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Sri Karan Narendra Agriculture University, Jobner

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  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Effect of Different Levels of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) Root Powder on Performance of Kuroiler Chicks
    (2022) JOGI, JAGPAL; Mahesh Datt
    The present study was conducted to observe the effect of different levels of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) root powder on the performance of Kuroiler chicks. One hundred twenty unsexed Kuroiler chicks (day old) were used on a completely randomized design in 4 treatments with 3 replicates, each consisting of 10 chicks. The treatments included the control group (T1) fed with chick starter feed and other groups were kept on basal diet mixed with Ashwagandha root powder @ 0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5% in T2, T3 and T4, respectively. All other management practices were followed as per recommendation during the experimental period of 56 days. The feed intake and body weight of chicks was recorded at weekly intervals for further analysis. The average body weight, body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, performance index, protein efficiency and energy efficiency ratio were significantly higher in T3 group (ARP @ 1.0%) than all other treatments. The feeding of Ashwagandha as a feed additive has not shown any significant effect on mortality rate of Kuroiler chicks. The mortality during the experimental period of 56 days was 5.83%. The highest Benefit cost ratio (1.81) was observed in T3 group followed by T2 (1.78), T1 (1.71) and T4 (1.58). Thus, it can be concluded that, the supplementation of Ashwagandha at 1.0% level was found beneficial in improving body weight, weight gain, feed conversion, protein efficiency and energy efficiency ratio. It can also be concluded that Ashwagandha can be used as efficient, effective and economical alternative to chemical growth promoters in poultry industry. * A post graduate agriculture student, Department of Livestock Producti
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Knowledge and Adoption of Recommended Okra Cultivation Practices by the Farmers in Jaipur District of Rajasthan
    (2022) JALTHARIA,RAJKUMAR; I.M. Khan
    Okra is cultivated mainly in Jaipur, Sirohi, Bundi, Alwar, Chittorgarh and Hanumangarh districts of Rajasthan. In Rajasthan, Jaipur district ranked first in area of okra cultivation. The climatic conditions of the Jaipur district are most suitable for cultivation of okra and till today no systematic efforts have been made by researchers in the field of study on knowledge and adoption of recommended okra cultivation practices by the farmers in proposed area. Keeping this view in mind, the present investigation entitled “Knowledge and Adoption of Recommended Okra Cultivation Practices by the Farmers in Jaipur District of Rajasthan” was undertaken in the study area with the following specific objectives: 1. To measure the knowledge of farmers about recommended cultivation practices of okra. 2. To find out the extent of adoption of recommended cultivation practices of okra by the farmers. 3. To study the relationship of independent variables of farmers with their knowledge and extent of adoption of recommended cultivation practices of okra. 4. To identify the constraints perceived by the farmers in adoption of recommended cultivation practices of okra.The present study was conducted purposely in selected Jaipur district of Rajasthan. Out of total 21 tehsils in Jaipur district of Rajasthan, two tehsils namely Jamwaramgarh and Kotputli have been selected purposely on the basis of maximum area of okra. Five gram panchayats from each selected tehsil having maximum area under okra cultivation i.e. a total of 10 gram panchayats were selected purposely. Two villages from each selected gram panchayats were selected on the basis of maximum area under okra cultivation. Thus, a total of 20 villages were selected for the present investigation. From each villages, 6 okra growers growing okra in at least 0.1 ha area were selected on the basis of simple random sampling technique. Thus, total 120 farmers were selected for present study. The data were collected by personal interview method by using a schedule specially developed for the study after getting expert‟s opinion. The data so collected were classified, tabulated and statistically analysed, which led to the following findings 1. Majority of respondents i.e. 74.17 per cent fell in medium knowledge level group whereas 13.33 per cent okra growers were observed in the high knowledge level group and remaining 12.50 per cent respondents possessed low level of knowledge about recommended cultivation practices of okra. The findings of the study also indicated that majority of okra growers had adequate knowledge regarding “Time of sowing” followed by “Soil and field preparation”, “Harvesting”, “Seed rate and recommended spacing”, whereas they had medium knowledge regarding “Use of high yielding varieties”, “Seed treatment”, “Weed management”, “Fertilizer application”, “Irrigation management” and “Plant protection measures”. 