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Sri Karan Narendra Agriculture University, Jobner

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  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Genetic Studies for Heat Stress Tolerance in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em.Thell.) Through Diallel Analysis
    (2022) Madhu, Choudhary; Hoshiyar Singh
    The present investigation was conducted to analyse combining ability, heterosis, heterobeltiosis, inbreeding depression, components of genetic variance and heat stress tolerance for grain yield and its contributing traits in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell.) in two varying environments created by two dates of sowing viz., normal sown and late sown conditions at Agricultural Research Farm of Rajasthan Agricultural Research Institute (Sri Karan Narendra Agriculture University, Jobner), Durgapura, Jaipur (Rajasthan). The ten genetically diverse parents viz., DPW 621-50, DBW 90, PBW 502, Raj 1482, Raj 4037, UP 2425, Raj 3765, PBW 550, HI 1563 and Raj 4079 crossed in half-diallel fashion (excluding reciprocals) in rabi 2018-19 and for the advance generation F1‟s seed was grown at Wellington (Tamil Nadu), IARI regional sub-station in kharif 2019. The ten parents along with their 45 F1‟s and 45 F2‟s were evaluated in a randomized block design with three replications each in two environments during rabi 2019-20 for grain yield and its contributing traits. The observations were recorded for days to heading, days to maturity, plant height, tillers per plant, flag leaf area, spike length, grains per ear, 1000-grain weight, biomass per plant, grain yield per plant, harvest index, canopy temperature and protein content. The analysis of variance exhibited significant differences among the parents and generations in both the environments for all the studied characters which suggested the presence of sufficient genetic diversity. The G x E interaction revealed significant for all the characters under investigation. Significance of GCA and SCA for all the studied characters in both generations revealed the importance of both additive and non-additive gene action. The ratio of GCA/SCA variance (predictability) indicated the preponderance of non-additive gene action for all the studied characters.Overall estimation revealed that parents viz., Raj 4037, Raj 3765, PBW 502 and Raj 4079 were good general combiner and the crosses DBW 90 x Raj 4037, DPW 621-50 x Raj 4037 and Raj 4037 x Raj 4079 good specific cross combination for grain yield and its contributing traits in both environments. These crosses should be recommended for the handling of segregating generations to obtain the transgressive segregants. Sufficient degree of heterosis and heterobeltiosis were found for all the studied characters. The cross, DPW 621-50 x Raj 4037 in both environments exhibited desirable heterosis and crosses Raj 4037 x Raj 4079 in E1 while, in E2 Raj 4037 x Raj 4079 and Raj 4037 x Raj 3765 showed desirable heterobeltiosis for yield and its all of the contributing traits. The assessment components of genetic variance revealed that both additive (D) and dominance (H1 and H2) components were significant for all the studied characters which showed both components of genetic variance effective in these traits expression. The graphical analysis showed partial to over-dominance for different characters in both environments. The scattering of array points revealed the presence of genetic diversity among the parents for most of the characters. The result of heat susceptibility index (HSI) exhibited that parents viz., UP 2425, PBW 502, Raj 4037 and Raj 4079 were desired for grain yield and some other traits. Among the crosses, DPW 621-50 x Raj 4037 and DBW 90 x Raj 4037 were found more desirable for heat tolerance in most of the studied traits across the generations, should be used as promising breeding material for development for heat stress tolerant wheat cultivars. An overall assessment on the basis of per se performance, SCA effects and heterosis, the crosses viz., Raj 3765 x Raj 4079, Raj 4037 x Raj 4079 and Raj 4037 x Raj 3765 were found promising in both environments for grain yield and its most of the contributing traits. Hence, these crosses should be toss transgressive segregants for grain yield in the segregating generation and they can be used in further breeding programme. An overall assessment of the results of this study suggested that recurrent selection (Hull, 1945), diallel selective mating (Jensen,1970) and bi-parental mating (Joshi and Dhawan, 1966) might be effective breeding approaches for development of superior genotypes and appreciable improvement of bread wheat in future.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Study of Genetic Architecture for Yield and Associated Traits in Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp]
    (2022) Get, Sonu; Shekhawat, S.S.
