when taking into account various elements including plant type (T1/T2) and branching position (B1/B2). Although there was a non- significant delineation in the seed yield per plant, the interacted values revealed significant results in the majority of the cases. Physiological performances of seed revealed the superiority in T2 (de-topped plant) with an exception in germination and speed of germination. The vigour of the produced seed in de-topped plants was prominent in the final results (vigour index-I and vigour index-ii), where T2 (de-topped plant) was the best considering its capsule position on B1 (main stem). The biochemical parameters that took into account their activity was examined, and T2 (the de-topped plant) and main stem (B1) came out on top for soluble protein peroxidase and alpha amylase. Based on present findings, it is to conclude that de-topping at the proper time may leads to more growth of lateral branches, which results in improved photosynthetic efficiency and a positive impact on reproductive growth, which in turn improves seed yield and quality. ThesisItem Open AccessSeed invigoration treatment with hormonal priming for improvement of quality seed production of rice(Seed Science and Technology, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, Nadia – 741252, 2023-12-21) Dandapat Swapnadip; Dr. Sanjoy Kumar BordoluiMore than 60% of the world's population eats rice as staple food, making it both the most significant food in terms of human nutrition and calorie consumption. Poor field germination capacity, imminent water constraints, rising labour expenses and the continuously growing world population force us to make a better decision in order to ease the food crisis and increase rice output. For increasing seed vigour, synchronising germination, fostering the growth of seedlings, and increasing yield in a variety of crops, seed priming is an effective and useful technique (Bajehbaj et al., 2010). Pre-soaking seeds before planting encourages quick germination and growth, especially under difficult environmental circumstances. Indole acetic acid (IAA), gibberellic acid (GA3), and ascorbic acid priming, according to certain research, increases germination rate, plant growth, early growth, grain quantity and quality, and grain quality (Anosheh et al., 2011). The research programme was formulated with seven priming materials on under both laboratory and field condition; also observed the deterioration pattern during storage with objectives: 1. optimizing the appropriate concentration of GA3and Kinetin for better performance with special reference to quality seed production. 2. Assessment of the effect of GA3and Kinetin on growth, development and yield attributing characters of rice. 3. Identification of proper seed storage condition(s) for maintenance of high seed vigour andviability of rice. Keeping these points in view, the present study was carried out with seven priming materials. Distinct findings were noted like germination parameters, different vigour, seedling parameters, yield and yield attributing characters. For storage experiment, packaging materials were Cloth bag, Cloth bag in desiccator, Aluminium foil, refrigerator, earthen pot, Brown paper packet, polythene packet (700 Gauge) and the finding were noted like germination parameters, different vigour, seedling parameters. Seed invigoration with50 ppm GA3 was found very effective for seed germination, vigour, seedling parameters, yield and yield attributing characters. So, from the pre-sowing and field experiment, it was superior executant hormonal priming as it enhanced seed yield and most of the prime attributes. For storage experiment it was observed that germination percentage decreasing with increasing storage period. Prescribed germination (80%) of rice was maintained for all the storage containers and condition upto six months; after that they were not maintaining minimum seed certification standard. As a result, it may not be advised to store rice seeds for longer than six months in all containers. When germination potential and vigour index are combined, it suggests that rice seed storage inside a refrigerator, or in polythene (700 gauge) and or in aluminium foil packets, may be advised because these storing materials preserved the rice's higher quality for up to nine months. In water and vapour permeable storing materials viz. cloth bag and brown paper packet quality o seed deteriorate quickly as seed moisture increasing with increasing storage period. ThesisItem Open AccessImpact of Gibberellic Acid on Seed Yield and Quality of Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.)