ThesisItem EmbargoCharacterization, formulation and quality evaluation of high fibre and antioxidant rich health foods(CSK HPKV, Palampur, 2023-03-16) Upadhya, Somyarki; Verma, RanjanaHealth foods are considered as treasure of nutrition. Present research investigation was undertaken with the aim of characterization, formulation and quality evaluation of high fibre and antioxidant rich health foods. Chia and quinoa seeds were selected for the study. Physio-chemical and functional properties of raw seeds were observed. In order to achieve an optimal balance of enhanced antioxidative and functional properties, and lower antinutritional factors which are present in these seeds and for better utilization, the seeds were subjected to various processing treatments (roasting, soaking and germination). The effect of the aforesaid treatments was observed on the proximate, total dietary fibre, minerals and antioxidative (bioactive compounds and antioxidant activities) characteristics. Processed seeds exhibited increased crude fat, crude protein, crude fibre and reduced total ash and carbohydrates levels. Germination and soaking improved the total dietary fibre content. All the processes improved the levels of bioactive compounds, and therefore the antioxidant activities were also enhanced. The mineral content in raw seeds was found to be higher which reduced during processing except for zinc which increased significantly in chia seeds. Raw and processed seeds were used in the preparation of products, namely cookies and ladoos with different formulations. Sensory evaluation revealed the optimum combination ratios of seeds for both the products which were comparably acceptable with respect to control. The developed value-added products resulted in significant increase in the nutrient content, bioactive compounds, antioxidant potential. Storage stability revealed the cookies and ladoos can be stored safely in HDPE pouches and box up to 90 and 30 days respectively at ambient temperature without much change in the nutrition and sensory characteristics. Therefore, it was concluded that raw and processed chia and quinoa seeds could be utilized as potential ingredients for preparation of value-added products. ThesisItem EmbargoMolecular diversity analysis and genetics of some morpho physiological and biochemical traits associated with moisture-stress tolerance in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)(CSK HPKV, Palampur, 2023-03-25) Anubhav, Shubhanshu; Rana, VijayThe present investigation entitled ‘Molecular diversity analysis and genetics of some morpho-physiological and biochemical traits associated with moisture-stress-tolerance in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)’ was conducted to identify morpho-physiological and biochemical traits associated with moisture-stress tolerance and analyze genetic diversity at morphological and molecular level. Experimental material for diversity studies comprised of 56 genetically diverse wheat genotypes; including some high yielding, drought tolerant lines, synthetics, local collections, recombinant inbred lines of a drought tolerant cultivar C 306. Experimental lines were evaluated for different traits in alpha-RBD design with three replications under irrigated (E1) and moisture-stress (E2) field conditions during Rabi 2017-18. A modified TTC analysis comprising 48 progenies; 16 lines and 3 testers was conducted under controlled irrigated (E1) and moisture-stress (E2) conditions during Rabi 2018-19. Significant genetic variability was observed for days to 50% flowering, flag leaf area (FLA), specific leaf area (SLA), specific leaf weight (SLW), relative water content (RWC), grain growth rate I (GGR-I), grain growth rate II (GGR-II), stem reserve mobilisation (SRM), tillers/ plant, grains/ spike, 1000-grain weight, biological yield/ plant, dry matter accumulation (DMA), grain yield/ plant, harvest index and proline content. High phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV) and genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV) along with high heritability and moderate genetic advance were recorded for proline content under E1 and E2. Grain yield/plant showed significant positive correlation with tillers/plant, 1000-grain weight, biological yield/plant, DMA and harvest index. Biological yield/ plant and harvest index appeared to be the best selection indices for increasing grain yield owing to high direct and indirect effects of these traits in path analysis. Under E1 first six principal components revealed 72.40 % and under E2 first five components explained 71.6 % of total variability. Variation for proline content contributed the maximum to