2. Majority of respondents i.e. 70.83 per cent were in medium level of adoption group, whereas 15.83 per cent respondents were in high adoption group and remaining 13.34 per cent okra growers were observed in the category of low level of adoption. The findings of the study also indicated that farmers had adequate adoption regarding “Time of sowing” followed by “Soil and field preparation”, “Harvesting”, “Seed rate and recommended spacing”, whereas they had medium adoption regarding “Use of high yielding varieties”, “Seed treatment”, “Weed management”, “Fertilizer application”, “Irrigation management” and “Plant protection measures”. 3. The education, annual income, extension contact, social participation, farming experience and cropping pattern of okra growers had positive and significant relationship with their knowledge about okra cultivation practices. Whereas their age and land holding were found to be positively and non-significantly related with their knowledge level of okra cultivation practices. It was also found that their education, annual income, extension contact, social participation, farming experience and cropping pattern were found to have positive and significant relationship with their extent of adoption of okra cultivation practices, whereas their age and land holding were found to have a positive and non-significant relationship with their extent of adoption of okra cultivation practices. 4. Majority of respondents i.e. 70.00 per cent fell in medium constraint perceptors group, whereas 16.67 per cent in high and remaining 13.33 per cent respondents were observed in the group of low constraint perceptors. The study also indicated that in input constraints, “Unavailability of recommended chemical for plant protection measures” and “High cost of insecticides and pesticides” in technical constraints, “Lack of knowledge about plant protection” and “Poor knowledge about doses of chemical fertilizers” in financial constraints, “High cost of inputs” and “High cost of seeds of high yielding varieties” and in marketing constraints, “Lack of storage facilities” and “High cost of transportation” were perceived as the most severe constraints by the okra growers
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Effect of Organic Manures and Mulching on Growth, Yield and Quality of Radish (Raphanus sativus L.)
    (2022) Rathore, Pooja; S.P. Singh
    A field experiment entitled „„Effect of Organic Manures and Mulching on Growth, Yield and Quality of Radish (Raphanus sativus L.)” was conducted during Rabi season 2021-22 at Horticulture Farm, S.K.N. College of Agriculture, Jobner, Jaipur (Rajasthan). The experiment comprised of sixteen treatment combinations including four treatments of organic manures (Control, FYM @ 9 t/ha, vermicompost @ 3 t/ha and poultry manure @ 3.6 t/ha) and four treatments of mulching (Control, saw dust @ 10 t/ha, plastic mulch and wheat straw @ 5 t/ha) were taken in Factorial Randomized Block Design with three replications. The results of the study clearly indicated that application of O2 (Vermicompost @ 3 t/ha) significantly increased the plant height (17.28 and 31.19 cm), number of leaves per plant (6.41 and 12.46) at 30 and 45 DAS respectively, leaf area (272.00 cm2 ), chlorophyll content (1.76 mg/g) in leaves, root diameter (6.13 cm), length of root (25.03 cm), shoot weight (48.00 g), root weight (128.48 g), shoot : root ratio (2.63), root yield (9.52 kg/plot and 264.54 q/ha), ascorbic acid content (12.95 mg/100g), net returns (Rs 282606/ha) and B:C ratio supervision of Dr. S.P. Singh, Assoc. Professor, Department of Horticulture, S.K.N. College of Agriculture, Jobner. (2.47) except treatment O3 (Poultry manure @ 3.6 t/ha), which was statistically at par with O2 in terms of net returns. Similarly, application of M2 (Plastic mulch) significantly increased the plant height (17.66 and 31.66 cm), number of leaves per plant (6.42 and 12.43) at 30 and 45 DAS respectively, leaf area (270.44 cm2 ), chlorophyll content (1.78 mg/g) in leaves, root diameter (6.21 cm), length of root (24.89 cm), shoot weight (48.34 g), root weight (128.51 g), shoot : root ratio (2.65), root yield (9.69 kg/plot and 269.31q/ha), ascorbic acid content (12.60 mg/100g). However, application of M3 (Wheat straw @ 5 t/ha) gives higher net returns (Rs 280068/ha) and B:C ratio (2.62) except treatment M2 (Plastic mulch), which was statistically at par with M3 in terms of net returns. Further, the combined application of O2M3 (Vermicompost @ 3 t/ha with Wheat straw @ 5 t/ha) were proved to be significantly superior in terms of net returns (Rs 333640/ha) and B:C ratio (3.06). Thus, on the basis of net returns and B:C ratio combined application of O2M3 (Vermicompost @ 3 t/ha with Wheat straw @ 5 t/ha) is worth recommended to fetch maximum net returns per hectare from radish.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Effect of Organic Manures and Micronutrients on Root Yield and Seed Production of Carrot (Daucus carota L.)
