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Sri Karan Narendra Agriculture University, Jobner

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  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Integrated Nitrogen Management in Garlic (Allium sativum L.)
    (2022) Choudhary, Rajesh; M.R. Choudhary
    Field experiments were conducted under loamy sand soil during rabi seasons of 2020- 21 and 2021-22 at the Horticulture farm, S.K.N. College of Agriculture, Jobner. The experiment comprising six treatments of nitrogen management through organic manure, inorganic fertilizer and biofertilizer (100 % inorganic fertilizer without biofertilizer, 100 % inorganic fertilizer with biofertilizer, 75 % inorganic fertilizer, 25 % organic manure without biofertilizer, 75 % inorganic fertilizer, 25 % organic manure with biofertilizer, 50 % inorganic fertilizer, 50 % organic manure without biofertilizer and 50 % inorganic fertilizer, 50 % organic manure with biofertilizer) were assigned to main plots and four levels of nano urea (0, 25, 50 and 75 ml/ha) in sub plots and replicated thrice in split plot design. Garlic variety ‘G 282’ was used as a test crop. On the basis of two year results, application of 100 % inorganic fertilizer and biofertilizer combined with foliar spray of 75 ml/ha nano urea was proved the most superior treatment combination in garlic representing the significantly higher net returns (` 482860/ha) and bulb yield (194.80 q/ha). However, application of 75 % inorganic fertilizer, 25 % organic manure and biofertilizer combined with foliar spray of 50 ml/ha nano urea was also found equally effective treatment combination and fetched at par bulb yield and net returns. Based on response studies, foliar spray of 66 ml/ha nano urea was found to be the optimum level of N for garlic crop. Further, it may be concluded that application of 75 % RD through inorganic fertilizer, 25 % organic manure and biofertilizer combined with foliar spray of 66 ml/ha nano urea is worth recommendable for farmers of Rajasthan Zone IIIA under loamy sand soil to get significantly better yield (q/ha) net returns (₹) and maximum B:C ratio from garlic crop.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Genetic Studies for Heat Stress Tolerance in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em.Thell.) Through Diallel Analysis
    (2022) Madhu, Choudhary; Hoshiyar Singh
    The present investigation was conducted to analyse combining ability, heterosis, heterobeltiosis, inbreeding depression, components of genetic variance and heat stress tolerance for grain yield and its contributing traits in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell.) in two varying environments created by two dates of sowing viz., normal sown and late sown conditions at Agricultural Research Farm of Rajasthan Agricultural Research Institute (Sri Karan Narendra Agriculture University, Jobner), Durgapura, Jaipur (Rajasthan). The ten genetically diverse parents viz., DPW 621-50, DBW 90, PBW 502, Raj 1482, Raj 4037, UP 2425, Raj 3765, PBW 550, HI 1563 and Raj 4079 crossed in half-diallel fashion (excluding reciprocals) in rabi 2018-19 and for the advance generation F1‟s seed was grown at Wellington (Tamil Nadu), IARI regional sub-station in kharif 2019. The ten parents along with their 45 F1‟s and 45 F2‟s were evaluated in a randomized block design with three replications each in two environments during rabi 2019-20 for grain yield and its contributing traits. The observations were recorded for days to heading, days to maturity, plant height, tillers per plant, flag leaf area, spike length, grains per ear, 1000-grain weight, biomass per plant, grain yield per plant, harvest index, canopy temperature and protein content. The analysis of variance exhibited significant differences among the parents and generations in both the environments for all the studied characters which suggested the presence of sufficient genetic diversity. The G x E interaction revealed significant for all the characters under investigation. Significance of GCA and SCA for all the studied characters in both generations revealed the importance of both additive and non-additive gene action. The ratio of GCA/SCA variance (predictability) indicated the preponderance of non-additive gene action for all the studied characters.Overall estimation revealed that parents viz., Raj 4037, Raj 3765, PBW 502 and Raj 4079 were good general combiner and the crosses DBW 90 x Raj 4037, DPW 621-50 x Raj 4037 and Raj 4037 x Raj 4079 good specific cross combination for grain yield and