(Seed Science and Technology, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, Nadia – 741252, 2023-12-21) Adhikary Poulamee; Dr. Amitava DuttaSesame (Sesamum indicum L) being an important oil seed crop, proper knowledge of genotypes, their management through foliar application of plant hormone is important for proper growth, seed yield and seed quality improvement. The present investigation was carried out to assess growth pattern, seed yield and yield attributing characters through application of GA3. Deterioration of seed quality during storage condition is another aspect so that seed quality can be maintained up to next season of sowing. The present research work comprised both field and laboratory components comprising four released varieties of sesame namely Rama, Savitri, Suprava and Tilottoma. The field experiment was conducted in summer season 2022 at Jaguli Instructional Farm, Mohanpur, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya. The laboratory experiment was conducted in the department of Seed Science and Technology, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidylaya, Mohanpur, Nadia. Observations on storage potential of produced seeds of four varieties in different containers were recorded at 3 months interval up to next year of sowing. Statistical analysis was done with the help of ̒OPSTAT̕ software programme. The major and important findings of the present study are summarized according to the objectives of the programme There was significant variation for days to first flowering, days to 50% flowering and days to100 % flowering for all the varieties. Among the four varieties Tilottoma had early days to maturity followed by Rama. Among the treatments, T7 (control) had influence of early maturity followed by T1 (GA3 @ 50 ppm). The treatments had variable effects on different characters of flowering and maturity. Capsule length, capsule width and fresh weight are important characteristics which lead to higher seed yield. Maximum capsule length was recorded by Rama followed by Tilottoma and Rama had maximum capsule width followed by Savitri. Among the four varieties Savitri produced maximum seed yield (kg/ha) may be due to higher number of seed capsule-1 and in order to assess the growth pattern due to application of GA3, it was observed that Tilottoma attained least plant height at the time of maturity and Rama followed by Suprava attained maximum plant height. Savitri, Suprava and Tilottoma showed significant effect due to application of GA3 for the character number of capsule plant-1 at different growth stages. Pattern of seed deterioration under storage condition revealed that desiccators had least influenced for degradation of seed quality while cloth bag had maximum effect for deterioration of seed quality. thousand seed weight. After critical consideration of the findings of present research work it may be inferred that GA3 @ 400-500 ppm may be applied between 30-45 days after sowing for improving seed yield and the variety Savitri was highly influenced due to application of this plant hormone. For safe storage of seeds desiccator followed by earthen pot may be used to maintain the seed quality. ThesisItem Open AccessEffect of Pinching and Foliar nutrition on Growth, Yield and Seed quality parameters of Rapeseed-Mustard(Seed Science and Technology, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, Nadia – 741252, 2023-12-21) Samanta Srijan; Dr. Amitava DuttaOilseed crops play a crucial role in the global agricultural landscape. Among these, rapeseed (Brassica rapa var. yellow sarson) and mustard (Brassica juncea) emerge as the third-most significant edible oilseed crops, cultivated in approximately 53 countries worldwide. India, as the world's fourth-largest producer, contributes substantially to the cultivation of rapeseed and mustard, occupying 28.3% of global acreage and contributing 12.97% to global production. In India, rapeseed and mustard are mainly grown during the winter. In eastern India, mainly in West Bengal and its neighbouring states, where winter is relatively short and moderate, farmers favour rapeseed and mustard since these crops can be grown with one or two critical irrigations, but the potential yield of this crop has not been achieved. Suboptimal yield in this state can be attributed to various factors, with late sowing and insufficient fertilizer utilization emerging as the primary contributors. These factors result in stunted plant growth, forced early maturity, and reduced dry matter accumulation. Excessive fertilizer use during top-dressing also exacerbates the issue, negatively impacting the ecosystem. Several techniques have been attempted so far, but the foliar application of nutrients appears to be more effective. It enhances seed quality and yield efficiency even under less favourable climatic conditions. Pinching is another technique that helps to increase branch formation, and flower production, which ultimately helps the plant's overall growth and enhances yield. In light of this, the present experiment was carried out to assess the practicality of foliar nano-urea and boron, along with pinching, at Jaguli Instructional Farm, Mohanpur, BCKV, Nadia, West Bengal, during the rabi season of 2022-2023 as per split-plot design, accounting for two main plot factors, viz., with pinching (P1), without pinching (P0), and five sub-plot factors, viz., T1: 50% N and 100% P2O5, K2O at basal + 2 ml L-1 nano urea; T2: 50% N &100% P2O5, K2O at basal + 4 ml L-1 nano urea; T3: 50% N &100% P2O5, K2O at basal + 6 ml L-1 nano urea; T4: 50% N and 