    (2022) DHAKA, ASHA; Yadav, D.K.
    A field experiment was conducted to study the „„Effect of Organic Manures and Micronutrients on Root Yield and Seed Production of carrot (Daucus carota L.)” during rabi season 2021-22 at Horticulture Farm, S.K.N. College of Agriculture, Jobner (Raj.). The experiment consisted of sixteen treatment combinations including four organic manures (no manure, FYM @ 10 t/ha, vermicompost @ 3.5 t/ha and poultry manure @ 2.5 t/ha) and four foliar spray of Micronutrients (control, FeSO4 @ 0.5 %, Borax @ 0.5% and ZnSO4 @ 0.5 %) were under taken in factorial randomized block design with three replications. The results of the study clearly indicated that application of poultry manure @ 2.5 t/ha to carrot significantly increased the plant height (cm), number of shoots per plant, chlorophyll content in leaves, days to 50% umbel initiation, average weight of marketable root (g),diameter of roots (cm),length of roots, shoots : roots ratio, core diameter (cm), roots yield (q/ha), number of umbels per plant, number of seed per umbel, diameter of umbel, seed weight per plant, days to seed maturity and seed yield per hectare(q/ ha) ,carotene content in roots, sugar content in roots, test weight of seed and net returns ( 334519/ha) and B:C (3.22) ratio of roots yield and net return ( 395741 ) and B: C (3.81) ratio of seed yield seen as for compared to control and FYM @ 10 t/ ha which was statistically at par with vermicompost @ 3.5 t/ha except net return and B:C ratio of root yield . Similarly, application of ZnSO4 @ 0.5 per cent as foliar spray significantly increased the plant height (cm), number of shoots per plant, chlorophyll content in leaves, days to 50% umbel initiation, average weight of marketable root (g), diameter of roots (cm), length of roots, shoots : roots ratio, core diameter (cm), roots yield (q/ha), number of umbels per plant, number of seed per umbel, diameter of umbel, seed weight per plant, days to seed maturity and seed yield per hectare( q/ha) carotene content (mg/ 100g) and sugar content (total sugar, reducing sugar and non – reducing sugar), net returns ( 340879/ha) and B:C ratio (3.50) of root yield and net returns( 400842/ha) and B:C (4.13) ratio of seed yield as compared to control and FeSO4 @ 0.5 percent which was statistically as per with borax @ 0.5 per cent except reducing sugar and net return and B:C ratio of root yield . Further, it can be concluded that combined application of poultry manure @ 2.5 t/ha with foliar spray of ZnSO4 @ 0.5 per cent proved to be the most superior treatment combination as it fetched comparable root yield (342.87 q/ha), seed yield (7.17 q/ha), net return ( 410334/ha) and B:C (3.95) ratio of root yield and net return ( 469393/ha) and B:C (4.51) ratio of seed yield
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Economics of Production and Marketing of Milk in Jaipur District of Rajasthan
    (2022) GAHLOT, DISHA; Kharkwal, Sheela
    Economics of Production and Marketing of Milk in Jaipur District of Rajasthan Disha Gahlot Dr. Sheela Kharkwal** (Research Scholar) (Major Advisor) ABSTRACT The present investigation has been undertaken in Jaipur district of Rajasthan with a view to identify the prevalent dairy marketing channels of milk in Jaipur district, factors affecting the farmer‘s choice of specific dairy outlet, economics of production and marketing of milk and constraints faced by farmers in production and marketing of milk. Total 80 milk producing farmers were selected through multistage purposive sampling method, from two rural and two peri-urban