its contributing traits in both environments. These crosses should be recommended for the handling of segregating generations to obtain the transgressive segregants. Sufficient degree of heterosis and heterobeltiosis were found for all the studied characters. The cross, DPW 621-50 x Raj 4037 in both environments exhibited desirable heterosis and crosses Raj 4037 x Raj 4079 in E1 while, in E2 Raj 4037 x Raj 4079 and Raj 4037 x Raj 3765 showed desirable heterobeltiosis for yield and its all of the contributing traits. The assessment components of genetic variance revealed that both additive (D) and dominance (H1 and H2) components were significant for all the studied characters which showed both components of genetic variance effective in these traits expression. The graphical analysis showed partial to over-dominance for different characters in both environments. The scattering of array points revealed the presence of genetic diversity among the parents for most of the characters. The result of heat susceptibility index (HSI) exhibited that parents viz., UP 2425, PBW 502, Raj 4037 and Raj 4079 were desired for grain yield and some other traits. Among the crosses, DPW 621-50 x Raj 4037 and DBW 90 x Raj 4037 were found more desirable for heat tolerance in most of the studied traits across the generations, should be used as promising breeding material for development for heat stress tolerant wheat cultivars. An overall assessment on the basis of per se performance, SCA effects and heterosis, the crosses viz., Raj 3765 x Raj 4079, Raj 4037 x Raj 4079 and Raj 4037 x Raj 3765 were found promising in both environments for grain yield and its most of the contributing traits. Hence, these crosses should be toss transgressive segregants for grain yield in the segregating generation and they can be used in further breeding programme. An overall assessment of the results of this study suggested that recurrent selection (Hull, 1945), diallel selective mating (Jensen,1970) and bi-parental mating (Joshi and Dhawan, 1966) might be effective breeding approaches for development of superior genotypes and appreciable improvement of bread wheat in future.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Dissipation and Persistence Kinetics of Fipronil and Flubendiamide on Cabbage and Monitoring of Insecticide Residues in Vegetables
    (2022) Jat, Hansa Kumari; Jakhar, B.L.
    Dissipation and Persistence Kinetics of Fipronil and flubendiamide on Cabbage and Monitoring of insecticide Residues in Vegetables was studied, following the application at recommended dose (40 and 18.24 g a. i. ha-1 ), respectively and double of the recommended dose (80 and 36.48 g a. i. ha-1 ), respectively, in the Division of Entomology, Pesticide Residue Laboratory, Rajasthan Agricultural Research Institute, Durgapura, Jaipur (Rajasthan) during (2020-21). The persistence study on cabbage recorded the average initial deposit of pesticide fipronil, its three metabolites desulfinyl (MB046513), sulfide (MB045950) and sulfone (MB046136) were 0.641, 0.377, 0.065, and 0.327 respectively and flubendiamide on cabbage was recorded as 0.292 mg kg-1 at recommended dose, while at double of the recommended dose, the average initial deposit were 1.077, 0.737, 0.115, and 0.677 for fipronil and its metabolites and 0.506 mg kg-1 for flubendiamide. The control sample of the cabbage show the residue of the fipronil, its three metabolites and flubendiamide, respectively. The residues half-life (RL50) values were 2.4, 2.7, 2.7, and 2.6 days for fipronil and its metabolites at recommended dose and 3.6 days for flubendiamide while at double of the recommended doses, it is 4.3, 2.6, 3.6, 2.9 and 4.5 for respectively. The waiting periods for the respective pesticides were worked out at their limit of determination (0.001 and 0.05 mg kg-1 for fipronil, its metabolites and flubendiamide) due to lack of MRL value by the FSSAI. In case of soil samples the residues at harvest time of cabbage crop was not detected in the recommended dose and double of the recommended dose, respectively. In decontamination studies, acetic acid treatment was significantly superior to rest of the treatments followed by lukewarm water, NaHCO3 5 percent, NaCl 1 percent NaCl, KMnO4 and tap water washing were recorded in reduction of fipronil and its metabolites residues. While in reduction of flubendiamide residues, lukewarm water treatment was significantly superior to rest of the treatments followed by acetic acid 5 percent, NaHCO3 5 percent , NaCl 1 percent, KMnO4 and tap water washing. Out of 40 samples