ThesisItem Open AccessEffect of Organic Manures and Micronutrients on Root Yield and Seed Production of Carrot (Daucus carota L.)(2022) DHAKA, ASHA; Yadav, D.K.A field experiment was conducted to study the „„Effect of Organic Manures and Micronutrients on Root Yield and Seed Production of carrot (Daucus carota L.)” during rabi season 2021-22 at Horticulture Farm, S.K.N. College of Agriculture, Jobner (Raj.). The experiment consisted of sixteen treatment combinations including four organic manures (no manure, FYM @ 10 t/ha, vermicompost @ 3.5 t/ha and poultry manure @ 2.5 t/ha) and four foliar spray of Micronutrients (control, FeSO4 @ 0.5 %, Borax @ 0.5% and ZnSO4 @ 0.5 %) were under taken in factorial randomized block design with three replications. The results of the study clearly indicated that application of poultry manure @ 2.5 t/ha to carrot significantly increased the plant height (cm), number of shoots per plant, chlorophyll content in leaves, days to 50% umbel initiation, average weight of marketable root (g),diameter of roots (cm),length of roots, shoots : roots ratio, core diameter (cm), roots yield (q/ha), number of umbels per plant, number of seed per umbel, diameter of umbel, seed weight per plant, days to seed maturity and seed yield per hectare(q/ ha) ,carotene content in roots, sugar content in roots, test weight of seed and net returns ( 334519/ha) and B:C (3.22) ratio of roots yield and net return ( 395741 ) and B: C (3.81) ratio of seed yield seen as for compared to control and FYM @ 10 t/ ha which was statistically at par with vermicompost @ 3.5 t/ha except net return and B:C ratio of root yield . Similarly, application of ZnSO4 @ 0.5 per cent as foliar spray significantly increased the plant height (cm), number of shoots per plant, chlorophyll content in leaves, days to 50% umbel initiation, average weight of marketable root (g), diameter of roots (cm), length of roots, shoots : roots ratio, core diameter (cm), roots yield (q/ha), number of umbels per plant, number of seed per umbel, diameter of umbel, seed weight per plant, days to seed maturity and seed yield per hectare( q/ha) carotene content (mg/ 100g) and sugar content (total sugar, reducing sugar and non – reducing sugar), net returns ( 340879/ha) and B:C ratio (3.50) of root yield and net returns( 400842/ha) and B:C (4.13) ratio of seed yield as compared to control and FeSO4 @ 0.5 percent which was statistically as per with borax @ 0.5 per cent except reducing sugar and net return and B:C ratio of root yield . Further, it can be concluded that combined application of poultry manure @ 2.5 t/ha with foliar spray of ZnSO4 @ 0.5 per cent proved to be the most superior treatment combination as it fetched comparable root yield (342.87 q/ha), seed yield (7.17 q/ha), net return ( 410334/ha) and B:C (3.95) ratio of root yield and net return ( 469393/ha) and B:C (4.51) ratio of seed yield ThesisItem Open AccessEconomics of Production and Marketing of Milk in Jaipur District of Rajasthan(2022) GAHLOT, DISHA; Kharkwal, SheelaEconomics of Production and Marketing of Milk in Jaipur District of Rajasthan Disha Gahlot Dr. Sheela Kharkwal** (Research Scholar) (Major Advisor) ABSTRACT The present investigation has been undertaken in Jaipur district of Rajasthan with a view to identify the prevalent dairy marketing channels of milk in Jaipur district, factors affecting the farmer‘s choice of specific dairy outlet, economics of production and marketing of milk and constraints faced by farmers in production and marketing of milk. Total 80 milk producing farmers were selected through multistage purposive sampling method, from two rural and two peri-urban villages of Jaipur district for the detailed study. Primary data for agricultural year 2021-22 and secondary data on animal population, livestock holding, milk production and per capita availability of milk in Jaipur district were collected and submitted to various techniques and tools for drawing the results and relevant conclusions. The prevalent milk marketing channels in the study region were: channel-I (Producer – Consumer), channel II (Producer - Milk vendor Consumer) and channel- III (Producer – Collection centre – Co-operative milk plant – Consumer). Among these marketing channels, Channel-III was the most preferred channel of milk marketing, as it was opted by 47.50 per cent of the total farmers followed by Channel-I ( 28.75 %) and Channel-II (23.75 %). A multinomial logit (MNL) model was used to identify the factors affecting farmer‘s decision of choosing a particular milk-marketing outlet. Herd size, marketable surplus, caste categories, access to institutional credit, BPL economic class, income from livestock and breed type of animals were few significant factors observed in making a choice amongst the three milk marketing channel decisions. The total maintenance cost of local cow, crossbred and buffalo was ₹ 225.64, 364.52 and 379.81/day/animal, respectively and the gross returns per animal were estimated at ₹ 256.64, 467.07 and 566.19 per day per animal for local cow, crossbred and buffalo, respectively. The corresponding proceeds per rupee from local cow, crossbred and buffalo were 1.13, 1.28 and 1.49. The overall total maintenance cost of per SAUs (Standard Animal Units) of milch animal was estimated to be ₹ 264.69 /SAUs/ hh, while the gross returns were estimated to be ₹ 389.61 /SAUs/ hh. The overall proceeds per rupee from SAUs were calculated at 1.47. On the other hand, total marketing cost was estimated at ₹ 8.89/lit. in channel III