the observed genetic divergence under both conditions. Congruence between morpho-phyiological and SSR data was observed under both the environments. Forty-six out of 56 test genotypes were common among molecular and morphological clusters under moisture-stress, whereas 39 genotypes were common under irrigated conditions. Genotypes SYN 105, IC 36737, HS 562, IC 594376 and VL 907 under irrigated conditions and genotypes viz. IC 322025, HS 490, VHC 6081, VHC 6127, SYN 103, VL 892, VHC 6413, C 306, VL 907, HPW 236 and SYN 117 under moisture-stress conditions were most diverse. STRUCTURE divided the experimental lines into two major populations. Modified TTC analysis was used to detect epistasis and estimates of additive and dominance components of variance for observed phenotypes, which indicated that mean squares due to epistasis were significant for all the traits except SLW and relative water content under irrigated conditions (E1) and FLA under (E2). Additive × Additive (i) type interactions were significant for GGR-I and tillers/ plant under E1 and E2 conditions while j+l type interactions were significant for all the traits except SLW and RWC under irrigated conditions (E1) and RWC under E2. The average degree of dominance (H/D)1/2 revealed similar gene action for 1000-grain weight and GGR-II under both E1 and E2. The comparison of estimates of genetic parameters using Line × Tester and Triple test cross indicated the role of overdominance in genetic control of traits namely, grains/spike, grain growth rate I and proline content under both the environments E1 and E2. Combining ability analysis revealed VHC 6413, HS 562, NIAW 1415, WH 1105 as good general combiners for FLA, GGR- II, grains/ spike, 1000-grain weight; Syntehtic 107 and NIAW 1415 for SRM; VHC 6081 and VHC 6127 for tillers/plant; HS 490,VHC 6127 and HS 507 for DMA; VHC 6127, HS 490, NIAW 1415 and NI 5439 for grain yield/plant; HS 562 and Synthetic 107 for harvest index; HS 507, Synthetic 107, Synthetic 112 and NIAW 1415 for proline content under both E1 and E2. HPW 89 x VL 907 recorded positive significant SCA effects for GGR- II; HPW 349 × VL 907 and HS 562 × HPW 368 for stem reserve mobilisation and VHC 6127 × HPW 368 for grains/spike and dry matter accumulation. These crosses were found promising and could be utilized for developing high yielding drought tolerant lines. ThesisItem EmbargoEvaluation of the effect of feeding different animal protein sources on the biological performance of broilers(CSK HPKV, Palampur, 2023-03-13) Gupta, Shreya; Sharma, ArunA study was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding different animal protein sources viz. fish meal, meat bone meal and earthworm meal in the broiler diet under complete randomized block design. Day old broiler chicks (n=180) of vencobb-400 strain were divided into four treatment groups T0, T1, T2 and T3 which were further divided into three replicates with 15 chicks in each. All the birds were fed isonitrogenous and isocaloric standard diet. The birds in control group T0 was offered with standard poultry diet maize soy flake-based ration, T1 offered standard diet with inclusion of 5% fish meal, T2 offered standard diet with inclusion of 5% meat bone meal and T3 offered standard diet with inclusion of 5% earthworm meal. The result obtained from the study revealed that animal protein source supplementation with 5% earthworm meal significantly (P<0.05) enhanced the growth, feed intake, feed gain ratio and nutrient utilization, during both starter and finisher phase. In pre starter phase, supplementation of 5% meat bone meal significantly (P<0.05) enhanced the growth, feed intake and improved the feed gain ratio. Overall, supplementation of 5% earthworm meal exhibited higher live weight gain and better feed gain ratio. Highest dressing percentage, increased breast yield and low abdominal fat was recorded with improved organoleptic factors viz. flavour and juiciness of the meat. Hb and RBC values among blood parameters were significantly (P<0.05) higher in T3 group while other haematological parameters did not exhibit any significant differences. Increased phosphorus and calcium concentration were recorded with 5% earthworm supplementation in diet. Among biochemical parameters, significant difference (P<0.05) in protein and globulin concentrations were recorded, while plasma cholesterol and uric acid concentrations were significantly low (P<0.05) with 5% earthworm supplemented T3 treatment. Increased diameter of tibial bone positively influencing the thickness of tibial bone was observed in 5% earthworm supplemented treatment. Overall economic analysis revealed that broilers supplemented