of different farmgate vegetables analysed, 10 vegetable samples (25%) were detected with different pesticides residues. While, out of 40 market vegetables samples analysed, 12 vegetable samples (30%) were found contaminated with different pesticide residues. None of the samples showed pesticide residues exceeding the MRL in farmgate and market samples. Therefore, the study concluded that fipronil was the most persistent followed by desulfinyl, sulfone, sulfide and flubendiamide as least persistent among test pesticides on cabbage. The safe waiting period on cabbage were suggested as 5, 6, 3, 6 and 6 days at recommended dose and 10, 7, 7, 7 and 8 days at double of the recommended dose for fipronil, its metabolites and flubendiamide, respectively. In case of fipronil and its metabolites, acetic acid was found as the most effective decontamination process. While in case of flubendiamide luke warm water was significantly superior to rest of the treatments. Pesticide monitoring study is a continuous one and the real dimension of the problem may be apprehended only after widespread monitoring with adequately large sample size
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Study of Genetic Architecture for Yield and Associated Traits in Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp]
    (2022) Get, Sonu; Shekhawat, S.S.
    This experiment was conducted to study the combining ability, heterosis, and inbreeding depression in ten genetically diverse parents of cowpea in two environment viz., irrigated and rainfed conditions at Rajasthan Agricultural Research Institute (SKNAU, Jobner), Durgapura, Jaipur and the parents were crossed in diallel mating design (excluding reciprocals) in Kharif – 2019 and their F1 seeds were advanced in Summer – 2020. The evaluation trial was conducted in Kharif – 2020 in which ten parents along with their 45 F1 and 45 F2 progenies were grown in a randomized block design with three replications. The observations were recorded for different yield attributing traits and protein content. The objective of this study was to identify promising parents and cross combinations for yield under rainfed condition. Major objective of this study was to identify promising parents and cross combinations for yield under rainfed conditions. The present study reveals the existence of sufficient genetic variability for all the studied characters under both the environments. Highly significant GCA and SCA for all the studied characters in both the generations suggested the importance of both additive and non additive gene action. The GCA/SCA variance ratio (predictability ratio) clearly indicated the preponderance of non-additive gene action. An overall assessment showed that the parent Ajmer sel. and IC-2918 appeared as good general combiners and the cross Ajmer sel. x IC 2918 and CPD-119 x IC-8966 appeared as good cross combinations for seed yield per plant along with its component traits in both the environments. Analysis of the genetic components of variance showed that both additive (D) and non-additive components (H1 and H2) were significant for all the studied characters, indicating the involvement of these genetic components in the expression of the traits.The results of graphical analysis showed partial and over dominance for different characters in irrigated and rainfed conditions. The dispersed array point showed the presence of satisfactory diversity among the parents. An overall assessment based on the per se performance, SCA effects, heterosis and heterobeltiosis revealed that the cross IC-8966 x CAZC-10 in both the environments and Ajmer sel. x IC-2918 and CPD 119 x IC-8966 E1 environment were emerged as good specific cross combinations for seed yield per plant and its associated traits. Therefore, these crosses may be considered suitable under particular environment and may be utilized further in specific breeding programmes. An overall assessment of the result of this study suggested that restricted recurrent selection, diallel selective mating and bi-parental mating or multiple crossing may be used as an effective and alternative approaches for the development of superior genotypes and appreciable improvement of cowpea in forthcoming years
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Effect of fertility levels and weed management practices on weed dynamics, growth, yield and quality of linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) and their residual effect on fodder pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.)
    (2022) Singh, Deshraj; Gupta, K. C.