followed by channel II (₹ 5.95/lit.) and channel I (₹ 4.01/lit.). The marketing margin was calculated as ₹ 3.18/ lit. in channel II and ₹ 4.97/lit. in channel III. The market efficiency of channel-I was highest at 11.48 per cent, followed by channel-II (5.30%) and channel-III (3.77%). The farmer‘s share in the consumer rupee was estimated at 91.29 percent in channel-I, 79.93 percent in channel-II and 73.60 per cent in channel –III. Among different constraints, untimely availability of quality feed and fodder was the most serious technical constraint, high cost of feed and fodder was the major financial problem faced by dairy farmer Inadequate market intelligence was the marketing problem while lack of knowledge about well designed dairy shed was the in management constraints faced by the sample respondents. The study submits that there is need to train dairy owners about scientific management practices in rearing of milch animals for better health, disease control, and performance. Feed quality testing laboratories must be setup to ensure the quality of feed, to enhance animal‘s productivity. Farmers should be made aware about quality parameters like fat percentage in the milk, or even provided with affordable fat testing kits through Pashu Vigyan Kendras/ KVKs, so that farmers can test milk at their level and be assured about the prices they receive in the collection centres. Institutional sources should provide easy and cheaper loans to farmers for purchasing animals up to certain limit without any collateral. ThesisItem Open AccessStudy of Genetic Architecture for Yield and Associated Traits in Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp](2022) Get, Sonu; Shekhawat, S.S.This experiment was conducted to study the combining ability, heterosis, and inbreeding depression in ten genetically diverse parents of cowpea in two environment viz., irrigated and rainfed conditions at Rajasthan Agricultural Research Institute (SKNAU, Jobner), Durgapura, Jaipur and the parents were crossed in diallel mating design (excluding reciprocals) in Kharif – 2019 and their F1 seeds were advanced in Summer – 2020. The evaluation trial was conducted in Kharif – 2020 in which ten parents along with their 45 F1 and 45 F2 progenies were grown in a randomized block design with three replications. The observations were recorded for different yield attributing traits and protein content. The objective of this study was to identify promising parents and cross combinations for yield under rainfed condition. Major objective of this study was to identify promising parents and cross combinations for yield under rainfed conditions. The present study reveals the existence of sufficient genetic variability for all the studied characters under both the environments. Highly significant GCA and SCA for all the studied characters in both the generations suggested the importance of both additive and non additive gene action. The GCA/SCA variance ratio (predictability ratio) clearly indicated the preponderance of non-additive gene action. An overall assessment showed that the parent Ajmer sel. and IC-2918 appeared as good general combiners and the cross Ajmer sel. x IC 2918 and CPD-119 x IC-8966 appeared as good cross combinations for seed yield per plant along with its component traits in both the environments. Analysis of the genetic components of variance showed that both additive (D) and non-additive components (H1 and H2) were significant for all the studied characters, indicating the involvement of these genetic components in the expression of the traits.The results of graphical analysis showed partial and over dominance for different characters in irrigated and rainfed conditions. The dispersed array point showed the presence of satisfactory diversity among the parents. An overall assessment based on the per se performance, SCA effects, heterosis and heterobeltiosis revealed that the cross IC-8966 x CAZC-10 in both the environments and Ajmer sel. x IC-2918 and CPD 119 x IC-8966 E1 environment were emerged as good specific cross combinations for seed yield per plant and its associated traits. Therefore, these crosses may be considered suitable under particular environment and may be utilized further in specific breeding programmes. An overall assessment of the result of this study suggested that restricted recurrent selection, diallel selective mating and bi-parental mating or multiple crossing may be used as an effective and alternative approaches for the development of superior genotypes and appreciable improvement of cowpea in forthcoming years ThesisItem UnknownUtilization of ICT Tools for Crop Practices by the Farmers of Jaipur District of Rajasthan(2022) Haritwal, Kamlesh; Khan, I.M.ICT revolution is the consequence of integration of computer technology and communication technology. In this information age, the ICTs play a pivotal medium for knowledge dissemination between research systems and farming system. Rural population in our country still have issues in accessing essential information in the forms they'll perceive so as to form timely decisions for better farming. In previous couple of years innovative ideas came in to existence. Indian farming community is at present facing multitude of problems to maximize crop productivity. The use of information is wide and multifarious. But a very wide gap exists between the research level and actual practices. Therefore, in the backdrop of the issues discussed above, the present investigation “Utilization of ICT Tools for Crop Practices by the Farmers of Jaipur District of Rajasthan” was undertaken with following specific objectives: 1. To study the socio-economic characteristics of the farmers. 