    This experiment was conducted to study the combining ability, heterosis, and inbreeding depression in ten genetically diverse parents of cowpea in two environment viz., irrigated and rainfed conditions at Rajasthan Agricultural Research Institute (SKNAU, Jobner), Durgapura, Jaipur and the parents were crossed in diallel mating design (excluding reciprocals) in Kharif – 2019 and their F1 seeds were advanced in Summer – 2020. The evaluation trial was conducted in Kharif – 2020 in which ten parents along with their 45 F1 and 45 F2 progenies were grown in a randomized block design with three replications. The observations were recorded for different yield attributing traits and protein content. The objective of this study was to identify promising parents and cross combinations for yield under rainfed condition. Major objective of this study was to identify promising parents and cross combinations for yield under rainfed conditions. The present study reveals the existence of sufficient genetic variability for all the studied characters under both the environments. Highly significant GCA and SCA for all the studied characters in both the generations suggested the importance of both additive and non additive gene action. The GCA/SCA variance ratio (predictability ratio) clearly indicated the preponderance of non-additive gene action. An overall assessment showed that the parent Ajmer sel. and IC-2918 appeared as good general combiners and the cross Ajmer sel. x IC 2918 and CPD-119 x IC-8966 appeared as good cross combinations for seed yield per plant along with its component traits in both the environments. Analysis of the genetic components of variance showed that both additive (D) and non-additive components (H1 and H2) were significant for all the studied characters, indicating the involvement of these genetic components in the expression of the traits.The results of graphical analysis showed partial and over dominance for different characters in irrigated and rainfed conditions. The dispersed array point showed the presence of satisfactory diversity among the parents. An overall assessment based on the per se performance, SCA effects, heterosis and heterobeltiosis revealed that the cross IC-8966 x CAZC-10 in both the environments and Ajmer sel. x IC-2918 and CPD 119 x IC-8966 E1 environment were emerged as good specific cross combinations for seed yield per plant and its associated traits. Therefore, these crosses may be considered suitable under particular environment and may be utilized further in specific breeding programmes. An overall assessment of the result of this study suggested that restricted recurrent selection, diallel selective mating and bi-parental mating or multiple crossing may be used as an effective and alternative approaches for the development of superior genotypes and appreciable improvement of cowpea in forthcoming years
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Genetic Study of Grain Yield and its Contributing Traits in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) under Normal and Limited Moisture Conditions
    (2022) Yadav, Madhu; Ved Prakash
    The present investigation was conducted to analyze combining ability, components of genetic variance, heterosis, heterobeltiosis, inbreeding depression and drought stress tolerance in ten genetically diverse parents viz., BH 946, RD 2592, DWRUB 64, DWRB 137, PL 426, PL 419, RD 103, RD 2035, RD 2052 and RD 2508 in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in two environments viz., E1 – normal irrigated and E2 – limited moisture conditions at Research Farm, Rajasthan Agricultural Research Institute (Sri Karan Narendra Agriculture University, Jobner), Durgapura, Jaipur. These parents were crossed in half-diallel mating design (excluding reciprocals) in rabi 2018-19 and their F1 seeds were advanced in summer 2019. The evaluation trial was conducted in rabi 2019-20 in which 10 parents along with their 45 F1‟s and 45 F2‟s were evaluated in a randomized block design with three replications. The observations were recorded for days to heading, days to maturity, plant height, number of effective tillers per plant, flag leaf area, peduncle length, number of grains per spike, number of spikelets per spike, spike length, biomass per plant, 1000-grain weight, grain yield per spike, grain yield per plant and harvest index. The significant differences among the parents and generations in both the environments for all the studied characters suggested the presence of sufficient genetic variability. Significance of GCA and SCA for all the studied characters in both the generations indicated the importance of both additive and non-additive gene action. The GCA/SCA variance ratio (predictability ratio) indicated the preponderance of non-additive gene action. An overall assessment showed that the parents RD 2508, RD 2052 and PL 419 appeared as good general combiners and the crosses DWRUB 64 x RD 2508 and RD 2592 x PL 419 appeared as good cross combinations for grain yield per plant and its contributing traits in both the environments. Evaluation of the genetic components of variance manifested that both additive (D) and dominance (H1 and H2) components were significant for all the studied characters which