with 5% earthworm meal exhibited 25.30% higher gross profit as compared to the control as well as other treatment supplemented with fish meal and meat bone meal in terms of the body weight gain and feed efficiency. ThesisItem EmbargoStructure of farm credit in Himachal Pradesh and role in agricultural development(CSK HPKV, Palampur, 2023-03-21) Mehta, Kanika; Thakur, Rajesh KumarCredit plays a vital role in capitalizing the farmers to enhance farm productivity by increasing investment in quality inputs and efficient technologies. With the commercialization and modernization of agricultural practices, the credit needs in Himachal Pradesh are increasing. Therefore, the present study was conducted to comprehend the trends in the allocation of agricultural credit, extent of financial inclusion and its impact on farm investment, productivity and income levels of the farmers in Himachal Pradesh. Two-stage random sampling design was used to select two blocks from each district in the first stage and a total sample of 200 loanee farmers in the second stage of sampling by proportional allocation method. The farmers were then classified into small (n=109) and large (n=91) categories based on the total land holding size. Both primary and secondary data were collected in accordance with the objectives of the study. The state's dependency on Regional Rural Banks (RRBs) and co operative banks for agricultural credit disbursement (through bank branch network position and ATMs) was high, particularly in rural areas. However, over the years, growth in these rural financial institutions was substantially lower than in the private sector banks. The amount sanctioned for the agricultural term loan, agricultural infrastructure and agricultural ancillary activities had declined over the years and was considerably lower (21.53%) than the short-term crop loan (78.47%). The overall PCA score of the Financial Inclusion Index was 0.41, reflecting a medium-level of financial inclusion in the study area. The geographical penetration, affordability, usage, financial literacy and quality of financial products and services provided by formal institutions were in the medium range of PCA scores. However, the accessibility and ease components of the Financial Inclusion Index were observed at a lower range of PCA scores in the study area. The cultivated land on overall farms was significantly increased by 1.12 per cent due to the diversion of credit towards the increase in leased-in land holdings (4.49%) in the study area. The financial aid led to a significant shift from cereal and fodder crops to vegetable cultivation. The use of hybrid seeds, fertilizers, pesticides and hired labour increased after the financial aid. Due to this, the total cost of cultivation (Cost C3 ) for all the Kharif and Rabi season crops was substantially increased. The increase in the use of quality inputs led to an increase in the productivity levels of all the major crops in the study area. The gross farm income on overall farms was significantly increased by about 40 per cent after availing the farm credit. The income from vegetable cultivation increased by the highest proportion on both the small and large farms, constituting an overall increase of 73.74 per cent. The scale of the amount sanctioned to the sample farms varied positively with the land holding size, while the repayment of credit was lower on small farms than the large farms. Most sample farmers attained credit from the scheduled banks through KCC, followed by the private moneylenders and Primary Agricultural Credit Societies (PACS). With the increase in the size of cultivated land holdings and dependency on agriculture as the primary source of income, the probability of credit acquisition from private moneylenders increased on sample farms. The asset status and the gross farm income of the farmers had a significantly negative impact on the odds of being a delinquent or a defaulter. The interest rates charged by the financial institutions reflected a positively significant relationship with the probability of being a defaulter or a delinquent in the study area. The lack of collateral security, insufficient credit limit offered by banks and fear of losing agricultural land were major problems for credit acquisition through institutional sources. Whereas, the increasing input costs and rising household expenditures negatively impacted the repayment and use of credit. Based on the findings, the panchayat-level identification of needy farmers was suggested as a measure to restrict the diversion of credit towards non-agricultural purposes. ThesisItem EmbargoDocumentation and Evaluation of Buckwheat-based Traditional