    Present field experiment was conducted at experimental farm, Rajasthan Agricultural Research Institute, Durgapura – Jaipur for two consecutive years during Rabi season of 2016-17 and 2017-18 to evaluate the effect of treatments on weed dynamics, growth, yield, quality and economics of the crop followed with Summer 2017 and 2018 for assessing residual effect of fertility levels and weed management practices on succeeding fodder pearl millet on loamy sand soil. There were 28 treatment combinations consisting of 04 fertility levels (75 % RDF, 100 % RDF, 125 % RDF and 150 % RDF) and 07 weed management practices (Weedy check, hand weeding, Pendimethalin 30 EC, Pendimethalin 38.7 CS, Clodinafop propargyl 15 WP and Imazethapyr 10 % SL and Weed free) were tested in factorial randomized block design with three replications. Results indicated that 150 % RDF dose proved significantly superior to other fertility levels with respect to plant height, number of branches per plant, per plant dry matter accumulation (g) and leaf area (cm2 ). The yield attributes viz. number of capsules plant-1 and weight of capsules plant-1 (g) and seed, stover and biological yields were significantly higher in 150 % fertility level. The uptake of NPK was also significantly higher with the application of 150 % RDF dose. Oil and protein yield were also recorded significantly higher under 150 % RDF. Results showed that weed density of most of broad leaved weeds were most effectively controlled by pre-emergence application of Pendimethalin 38.7 CS followed by Pendimethalin 30 EC, Imazethapyr 10 % SL and Clodinafop propargyl 15 WP. Similarly grassy weeds were most effectively controlled by Pendimethalin 38.7 CS followed by Pendimethalin 30 EC, Clodinafop propargyl 15 WP and Imazethapyr 10 % SL. Maximum seed and stover yields were obtained under weed free and hand weeding at 20-25 DAS followed with Pendimethalin 38.7 CS. However, maximum net returns and B:C ratio (Rs. 43153 ha-1 and 2.31) were obtained under application of Pendimethalin 38.7 CS. Amongst the combined use of studied production factors, application of 150 % RDF along with weed free proved optimum for realizing higher productivity (1509 kg ha-1 ). Further, the application of 150 % RDF along with Pendimethalin 38.7 CS proved optimum for realizing higher net returns (Rs. 50023 ha-1 with B:C ratio of 2.50). The result of present investigation suggested that the application of 150 % RDF and Pendimethalin 38.7 CS or hand weeding proved as sustainable approach to augment the productivity and profitability of crop. There was no significant residual effect of fertility levels and weed management practices on succeeding summer fodder pearl millet
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Genetic Study of Grain Yield and its Contributing Traits in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) under Normal and Limited Moisture Conditions
    (2022) Yadav, Madhu; Ved Prakash
    The present investigation was conducted to analyze combining ability, components of genetic variance, heterosis, heterobeltiosis, inbreeding depression and drought stress tolerance in ten genetically diverse parents viz., BH 946, RD 2592, DWRUB 64, DWRB 137, PL 426, PL 419, RD 103, RD 2035, RD 2052 and RD 2508 in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in two environments viz., E1 – normal irrigated and E2 – limited moisture conditions at Research Farm, Rajasthan Agricultural Research Institute (Sri Karan Narendra Agriculture University, Jobner), Durgapura, Jaipur. These parents were crossed in half-diallel mating design (excluding reciprocals) in rabi 2018-19 and their F1 seeds were advanced in summer 2019. The evaluation trial was conducted in rabi 2019-20 in which 10 parents along with their 45 F1‟s and 45 F2‟s were evaluated in a randomized block design with three replications. The observations were recorded for days to heading, days to maturity, plant height, number of effective tillers per plant, flag leaf area, peduncle length, number of grains per spike, number of spikelets per spike, spike length, biomass per plant, 1000-grain weight, grain yield per spike, grain yield per plant and harvest index. The significant differences among the parents and generations in both the environments for all the studied characters suggested the presence of sufficient genetic variability. Significance of GCA and SCA for all the studied characters in both the generations indicated the importance of both additive and non-additive gene action. The GCA/SCA variance ratio (predictability ratio) indicated the preponderance of non-additive gene action. An overall assessment showed that the parents RD 2508, RD 2052 and PL 419 appeared as good general combiners and the crosses DWRUB 64 x RD 2508 and RD 2592 x PL 419 appeared as good cross combinations for grain yield per plant and its contributing traits in both the environments. Evaluation of the genetic components of variance manifested that both additive (D) and dominance (H1 and H2) components were significant for all the studied characters which indicated that both components were operating in the expression of the traits. The