indicated that both components were operating in the expression of the traits. The results of graphical analysis revealed partial and over dominance for different characters in normal irrigated and limited moisture conditions. The dispersed array point indicated the presence of satisfactory diversity among the parents. Sufficient degree of heterosis and heterobeltiosis were observed for all the studied characters. The cross DWRUB 64 x RD 2508 in E1 (normal irrigated) and DWRB 137 x RD 2052 in E2 (limited moisture) exhibited desirable heterosis and the cross PL 419 x RD 2052 in E1 (normal irrigated) and PL 419 x RD 2508 in E2 (limited moisture) exhibited desirable heterobeltiosis for grain yield per plant and its attributing characters. An overall assessment on the basis of per se performance, SCA effects and heterosis, revealed that the cross RD 103 x RD 2508 in E1 (normal irrigated) and DWRB 137 x RD 2052 in E2 (limited moisture) environment were emerged as good cross combinations for grain yield per plant and its attributing characters. Hence, these crosses may be considered desirable under particular environment and may be used further in specific breeding programmes. The result of drought susceptibility index (DSI), it could be visualized that parents DWRUB 64, BH 946, RD 103 and RD 2592, were found the most desirable for most of the characters. Among the crosses, RD 2592 x PL 426 and PL 426 x RD 103 were found more desirable as they possessed high drought tolerance for most of the studied traits across the generations and could be used as promising breeding material for the development of new drought tolerant varieties. An overall assessment of the result of this study advocated that restricted recurrent selection, diallel mating design and bi-parental mating could be used as effective and alternative breeding approaches for the development of superior genotype and appreciable improvement of barley in forthcoming years.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Mutagenic Variability in M2 Generation of Clusterbean [Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) Taub.]
    (2022) GURJAR, ADITYA SINGH; Ram Kunwar
    The present investigation was carried out in a set of 322 M2 mutant lines along with 5 check varieties of clusterbean. The progenies employed in the present investigation were derived from parents RGC 1038 and RGr 12-1 treated with three doses of sodium azide (0.3 mM, 0.4 mM and 0.5 mM), three doses of gamma rays (300 Gy, 400 Gy and 500 Gy) and their combination (400 Gy with 0.3 mM, 0.4 mM and 0.5 mM) in seven blocks in Augmented Randomized Block Design during kharif, 2021. 161 progenies of each variety were evaluated for macro and micro mutational changes. In the progenies of RGC 1038, higher frequency of morphological mutants was detected as compared to RGr 12-1. Among chlorophyll deficient mutants, only xantha types were observed in both the varieties with higher frequency in RGr 12-1 as compared to RGC 1038. The analysis of variance showed significant differences among the mutant lines for all of the traits studied, viz., days to 50 per cent flowering, days to maturity, plant height, branches per plant, clusters per plant, pods per cluster, pods per plant, pod length, seeds per pod, 1000- seed weight, seed yield per plant and chlorophyll content, indicated the existence of significant variability among the mutants. The high PCV and GCV were observed for seed yield per plant, pods per cluster and pods per plant. All the characters exhibited high heritability except chlorophyll content. Most of the characters showed high genetic advance as per cent of mean. Test weight and chlorophyll content showed moderate genetic gain while days to 50 per cent flowering and days to maturity revealed low genetic advance as per cent of mean. High genetic advance as per cent of mean coupled with high heritability was observed for plant height, branches per plant, clusters per plant, pods per cluster, pods per plant, pod length, seeds per pod and seed yield per plant. Selection based on these characters will be rewarding for the improvement of clusterbean. The character association analysis revealed that plant height, clusters per plant, pods per cluster, pods per plant, pod length, seeds per pod, test weight and days to maturity had positive and significant correlation with seed yield per plant. The path analysis reported that seeds per pod, pods per plant, test weight and pods per cluster were effective for selecting high yielding mutants as they exhibited high positive direct effect along with a significant positive correlation with seed yield per plant. Based on seed yield per plant, ten high yielding mutant lines viz., T4-66, T2-31, T1-15, T4-57, T5-88, T9-151 identified from the mutant progenies of RGC 1038 and T4-217, T8-304, T6-256 and T2-193 from the progenies of RGr 12-1 could be used in clusterbean breeding programme for generating elite mutant cultivars or through hybridization for obtaining desirable segregants in the subsequent generations.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Evaluation of Genetic Parameters in M4 Generation of Blackgram [Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper]
    (2022) YADAV, MAHIPAL; Rajput, S. S.