Food Products(CSK HPKV, Palampur, 2023-04-18) Thakur, Ruchika; Dhaliwal, Y.SKinnaur and Lahaul Spiti districts are places of residence for many tribal communities in Himachal Pradesh. These tribal people rely on the abundance of plant species in their area for food, medicine, fodder, and other necessities. The present study was undertaken with the objectives, to document buckwheat-based traditional food products consumed in tribal areas and to standardize, and enrich in relation to nutritional quality. Some of the most common food products prepared from buckwheat flour were chilla/chilra, aktori, thispole, and poltu. These traditional meals are also known as 'functional foods' since they have high body-healing compounds, antioxidants, dietary fiber, and probiotics. The protein content of buckwheat-based traditional food products was higher and ranged from 9.61 to 10.08 percent, whereas iron, zinc, copper, calcium, magnesium, and potassium ranged from 1.50 to 1.68 percent, 1.18 to 1.28 percent, 45.74 to 45.81 percent, 0.49 to 0.51 percent, 1.10 to 1.34 percent, and 11.26 to 11.33 percent respectively. Among the different traditional food recipes of buckwheat, thispole was selected for nutritional enrichment and supplemented with spinach, fenugreek, and jaggery. The addition of spinach, fenugreek, and jaggery in thispole improved the nutritional quality and nutraceutical properties as well as the mineral composition. However, the organoleptic assessment revealed that, the overall acceptability of thispole combination with spinach, fenugreek, and jaggery ranged from 5.88-6.69, 5.69- 6.67 and 5.98-6.69 (on hedonic 9.0) of level of incorporation. The addition of spinach and fenugreek was acceptable at 20 and 30 percent while jaggery incorporation was acceptable at 20 percent. The higher level of these supplements can also be incorporated for nutritional quality and acceptability. Standardized traditional buckwheat-based food products have great potential for value-addition. So, buckwheat-based value-added products can be popularized by value addition which may enhance the income of farmers, farm ladies as well as entrepreneurs. ThesisItem EmbargoEvaluation of value-added products enriched dried green leafy vegetables(CSK HPKV, Palampur, 2023-03-16) Khan, Shahina; ChanderKantaGreen Leafy Vegetables (GLV), which are particularly rich in micronutrients and other nutrients are a treasure trove of balanced diet. They are seasonally accessible in abundance having shelf-life for a short period. Their accessibility can be increased by processing and preservation. Drying of green vegetables concentrates the nutrients and can be utilized in many ways by incorporating into existing and formulating other healthy food products by using different techniques of drying and value addition. In the present study efforts were made to sun dry the underutilized leaves namely radish (Raphanus sativus) and colocasia (Colocasia esculenta) leaves to formulate products having great benefits of vegetables with good amount of nutrients. Study revealed that solar drying significantly increased crude protein in both the leaves from 3.79 to 21.81 per cent in colocasia leaves and 3.52 to 20.16 per cent in radish leaves. Crude fibre, crude fat, total ash and carbohydrate significantly increased than that of control values which were found in colocasia and radish 6.65 and 4.40 per cent crude fibre, 0.85 and 0.62 per cent crude fat, 9.38 and 11.36 per cent total ash and 58.50 and 58.24 per cent carbohydrate, respectively. Three products viz. biscuits, mathri and nuggets were developed by augmenting the dried colocasia and radish leaves separately at the level of 5, 10, 15 and 20 per cent. All products were found to be most acceptable in all parameters when supplemented with 5 per cent of dried colocasia and radish leaves. Products confirmed substantial increase in the nutrient content after incorporation of dried leaves. Enrichment with dried colocasia and radish leaves revealed that in biscuits calcium increased from 47.20 mg/100g to 65.00 and 71.50 mg/100g. Similarly, in mathri calcium values increased from 43.09 mg/100g (RM) to 58.26 mg/100g (CM) to 63.56 mg/100g (RM), respectively. The higher calcium content was recorded in (RN) 66.09 mg/100g then colocasia supplemented nuggets (60.26 mg/100g). Products also showed an increase in iron values. Biscuits (CB and RB) had iron content of 5.40 and 5.20 mg/100g, whereas mathri (CM and RM) had iron content of 5.59 and 5.61 mg/100g. Similarly, the iron values of nuggets increased from 7.97 to 12.54 mg/100g in CN and from 7.97 to 11.03 mg/100g in RN. Therefore, the study suggested that supplementation enriched the overall nutritional quality and were found acceptable for consumption up to 60 days. Thus, it can be concluded that products enriched with dried vegetable leaves which are an excellent source of proteins, iron, fibre and other nutrients can be added to the daily diet to combat micronutrient malnutrition. ThesisItem EmbargoMinimally invasive osteosynthesis for management of radius/ulna and tibial fractures in dogs.