results of graphical analysis revealed partial and over dominance for different characters in normal irrigated and limited moisture conditions. The dispersed array point indicated the presence of satisfactory diversity among the parents. Sufficient degree of heterosis and heterobeltiosis were observed for all the studied characters. The cross DWRUB 64 x RD 2508 in E1 (normal irrigated) and DWRB 137 x RD 2052 in E2 (limited moisture) exhibited desirable heterosis and the cross PL 419 x RD 2052 in E1 (normal irrigated) and PL 419 x RD 2508 in E2 (limited moisture) exhibited desirable heterobeltiosis for grain yield per plant and its attributing characters. An overall assessment on the basis of per se performance, SCA effects and heterosis, revealed that the cross RD 103 x RD 2508 in E1 (normal irrigated) and DWRB 137 x RD 2052 in E2 (limited moisture) environment were emerged as good cross combinations for grain yield per plant and its attributing characters. Hence, these crosses may be considered desirable under particular environment and may be used further in specific breeding programmes. The result of drought susceptibility index (DSI), it could be visualized that parents DWRUB 64, BH 946, RD 103 and RD 2592, were found the most desirable for most of the characters. Among the crosses, RD 2592 x PL 426 and PL 426 x RD 103 were found more desirable as they possessed high drought tolerance for most of the studied traits across the generations and could be used as promising breeding material for the development of new drought tolerant varieties. An overall assessment of the result of this study advocated that restricted recurrent selection, diallel mating design and bi-parental mating could be used as effective and alternative breeding approaches for the development of superior genotype and appreciable improvement of barley in forthcoming years.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Studies on Management of Dry Root Rot of Mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] Caused by Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid.
    (2022) Anupriya; Chawla, Nitin
    Mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) commonly known as green gram or “Mung” one of the most popular pulse crop in India. Root rot caused by Macrophomina phaseolina, is a widespread disease of mungbean in India including in the state of Rajasthan. The pathogen is a polyphagous necrotroph in nature that can up to 15 years in the soil. The management of M. phaseolina is required. The incidence of pathogen varies from 17 to 90 per cent incidence in India with 25 to 48 per cent yield losses in mungbean. A roving survey was conducted during the Kharif season of 2020 in major mungbean growing districts (Bikaner, Hanumangarh, Sri Ganganagar, Churu, Nagaur and Jaipur) to know the disease incidence in different areas of Rajasthan. The disease incidence varies from 17.12% to 28.49% with an average disease incidence of 22.67 per cent. The higher disease incidence (28.49%) was recorded the districts in Bikaner while least in Jaipur (17.12%) district. The pathogen was isolated, purified and proved pathogenic of mungbean through soil inoculation technique. Among 52 genotypes/varieties using, two genotypes Pusa 0871 and SML 1839 were found resistant and (RMG 1139) was moderately resistant. Protein contents were low whereas phenolic and proline contents increased in roots due to disease. The chlorophyll contents in leaves of infected plants were low in comparison to leaves of healthy plant. In variability studies of 12 isolates, Mp-PGE isolate, collected from Jhadla village of Phagi tehsil in Jaipur district, was comparative in fast mycelial growth, whereas Mp-LKS isolate from Peepera village from Lunkaransar tehsil of Bikaner showed slower mycelial growth. These isolates were shown significant differences in terms of radial growth, colony colour, colony diameter, colony texture, mycelial dry weight, sclerotia shape and size and sclerotia number.The, garlic clove extract, T. harzianum and in fungicides, trifloxystrobin 25% + tebuconazole 50% WG (50, 100, 200, 500ppm) significantly inhibited mycelia growth of the pathogen under in vitro studies among other treatment. When applied seed treatment were also tested in pot conditions through and these were found effective in controlling disease. In the field study, maximum disease reduction and higher seed yield were recorded with trifloxystrobin 25%+ tebuconazole 50% WG @ 0.10% while the seed treatment with propineb 70% WP @0.20% was found least effective up to 40 DAS. Under pot conditions, seed treatment with T. harzianum @ 10g/kg seed + soil application of mustard cake @ 0.5t/ha was found most effective. In the field study, maximum per cent disease reduction and higher seed yield were recorded with T. harzianum @ 10 g/kg seed + soil application of mustard cake @ 0.5t/ha
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Effect of Organic Manures and Iron Application on Soil Properties, Nutrient Availability and Yield of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Under Alkali Water Irrigation
    (2022) Yadav, Poonam Kumari; Dadhich, S.K.