    The present investigation was carried out in a set of 72 M4 mutant lines of blackgram. The progenies employed in the present investigation were derived from parents PU 1 and CO 6 with three doses of physical mutagen (gamma rays) viz., 200 Gy, 400 Gy and 600 Gy. Mutants were evaluated in augmented randomized block design with four blocks during kharif, 2021. The analysis of variance showed significant difference among the mutants for all of the traits studied viz., days to 50% flowering, days to maturity, plant height, branches per plant, clusters per plant, pods per cluster, pods per plant, pod length, seeds per pod, 100-seed weight, seed yield per plant and protein content, it indicates existence of significant variability among the mutants. The highest PCV and GCV were observed for seed yield per plant, pods per plant, seeds per pod and plant height. All the characters showed high heritability. Similarly, out of twelve, eight characters showed high genetic advance as percent of mean, while two characters namely pod length and protein content (%) showed moderately and two characters viz., days to 50% flowering and days to maturity revealed low genetic advance as percent of mean. High genetic advance as percent of mean coupled with high heritability were observed for plant height, branches per plant, clusters per plant, pods per plant, seeds per pod, 100-seed weight and seed yield per plant. Selection based on these characters will be rewarding for improvement of the mutants.The character association analysis revealed that pods per plant, branches per plant, seeds per pod, pods per cluster, plant height, pod length, clusters per plant and days to 50% flowering were observed positive and significant with seed yield per plant, whileit was positive and non-significant with days to maturity and protein content. The path analysis revealed that branches per plant, pods per plant, seeds per pod and plant height were effective for the selection of high yielding mutants as they exhibited high positive direct effect along with significant positive correlation with seed yield per plant. On the basis of seed yield per plant, five mutants i.e., T6-70, T1-6, T1-1, T6-72 and T2-14 was found promising over all the checks including parents. Therefore, these high yielding mutant lines identified from the mutant progenies of PU 1 (200Gy and 400Gy) and CO 6 (600Gy) could be used directly in urdbean breeding programme for generating elite mutant cultivars or through hybridization for obtaining desirable segregants in the subsequent generations.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Combining Ability and Stability Analysis for Yield and Yield Attributes in Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.)
    (2022) Nehra, Anju; Gothwal, D.K.
    The present investigation entitled “Combining Ability and Stability Analysis for Yield and Yield Attributes in Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.)” was carried out to study combining ability, components of genetic variance, heterosis, heterobeltiosis and stability analysis for yield and yield attributes under three environmental conditions produced by three different dates of sowing viz., normal, late and very late sowing for yield and its attributes by performing diallel analysis (Griffing Method II, Model I) and Hayman‟s graphical analysis. To achieve the objectives of the present investigation, ten genetically diverse parents, namely, RT-346, TKG-22, RT-372, TC-25, PRAGATI, RT-46, RT-125, RT-103, GT-10 and RT-351 were crossed in half diallel fashion excluding reciprocals in kharif 2019-20. These ten parents along with their 45 F1 progenies were evaluated in a randomized block design with three replications during kharif 2020-21 at Agronomy Farm of S.K.N. College of Agriculture, Jobner (Rajasthan). Significant differences were found among parents for all the traits in all the three environments. The F1 generation also displayed significant difference for all the characters in all the three environments. The GCA and SCA variances were significant for all the traits in all the three environments which indicated the importance of both additive and non-additive genetic control of all the attributes under investigation. The GCA/SCA variance ratio was found below unity which indicatedthe preponderance of non-additive gene action for all the attributes in all the three environments under investigation An overall evaluation of GCA effects over the environments showed that the parents RT-346, TKG-22, RT-372 and RT-351 emerged as good general combiners for seed yield per plant whereas the crosses RT-346 x RT-351, TKG-22 x RT-372, RT-372 x RT-351 and RT-103 x RT-351 appeared as good specific cross combinations for seed yield per plant and its attributes in all the environmental conditions. The evaluation of components of genetic variation manifested that both additive (D) and dominance (H1 and H2) components were significant for all the attributes except capsule girth in very late sown condition where additive dominance model fitted. It indicated that both components were operating in the expression of the traits. The graphical analysis revealed that there was partial dominance to over dominance for different characters under normal, late as well as very late sown conditions. The