villages of Jaipur district for the detailed study. Primary data for agricultural year 2021-22 and secondary data on animal population, livestock holding, milk production and per capita availability of milk in Jaipur district were collected and submitted to various techniques and tools for drawing the results and relevant conclusions. The prevalent milk marketing channels in the study region were: channel-I (Producer – Consumer), channel II (Producer - Milk vendor Consumer) and channel- III (Producer – Collection centre – Co-operative milk plant – Consumer). Among these marketing channels, Channel-III was the most preferred channel of milk marketing, as it was opted by 47.50 per cent of the total farmers followed by Channel-I ( 28.75 %) and Channel-II (23.75 %). A multinomial logit (MNL) model was used to identify the factors affecting farmer‘s decision of choosing a particular milk-marketing outlet. Herd size, marketable surplus, caste categories, access to institutional credit, BPL economic class, income from livestock and breed type of animals were few significant factors observed in making a choice amongst the three milk marketing channel decisions. The total maintenance cost of local cow, crossbred and buffalo was ₹ 225.64, 364.52 and 379.81/day/animal, respectively and the gross returns per animal were estimated at ₹ 256.64, 467.07 and 566.19 per day per animal for local cow, crossbred and buffalo, respectively. The corresponding proceeds per rupee from local cow, crossbred and buffalo were 1.13, 1.28 and 1.49. The overall total maintenance cost of per SAUs (Standard Animal Units) of milch animal was estimated to be ₹ 264.69 /SAUs/ hh, while the gross returns were estimated to be ₹ 389.61 /SAUs/ hh. The overall proceeds per rupee from SAUs were calculated at 1.47. On the other hand, total marketing cost was estimated at ₹ 8.89/lit. in channel III followed by channel II (₹ 5.95/lit.) and channel I (₹ 4.01/lit.). The marketing margin was calculated as ₹ 3.18/ lit. in channel II and ₹ 4.97/lit. in channel III. The market efficiency of channel-I was highest at 11.48 per cent, followed by channel-II (5.30%) and channel-III (3.77%). The farmer‘s share in the consumer rupee was estimated at 91.29 percent in channel-I, 79.93 percent in channel-II and 73.60 per cent in channel –III. Among different constraints, untimely availability of quality feed and fodder was the most serious technical constraint, high cost of feed and fodder was the major financial problem faced by dairy farmer Inadequate market intelligence was the marketing problem while lack of knowledge about well designed dairy shed was the in management constraints faced by the sample respondents. The study submits that there is need to train dairy owners about scientific management practices in rearing of milch animals for better health, disease control, and performance. Feed quality testing laboratories must be setup to ensure the quality of feed, to enhance animal‘s productivity. Farmers should be made aware about quality parameters like fat percentage in the milk, or even provided with affordable fat testing kits through Pashu Vigyan Kendras/ KVKs, so that farmers can test milk at their level and be assured about the prices they receive in the collection centres. Institutional sources should provide easy and cheaper loans to farmers for purchasing animals up to certain limit without any collateral.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Utilization of ICT Tools for Crop Practices by the Farmers of Jaipur District of Rajasthan
    (2022) Haritwal, Kamlesh; Khan, I.M.