    The field experiment on “Effect of Organic Manures and Iron Application on Soil Properties, Nutrient Availability and Yield of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Under Alkali Water Irrigation” was conducted for two consecutive years during the rabi seasons of the years 2019-20 and 2020-21 to evaluate the effect of alkali water, organic manures and iron application on soil properties (ECe, pHs, OC, ESP, CEC and different fractions of Fe), nutrient availability, dynamics of soil microbial biomass and enzymes activities, yield attributes and yield, nutrient concentration and alkalinity tolerance in wheat under loamy sand soil at Agronomy Farm, Sri Karan Narendra College of Agriculture, Jobner. The experiment comprising of 36 treatment combinations were replicated thrice and was laid out in split-plot design with 3 levels of alkali water (2, 6 and 10 mmol L-1 RSC), 3 treatments of organic manures (Control, FYM @ 15 t ha-1 and vermicompost @ 5 t ha-1 ) in main plots and 4 levels of iron (control, 50, 100 and 150 kg FeSO4.7H2O ha-1 ) in sub-plots. Result revealed that the increasing levels of RSC in irrigation water significantly decreased the ECe, organic carbon, available N, P and K content, different fractions of Fe and DTPA-Fe in soil after harvest of crop, while pHs and ESP of soil increased significantly during both the years and in pooled analysis. The soil biological activity viz., microbial biomass C, N and P at different months, their buildup, losses, turnover rate, fluxes, soil dehydrogenase and alkalinephosphatase enzymes activity was reduced significantly due to increasing levels of RSC in water. Irrigation with increasing levels of RSC in water significantly reduced the plant height, numbers of total tillers and effective tillers, test weight, grain and straw yields of wheat, nutrient concentration viz., P, K, Ca, Mg and Fe content and their uptake by grain and straw of wheat at harvest of crop. The uptake of N by grain, Ca/Mg ratio in wheat grain and ionic regulation index of potassium (IRI-K) decreased significantly due to irrigation with higher RSC water whereas, N content and its uptake by straw, Na content and uptake, Na/K, Na+K/Ca and Na/Ca ratio in grain and straw of wheat, degree of compartmentation and ionic regulation index of sodium (IRI-Na) significantly increased with increasing levels of RSC in irrigation water. Application of FYM @ 15 t ha-1 significantly increased the CEC, organic carbon content, available N, P and K content in soil after harvest of crop. The pHs and ESP of soil decreased significantly. The application of vermicompost @ 5 t ha-1 significantly increased fractions of iron in soil after harvest of crop. Soil microbial biomass C, N and P, their buildup, loss of P, annual fluxes, soil dehydrogenase enzyme activity and alkaline phosphatase activity at different months after sowing of crop increased significantly, while the loss of microbial biomass C and N decreased significantly under application of 15 t FYM ha-1 . The turnover rate of microbial biomass C, N and P decreased significantly under application of organic manures. Application of organic manures significantly increased the plant height, numbers of total tillers and effective tillers, test weight, grain and straw yields of wheat. A significant increase in nutrients content and uptake by grain and straw (N, P, K, Ca, Mg and Fe), Na uptake by grain and straw, Ca/Mg ratio in grain and ionic regulation index of potassium (IRI-K) at flowering stage of wheat was observed under vermicompost and FYM application. The content of Na, Na/K, Na+K/Ca and Na/Ca in grain and straw of wheat, degree of compartmentation, ionic regulation index of sodium (IRI-Na) at flowering stage significantly decreased due to application of vermicompost and FYM. The interactive effect of alkali water and organic manures significantly influenced the