scattering of array points indicated the existence of genetic diversity among the parents for most of the traits. Sufficient degree of heterosis and heterobeltiosis was observed for all the traits. The crosses, RT-346 × TKG-22, TKG-22 x RT-372, TKG-22 × GT-10, RT-372 × GT-10, RT-372 × RT-351 and GT-10 × RT 351 exhibited significant heterosis and heterobeltiosis for seed yield per plant and some other attributes under all the three environmental conditions. Such crosses may be considered as potential crosses through the transgressive segregants for tangible advancement of sesame yield and oil content under normal, late and very late sown condition. On the basis of per se performance, SCA effects, heterosis and heterobeltiosis, the crosses, RT-346 × TKG-22, TKG-22 x RT-372, RT 372 × GT-10, RT-372 × RT-351 and GT-10 × RT-351 emerged as good crosses for seed yield per plant and the crosses RT-346 x TKG-22, RT- 372 x GT-10, PRAGATI x RT-125, RT-125 x RT-103 and GT-10 x RT 351 were most desirable for oil content in all environmental conditions. Genotype X environment interaction was significant for all the traits under study. On basis of stability analysis, parents TKG-22, GT 10 and RT-351 and crosses TKG-22 x GT-10, RT-372 x RT-103, TC 25 x RT-46, TC-25 x RT-46, RT-103 x GT-10 exhibited stable performance for seed yield per plant in different environmental conditions. On the other hand, crosses RT-346 × TKG-22, RT-346 × RT-351, TKG-22 x RT-372, TKG-22 x TC-25 and RT-372 × RT-351 indicated its suitability and stability under better environmental conditions. These crosses could be utilized as a promising breeding material for the development of new set of sesame varieties. It was concluded that an appreciable progress could be achieved through diallel selective mating or biparental mating in early segregating generations followed by selection. Inclusion of F1 hybrids having high SCA and parents having good GCA into multiple crosses could also prove a worthwhile approach for tangible advancement of seed yield and oil content in sesame
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Evaluation of Lentil (Lens culinaris Medikus) Germplasm for Heat Tolerance
    (2022) CHOUDHARY,SUMAN; Meena, M.K.
    The present investigation was carried out in a set of 48 germplasm lines along with 4 check varieties of lentil, evaluated in augmented design in three environmental conditions viz., normal sown environment (E1), late sown environment (E2) and very late sown environment (E3) with four blocks during rabi, 2021. The analysis of variance showed significant difference among the germplasm lines for all the traits studied viz., days to 50 per cent flowering, days to maturity, plant height (cm), number of primary branches per plant, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, seed yield per plant (g), biological yield per plant (g), harvest index (per cent), 100-seed weight, chlorophyll content (SPAD), relative leaf water content (per cent) and membrane stability index (per cent) in all the environmental conditions. It indicates existence of significant variability among the germplasm lines. The highest PCV and GCV were observed for seed yield per plant and harvest index in all the environmental conditions. All the characters show high heritability. Similarly, out of thirteen, ten characters showed high genetic advance as percent of mean, while three characters viz., chlorophyll content (SPAD), relative leaf water content (per cent) and membrane stability index (per cent) showed moderate genetic advance as per cent of mean. High genetic advance as percent of mean coupled with high heritability were observed for most of the characters viz., days to 50 percent flowering, days to maturity, plant height (cm), number of primary branches per plant, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, seed yield per plant, biological yield per plant, harvest index (per cent) and 100-seed weight in all the environmental conditions. Selection based on these characters will be rewarding for improvement of the germplasm lines. The character association analysis revealed that plant height, numbers of primary branches per plant and number of pods per plant were observed positive and significant with seed yield per plant under all the environmental conditions. The path analysis revealed that number of primary branches per plant and number of pods per plant were effective for the selection of high yielding germplasm lines as they exhibited high positive direct effect along with significant positive correlation with seed yield per plant in all the environmental conditions. On the basis of HSI (Heat Susceptibility Index) three lines viz., RKL 32-8, RKL 47E130 and RKL 1003-53E under late sown environment, two lines RKL 32-8 and RKL 47E130 under very late sown environment were found highly heat tolerant among the examined germplasm lines. The high yielding heat tolerant lines viz., RKL 32-8, RKL 44-10, RKL 47E-130, RKL 608-1, RKL 23C-2741, RKL 35D-62, RKL 1003-35-S and RKL 1003-53E were identified and could be used in lentil breeding programme for generating elite heat tolerant cultivars or through hybridization for obtaining desirable segregants in the subsequent
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
  • ThesisItemOpen Access