100% P2O5, K2O at basal + 4 ml L-1 nano urea and 0.1% boron; T5, Control(50% N and 100% P2O5, K2O at basal). Nano urea and Boron were applied twice at 30 and 45 DAS. Two varieties, one each of rapeseed and mustard, namely, Anushka and TBM-143, were considered for this experiment. Additionally, a laboratory study using a completely randomized design, studied the storage potentiality of rapeseed seeds in seed Testing Laboratory of Department of seed Science and Technology, BCKV, Nadia, West Bengal. The results showed that the application of boron encouraged early flowering, whereas the application of nano urea lengthened the reproductive period in both varieties. Among the treatments, T4 and T2 surpassed all other treatments, although they were noted as statistically at par for most of the physiological and yield-defining characters. However, boron plays a significant role in the yield enhancement of TBM-143. During the assessment of storage potentiality, it was noted that harvested seeds stored in 700-gauge polythene packets and desiccators registered minimum deterioration over other storage containers, whereas seeds stored in cloth bags deteriorated the most. Therefore, it can be concluded that pinching profoundly influences the morphological attributes of rapeseed and mustard but has little to no effect on the majority of physiological characters and yield-attributing traits. Regarding treatments, plant biometry is positively impacted by treatments T2 and T3, while the majority of the parameters, including plant phenology, physiological features, yield, and yield-defining attributes, are significantly influenced by T2 and T4. In storage, initial seed quality can be safeguarded for up to six months using a desiccator and 700-gauge polythene packet. Overall, the application of nano urea @ 4ml L-1 coupled with 0.1% boron at the initial growth stage, twice with an interval of 15 days, can be deemed the most effective, irrespective of varieties. However, before making recommendations to farmers, repeated trials in different agro-climatic zones as well as an estimation of cost-effectiveness are required for confirmation. ThesisItem Open AccessInfluence of Osmopriming in Quality Seed Production of Rice (Oryza sativa L.)(Seed Science and Technology, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, Nadia – 741252, 2023-12-21) Paul Amit; Dr. Sanjoy Kumar BordoluiRice is the most widely produced cereal crop in the world and accounts for 45-70% of the total calorie intake in many rice consuming countries. It is essential to enhance rice production in order to fulfil rising food needs and ensure a sufficient supply of food for the growing population. But poor seed germination leads to poor field establishment which ultimately results in less yield. Osmopriming is a process for priming seeds that is intended to enhance their functionality and quality. A study was conducted during the pre-kharif season of 2022 at the C block In-check farm, Kalyani, Nadia, West Bengal to assess the effect of osmopriming on seed production of rice using a rice variety named Bidhan Suruchi (IET- 25701). The treatments for the experiment were T1= Distilled water, T2 = 15% Polyethylene glycol (PEG), T3 = 20% Polyethylene glycol (PEG), T4 = 25% Polyethylene glycol (PEG), T5 = 1% KH2PO4, T6 = 2% KH2PO4, T7 = 3% KH2PO4. Different observations were recorded like germination percentage, germination index, 50% germination time, mean germination time, germination energy, vigour index-I, fresh weight of seedling, dry weight of seedling, vigour index-II, Plant height, Days to 50 percent flowering, total number of tillers hill-1, effective number of tillers hill-1, panicle length, total number of grains panicle-1, filled grains panicle-1, test weight and seed yield. For storage different storing containers and conditions were, S1 = Cloth bag in desiccator, S2 = Aluminium foil packet, S3 = Brown Paper packet, S4 = Earthen pot, S5 = 700-gauge polythene packet, S6 = Cloth bag, S7 = Polythene packet in refrigerator and the parameters were noted like germination percentage, germination index, 50% germination time, mean germination time, germination energy, vigour index-I, fresh weight of seedling, dry weight of seedling and vigour index-II. On the basis of inspection recorded on different components of the present experiment, findings may be explained in brief as: germination percentage (92.91), germination index (49.61), germination energy (91.58%), vigour index I (2073.84), vigour index II (770.80), yield attributing characters like number of effective tillers hill-1 (13.36), number of filled grains panicle-1 (168.66) and seed yield (687.73 g m-2) were recorded highest after seed primed in 2% KH2PO4 (T6). So, it could be considered as the best-performing priming material. KH2PO4 has a significant role in the operation of various physiological processes, enzyme activity, and nutritional accessibility, all of which improve seed vigour, germination, and seed yield. Similar to seed yield and its characteristics, 2% KH2PO4 has been found to positively affect plant growth and development, which