    ICT revolution is the consequence of integration of computer technology and communication technology. In this information age, the ICTs play a pivotal medium for knowledge dissemination between research systems and farming system. Rural population in our country still have issues in accessing essential information in the forms they'll perceive so as to form timely decisions for better farming. In previous couple of years innovative ideas came in to existence. Indian farming community is at present facing multitude of problems to maximize crop productivity. The use of information is wide and multifarious. But a very wide gap exists between the research level and actual practices. Therefore, in the backdrop of the issues discussed above, the present investigation “Utilization of ICT Tools for Crop Practices by the Farmers of Jaipur District of Rajasthan” was undertaken with following specific objectives: 1. To study the socio-economic characteristics of the farmers. 2. To measure the availability and utilization of ICT tools for crop practices by the farmers. 3. To find out the relationship between socio-economic characteristics of the farmers and extent of utilization of ICT tools for crop practices by the farmers. 4. To identify the constraints faced by the farmers in utilization of ICT tools. The study was conducted in Jobner Panchayat Samiti of Jaipur district of Rajasthan. Out of 22 panchayat samities in Jaipur district Jobner panchayat samiti was selected purposively. Four gram panchayats consisting of 2 adjacent and 2 distant gram panchayats were selected from Jobner panchayat samiti. Two villages were selected from each gram panchayat and 15 farmers were selected randomly from each selected village constituting a sample of 120 farmers for study purpose. An interview schedule was prepared and face to face interview was carried out with farmers. Appropriate statistical tests were used for data analysis, which led to following findings. 1. It was found that out of total farmers majority of farmers were from young age group (up to 35 years) and about one fourth farmers were educated up to graduation. Majority of farmers were from small farmers group (1.00 to 2.00 ha.), were having income level from Rs. 200000 to 400000, member of more than one organization, having small family, had medium mass media exposure with agriculture occupation and medium level of mechanical power. 2. Majority of farmers had medium level of availability of ICT tools, with mobile phone followed by television. Majority of farmers had low level of use ICT tools, farmers used mobile phone on daily basis. Majority of farmers had medium level of use of ICT tools in different farming/ allied activities and use of ICT tools in different farming / allied activity majority of adjacent farmers always used ICT tools in pulse crops, whereas distant farmers always used ICT tools in organic farming. Majority of farmers had medium level of use of ICT tools in different crop cultivation practices, use of ICT tools in different crop cultivation practices majority of farmers always used ICT tools in manures and fertilizers. Majority of farmers had medium level of use of farming apps, with majority of Iffco kisan aap. 3 It was found that education, annual income, social participation, size of land holding, mass media exposure, occupation and machanical power were found positively and significantly correlated with the extent of utilization of ICT tools at 1% level of significance. The age and family size of farmers were negatively and non-significantly related with their extent of utilization of ICT tools. 4. The study revealed that majority of both adjacent and distant farmers faced medium level of constraints in utilization of ICT tools for crop practices. The constraints “physical problem (eye pain etc.)” was perceived major problem by the farmers
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Population Abundance and Eco-friendly Management of Pest Complex on Okra, Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench under Semi Arid Agro-ecosystem of Rajasthan
    (2022) Choudhary, Pradeep; Dhaka, S.R.
    The study on “Population Abundance and Eco-friendly Management of Pest Complex on Okra, Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench under Semi Arid Agro-ecosystem of Rajasthan” was carried out at Rajasthan Agricultural Research Institute, SKNAU, Durgapura, Jaipur during years 2018 and 2019. Observations on population abundance of pest complex in okra showed whitefly population peak level in last week of September during 2018 and in first week of October during 2019. Minimum temperature during 2018 and morning and evening relative humidity and rainfall during 2019 showed significant and negative influence on population of whitefly. The leafhopper attained the peak in last week of August during 2018 and 2019. During 2018, maximum temperature, morning and evening relative humidity and rainfall showed positive and significant correlation with leafhopper population. Mite pest reached the peak in second week of October. During 2018, maximum temperature showed positive, while, minimum temperature and morning and evening relative humidity showed significant and negative correlation with mite population. Likewise, the influence of minimum temperature and morning and evening relative humidity was significant and negative on mite abundance during 2019. Infestation of shoot caused by shoot and fruit borer reached the maximum level in second week of September during both the years. Here, maximum temperature exhibited significant and negative influence during 2018, while, morning and evening relative humidity showed significant and positive influence during 2019 on shoot infestation. The fruit damage was recorded at maximum level on number and weight basis in last picking done in fourth week of October during both the years. The influence of minimum temperature and morning