grain and straw yields of wheat and it was observed that the magnitude of decrease in grain and straw yields of wheat was observed to be less with the application of organic manures under all levels of RSC water. Application of iron significantly increased its fractions in soil at harvest of crop. The plant height, numbers of total tillers and effective tillers, test weight, grain and straw yields of wheat increased significantly with the application of iron. The content and uptake of N, K, Ca, Mg and Fe increased significantly, while uptake of P and Na by grain and straw of wheat increased significantly with the application of iron. The ratio of Ca/Mg in grain and straw of wheat and ionic regulation index of potassium (IRI-K) at flowering stage increased significantly under application of iron, whereas P and Na contents, Na/K, Na+K/Ca and Na/Ca ratios in grain and straw of wheat, degree of compartmentation and ionic regulation index of sodium (IRI-Na) were decreased significantly with the application of iron. The optimum dose of Fe was computed as 84.28 kg FeSO4.7H2O ha-1 with corresponding wheat grain yield of 3306.72 kg ha-1 in pooled analysis
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Blue Mould Rot of Orange (Citrus reticulata Blanco) caused by Penicillium italicum (Wehmer) and its Management
    (2022) Choudhary, Meera; Rathore, G.S.
    Orange (Citrus reticulata Blanco) is an important citrus fruit belongs to family Rutaceae. Blue mould rot of orange caused by Penicillium italicum (Wehmer) fungus, is an important fruit rot, among all fruit rots of this crop and it reduces fruit quality. Survey was conducted in fruit markets of Rajasthan namely Jaipur, Chomu, Sikar, Ajmer, Alwar, Jhalawar and local market of Jobner and from each market, infected and healthy fruit samples were collected during the peak of its availability (January-April). Maximum blue mould rot incidence was recorded in Jobner fruit market (13.75 %) during 2020. Cork-borer injury method of fruit inoculation was found most effective in producing blue mould rot. The severity of blue mould rot was maximum at 25o C and at 100 per cent relative humidity. The total soluble solids, acidity, ascorbic acid, total soluble sugar, reducing and non-reducing sugar contents were significantly reduced in fruits having more than 75 per cent disease severity. Hot water treatment at 65o C revealed 29.12%, fruit wrapping with perforated paper (19.16%) and dipping of fruits in potassium metabisulphite solution (0.25%) + coating with paraffin wax (20%) were provided effective control (69.01%) of blue mould rot. Aerated steam at 52o C for 15 minutes was found highly effective (63.63%) in controlling fruit rot.Among five botanicals, extract of garlic cloves (10%) was found most effective in mycelial growth inhibition (89.74%) and reducing disease severity (53.30%). In six edible and non edible oils, eucalyptus oil (4%) was proved most effective in reducing mycelial growth (94.65%) and disease severity (50.63%). Among four bio-agents, Pseudomonas fluorescens was recorded highly effective in inhibition of mycelial growth (81.53%) and also checked the blue mould severity (61.46%) in orange. In five fungicides, captan (0.2%) was the most effective in reduction of mycelial growth (94.75%) and disease severity (79.71%) of blue mould rot of orange. Among four food preservatives, potassium metabisulphite (0.50%) was the most effective in inhibition of mycelial growth (85.60 %) of P. italicum and in reducing disease severity (64.05%). Among four homeodrugs, nitric acid (0.2%) was the most effective in inhibition of mycelial growth (91.61%) and disease severity (64.63%) of blue mould rot of orange. Among four plant growth regulators, gibberellic acid (200 ppm) was the most effective in inhibition of mycelial growth (89.46%) and disease severity (55.41%) of blue mould rot of orange