may lead to the recommendation of 2% KH2PO4 seed priming for commercial rice production. On the other hand, a study was conducted to observe the trend in rice seed deterioration when seeds were stored in various packaging materials and kept in ambient conditions alongside refrigerated conditions. Germination percentage declined with increasing storage duration. All storage containers and conditions maintained the required germination (80%) upto nine months of storage. However, certain containers and storage conditions only manage to maintain germination slightly more than 80% at nine months of storage, and there is a chance that lengthening the storage period in those containers would result in a reduction in germination percentage from MSCS. Though when germination potential and vigour index are taken into account together, it is found that seeds can be stored for up to nine months and longer (i.e., for long-term storage) in a refrigerator, desiccator, 700-gauge polythene packet and an aluminium foil packet because they maintained their higher quality over the course of storage. Seed storage with other containers like brown paper packet and cloth bag, leads to faster deterioration of seed quality as they are water and vapour permeable containers. ThesisItem Open AccessMapping of Surface Water Resources of the Coastal Blocks of Indian Sundarbans Using Optical Remote Sensing(Department of Agricultural Meteorology and Physics, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, Nadia-741252, 2023) Sarkar, Sreya; Dr. Manoj Kumar NandaThe Sundarbans is the largest continuous mangrove forest in the world, situated within the world's largest delta, formed by the Ganges- Brahmaputra-Meghna rivers. The unique geographic location along the coast of the Bay of Bengal renders the Sundarbans highly vulnerable from both biodiversity and climatological perspectives. About 4.43 million of people are settled in Sundarbans with agriculture and fishery as their main sources of livelihood. A part of the population depends on forest resources mainly for collection of honey. Crop production in the Sundarbans is challenging due to salinity build up in dry season and the scarcity of quality water for irrigation. Hence, surface water mapping through remote sensing is important for crop planning during pre- and post-monsoon seasons. Keeping this in view a study was carried out in 19 coastal blocks of Indian Sundarbans to analyse the seasonality of rainfall, to assess the spatiotemporal trend of seasonal water surfaces using Sentinel-2 satellite imageries and to find the possible linkage of satellite derived vegetation status with rainfall and surface water resources of coastal blocks of Indian Sundarbans. The investigation was carried out for last five years (2017 to 2022) using optical remote sensing data of Sentinel-2 and the open-source data products in the cloud computing platform of Google Earth Engine (GEE). The CHIRPS (Climate Hazards Group Infrared Precipitation with Station) rainfall data showed that the highest monsoon rainfall occurred in 2021-2022, whereas highest preand post-monsoon rainfall occurred in the year 2017-18. Both 2018-19 and 2020-21 experienced a lower amount of rain during this period. The extent of seasonal surface water coverage estimated by Modified Normalized Difference Water Index (MNDWI) with appropriate threshold (> 0.01) from seasonal median composite of Sentinel-2 imagery for the period from December to May, each year of the study period revealed that in North 24 Parganas the seasonal surface water extent was maximum in Minakhan block throughout the study period followed by Sandeshkhali-1. The minimum was found in Hingalganj block. Most of the blocks showed an increasing trend during last five years. The maximum permanent water surface area was in Sandeshkhali-1 (699 ha) followed by Minakhan (5686 ha). The Hingalganj block contains the minimum permanent water areas. In South 24 Parganas, Canning-2 contained the maximum extent of seasonal surface water while the lowest seasonal surface water area found in Jaynagr-1. The maximum and minimum permanent water surface area was found in Canning-2 and Jaynagar-1 blocks respectively. The trend vegetation status of the coastal Sundarbans blocks was analyzed using seasonal median composite of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) derived from Sentinel-2 imageries. The post-monsoon NDVI had strong relation with both monsoon and post-monsoon (winter) rainfall season. On the other hand, the summer NDVI has very strong relationship with summer rainfall whereas the winter and monsoon rain did not have any impact on summer NDVI. The present study demonstrated the capability of CHRIPS data and cloud computing platform, Google Earth Engine (GEE) to analyze the seasonality and spatial distribution of rainfall in the coastal blocks of Indian Sundarbans. The study also demonstrated the efficiency of conditional thresholding technique with Modified Normalized Difference Water Indices (MVDWI) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in accurately delineating the waterbodies.