(CSK HPKV, Palampur, 2023-03-23) Kaur, Ashmeet; Kumar, AmitThe present study was done for diagnosis and classification of long bone fractures in dogs and application of minimally invasive osteosynthesis (Supracutaneous bone plating) for management of radius/ulna and tibial fractures in dogs. Out of total 139 cases of long bone fractures, 127 cases had singular fracture whereas 12 cases had multiple fractures. The overall incidence of long bone fractures was 10.15 per cent among all cases of dogs. The incidence and distribution of long bone was found more in male dogs and in juvenile age-group. The majority cases were of non-descript dogs and automobile accident was recorded as major singular cause of long bone fractures. Femur was the most affected long bone with fracture (46.10 %). According to AO/ASIF classification: 12A3 (Diaphyseal simple transverse fracture) was the most common type of fracture in humerus (40%), 22A3 (Diaphyseal simple fracture of both radius and ulna) was the most common type of fracture in radius/ulna (51.52%) and 32A3 (Diaphyseal simple transverse fracture (< 30°) was the most common type of fractures found in femur (38.03%) and 42A3 (Diaphyseal simple transverse fracture) was the most common type of fracture found in tibia/fibula (43.24%). Management of radius/ulna fractures and tibia/fibula fractures was done in two phases. First, the standardization was done on dog cadaver and then on osteomized bones. Then clinical application was done in nine fracture cases: two radius ulna and seven tibia-fibula fractures in dogs. Supracutaneous bone plating technique was used with Locking head - limited contact-dynamic compression plate and self-tapping locking head cortical screws. Status of fracture reduction and fracture fixation was fair to good (2-3) and all dogs had full weight-bearing during standing as well as during walking phase at final reappraisal day. The supracutaneous plate was tolerated well by all dogs. There was no implant related complication other than loosening of single screw in two cases. Supracutaneous bone plating provided rigid fixation resulting in to minimum amount of callus formation at the fracture site. The implant removal was done under sedation without the need of general anaesthesia. ThesisItem EmbargoStudies on physio morphological attributes of crops and weeds as influenced by organic weed management practices in maize - pea cropping system(CSK HPKV, Palampur, 2023-01-20) Kumar, Sarwan; Rana, S.S.Studies were carried out in a long-term experiment in maize - peas cropping system under All India Coordinated Research Project on Weed Management (AICRP-WM) during October 2019 to September 2021 at Palampur. Ten weed control treatments based on T1-hoeing, T2-stale seed bed + hoeing, T3-raised stale seedbed + hoeing, T4- mulch 5t ha-1 , T5-stale seed bed + mulch, T6- raised stale seed bed + mulch, T7- intercropping of soybean in kharif and fenugreek in rabi, T8-crop rotation (alternating soybean - mustard with maize - peas), T9-intensive cropping (additional crops of mustard in autumn and buckwheat in summer) and T10-chemical check (pendimethalin in rabi and atrazine in kharif) were evaluated in a randomized block design with three replications. The weed flora were comprising of 14 species in rabi 2019-20 and 11 in rabi 2020-21, 8 weed species during kharif 2020 and 15 in kharif 2021. There was considerable change in weed species composition during the second year as compared to the first year. Diversity and phytosociological analysis revealed diverse weed flora in the organic weed management treatments as compared to the chemical check. Phenological study revealed extended periods of germination/emergence, flowering and fruiting. Rabi weeds emerged during October to January and kharif during May to August, flowered and bore fruits/seeds during March (rabi) and September (kharif) and reached maturity in April (rabi) and September (kharif), respectively. Yield, net income and net energy were significantly higher under RSSB + Hoeing/HW followed by crop rotation, however, chemical check was at par to this treatment in the second year. Crop rotation also gave higher profitability over the check. The growth analysis parameter viz, CGR, AGR and RGR found to be significantly more in intercropping and crop rotation. ThesisItem EmbargoGenetic analysis of fruit yield, component and quality traits in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.)