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Biochemical Changes in Pea Due to Powdery Mildew Incited by Erysiphe polygoni DC and its Management
    (2022) MEENA, DINESH KUMAR; Singh, Jitendra
    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is an important cool season crop, belongs to the Leguminosae family. Pulses are providing quality food to teeming million and restoring soil fertility through nitrogen fixation. Pea crop is damaged by many fungal, viral and bacterial diseases. Powdery mildew of pea incited by Erysiphe polygoni emerged as a major disease in Rajasthan. Generally, this disease appeared in the first week of March and reaches at peak in April. Powdery mildew of pea is detected by presence of white floury patches appearing on upper and lower sides of the leaves as well as pods, stem, tendril etc. in extreme condition it causes significant losses in quantity and quality of the seed. In vitro studies showed that the highest conidial germination was reported at 250C temperature and 80 per cent relative humidity. Among biochemical basis of resistance in pea, peroxidase and phenol content are minimum in healthy plants compared to infected plants. Reducing sugar is maximum in healthy plants as compared to infected plants. Among tested six natural products used as two foliar applications; Neem Seed Kernel Extract (NSKE) was found most effective with 62.38 per cent disease control. Followed by Panchgavya with 57.50 per cent disease control. Among tested five SAR activators single spray of salicylic acid @250ppm before disease appearance recorded minimum 25.71 per cent disease intensity by decreasing 55.07 per cent disease intensity over control. Out of six fungicides tested for their efficacy for the control of Erysiphe polygoni on pea. Two foliar spray of Hexaconazole @0.1% first at before disease appearance and second at after disease appearance were found minimum 13.85 per cent disease intensity by decreasing 76.55 per cent disease intensity over control followed by Propiconazole was second best recorded with 16.68 per cent disease intensity by decreasing 71.76 per cent disease intensity over control.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Mutagenic Variability in M2 Generation of Clusterbean [Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) Taub.]
    (2022) GURJAR, ADITYA SINGH; Ram Kunwar
    The present investigation was carried out in a set of 322 M2 mutant lines along with 5 check varieties of clusterbean. The progenies employed in the present investigation were derived from parents RGC 1038 and RGr 12-1 treated with three doses of sodium azide (0.3 mM, 0.4 mM and 0.5 mM), three doses of gamma rays (300 Gy, 400 Gy and 500 Gy) and their combination (400 Gy with 0.3 mM, 0.4 mM and 0.5 mM) in seven blocks in Augmented Randomized Block Design during kharif, 2021. 161 progenies of each variety were evaluated for macro and micro mutational changes. In the progenies of RGC 1038, higher frequency of morphological mutants was detected as compared to RGr 12-1. Among chlorophyll deficient mutants, only xantha types were observed in both the varieties with higher frequency in RGr 12-1 as compared to RGC 1038. The analysis of variance showed significant differences among the mutant lines for all of the traits studied, viz., days to 50 per cent flowering, days to maturity, plant height, branches per plant, clusters per plant, pods per cluster, pods per plant, pod length, seeds per pod, 1000- seed weight, seed yield per plant and chlorophyll content, indicated the existence of significant variability among the mutants. The high PCV and GCV were observed for seed yield per plant, pods per cluster and pods per plant. All the characters exhibited high heritability except chlorophyll content. Most of the characters showed high genetic advance as per cent of mean. Test weight and chlorophyll content showed moderate genetic gain while days to 50 per cent flowering and days to maturity revealed low genetic advance as per cent of mean. High genetic advance as per cent of mean coupled with high heritability was observed for plant height, branches per plant, clusters per plant, pods per cluster, pods per plant, pod length, seeds per pod and seed yield per plant. Selection based on these characters will be rewarding for the improvement of clusterbean. The character association analysis revealed that plant height, clusters per plant, pods per cluster, pods per plant, pod length, seeds per pod, test weight and days to maturity had positive and significant correlation with seed yield per plant. The path analysis reported that seeds per pod, pods per plant, test weight and pods per cluster were effective for selecting high yielding mutants as they exhibited high positive direct effect along with a significant positive correlation with seed yield per plant. Based on seed yield per plant, ten high yielding mutant lines viz., T4-66, T2-31, T1-15, T4-57, T5-88, T9-151 identified from the mutant progenies of RGC 1038 and T4-217, T8-304, T6-256 and T2-193 from the progenies of RGr 12-1 could be used in clusterbean breeding programme for generating elite mutant cultivars or through hybridization for obtaining desirable segregants in the subsequent generations.