(CSK HPKV, Palampur, 2023-03-05) Sharma, Shaina; Chadha, SanjayThe present investigation entitled “Genetic analysis of fruit yield, component and quality traits in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.)” was carried out at Vegetable Research Farm of the Department of Vegetable Science and Floriculture, CSKHPKV Palampur with the objectives to study the nature and magnitude of gene action of fruit yield, component and quality traits of triple test cross progenies, and to identify the potential parents and cross combinations on the basis of combining ability and heterosis in tomato. The experimental material comprised of 24 triple test cross hybrids derived by mating 08 lines with three testers namely 12-1, Palam Pride and their single cross F1 (12-1× Palam Pride). 24 cross combinations, 11 parents along with standard check- 1 (Avtar) were evaluated in Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications during summer-rainy season of 2021. Tester F1 i.e.12-1× Palam Pride was identified as promising cross combination at CSKHPKV, Palampur during the past years and was also used as standard check -2 for the estimation of standard heterosis. Susceptible checks (Punjab Chhuhara and Roma) were included at every 11th row alternatively to ensure the presence of uniform distribution of bacterial wilt disease inoculum. The observations were recorded on five competitive plants marked at random in each entry over the replications on different quantitative traits viz. plant survival on the basis of bacterial wilt disease incidence, days to 50 per cent flowering, days to first harvest, average fruit weight (g), fruit shape index, pericarp thickness (mm), total fruits/plant, marketable fruits/plant, marketable yield/plant (kg), total yield/plant (kg), locules/fruit, plant height (cm), duration of fruit harvest (days). Data were recorded on some visual traits fruit shape, fruit colour, fruit shape at pedicel area, fruit shape at blossom end and blossom end scar. Biometrical analysis was done for the characters TSS (0Brix), ascorbic acid (mg/100g), lycopene content (mg/100g), titrable acidity, dry matter content, pH content, moisture content, carotenoid content (mg/100g) and TSS- AR ratio. Epistasis was discovered to be a crucial component of genetic variation for majority of the traits including marketable fruit yield/ plant. Epistasis has been found to be invariably present for all the examined attributes except days to first harvest. Both (i) and (j+l) type of interactions were significant for days to 50 per cent flowering, plant height, total fruits/ plant, gross yield/ plant, marketable fruits/ plant, marketable yield/ plant, locules per fruit, pericarp thickness, fruit length, fruit shape index, TSS, titrable acidity, carotenoid content, dry matter content, moisture content and TSS-AR ratio.Additive component was more pronounced than dominance component for all the traits except pericarp thickness, locules per fruit, dry matter content and moisture content. Degree of dominance was in the range of incomplete dominance for all the traits except pericarp thickness, locules per fruit, dry matter content and moisture content. Genetic variance revealed from triple test cross progenies can be exploited by intermating selected individuals in early segregating generations with delayed selection in later generations, diallel selective mating/biparental mating or recurrent selection followed by pedigree method to exploit both additive and non-additive components as well as epistasis. Line × tester analysis revealed the preponderance of non-additive gene effects for most of the traits viz. days to 50 per cent flowering, days to first harvest, duration of fruit harvest, plant height, fruit length, fruit width, fruit shape index, pericarp thickness, locules/fruit, total fruits/plant, marketable fruits/plant, total yield/plant, TSS, ascorbic acid content, titrable acidity, pH, carotenoid content, dry matter content, moisture content and TSS-AR ratio while additive gene effects for marketable yield per plant. Lines DPT 4 and DPT 1 were found to be good general combiners for most of the traits. The cross-combinations DPT 1×12-1, DPT 1× Palam Pride, DPT 4×12-1 and 2015/TOINVAR-4×12-1 exhibited high heterosis, SCA and per se performance for majority of traits, therefore were rated as potential crosses. As a result, it would be helpful to exploit tomato hybrids, particularly those that showed high SCA in the current study for the development of hybrids.