2. To measure the availability and utilization of ICT tools for crop practices by the farmers. 3. To find out the relationship between socio-economic characteristics of the farmers and extent of utilization of ICT tools for crop practices by the farmers. 4. To identify the constraints faced by the farmers in utilization of ICT tools. The study was conducted in Jobner Panchayat Samiti of Jaipur district of Rajasthan. Out of 22 panchayat samities in Jaipur district Jobner panchayat samiti was selected purposively. Four gram panchayats consisting of 2 adjacent and 2 distant gram panchayats were selected from Jobner panchayat samiti. Two villages were selected from each gram panchayat and 15 farmers were selected randomly from each selected village constituting a sample of 120 farmers for study purpose. An interview schedule was prepared and face to face interview was carried out with farmers. Appropriate statistical tests were used for data analysis, which led to following findings. 1. It was found that out of total farmers majority of farmers were from young age group (up to 35 years) and about one fourth farmers were educated up to graduation. Majority of farmers were from small farmers group (1.00 to 2.00 ha.), were having income level from Rs. 200000 to 400000, member of more than one organization, having small family, had medium mass media exposure with agriculture occupation and medium level of mechanical power. 2. Majority of farmers had medium level of availability of ICT tools, with mobile phone followed by television. Majority of farmers had low level of use ICT tools, farmers used mobile phone on daily basis. Majority of farmers had medium level of use of ICT tools in different farming/ allied activities and use of ICT tools in different farming / allied activity majority of adjacent farmers always used ICT tools in pulse crops, whereas distant farmers always used ICT tools in organic farming. Majority of farmers had medium level of use of ICT tools in different crop cultivation practices, use of ICT tools in different crop cultivation practices majority of farmers always used ICT tools in manures and fertilizers. Majority of farmers had medium level of use of farming apps, with majority of Iffco kisan aap. 3 It was found that education, annual income, social participation, size of land holding, mass media exposure, occupation and machanical power were found positively and significantly correlated with the extent of utilization of ICT tools at 1% level of significance. The age and family size of farmers were negatively and non-significantly related with their extent of utilization of ICT tools. 4. The study revealed that majority of both adjacent and distant farmers faced medium level of constraints in utilization of ICT tools for crop practices. The constraints “physical problem (eye pain etc.)” was perceived major problem by the farmers ThesisItem Open AccessEffect of fertility levels and weed management practices on weed dynamics, growth, yield and quality of linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) and their residual effect on fodder pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.)(2022) Singh, Deshraj; Gupta, K. C.Present field experiment was conducted at experimental farm, Rajasthan Agricultural Research Institute, Durgapura – Jaipur for two consecutive years during Rabi season of 2016-17 and 2017-18 to evaluate the effect of treatments on weed dynamics, growth, yield, quality and economics of the crop followed with Summer 2017 and 2018 for assessing residual effect of fertility levels and weed management practices on succeeding fodder pearl millet on loamy sand soil. There were 28 treatment combinations consisting of 04 fertility levels (75 % RDF, 100 % RDF, 125 % RDF and 150 % RDF) and 07 weed management practices (Weedy check, hand weeding, Pendimethalin 30 EC, Pendimethalin 38.7 CS, Clodinafop propargyl 15 WP and Imazethapyr 10 % SL and Weed free) were tested in factorial randomized block design with three replications. Results indicated that 150 % RDF dose proved significantly superior to other fertility levels with respect to plant height, number of branches per plant, per plant dry matter accumulation (g) and leaf area (cm2 ). The yield attributes viz. number of capsules plant-1 and weight of capsules plant-1 (g) and seed, stover and biological yields were significantly higher in 150 % fertility level. The uptake of NPK was also significantly higher with the application of 150 % RDF dose. Oil and protein yield were also recorded significantly higher under 150 % RDF. Results showed that weed density of most of broad leaved weeds were most effectively controlled by pre-emergence application of Pendimethalin 38.7 CS followed by Pendimethalin 30 EC, Imazethapyr 10 % SL and Clodinafop propargyl 15 WP. Similarly grassy weeds were most effectively controlled by Pendimethalin 38.7 CS followed by Pendimethalin 30 EC, Clodinafop propargyl 15 WP and Imazethapyr 10 % SL. Maximum seed and stover yields were obtained under weed free and hand weeding at 20-25 DAS followed with Pendimethalin 38.7 CS. However, maximum net returns and B:C ratio (Rs. 43153 ha-1 and 2.31) were obtained under application of Pendimethalin 38.7 CS. Amongst the combined use of studied production factors, application of 150 % RDF along with weed free proved optimum for realizing higher productivity (1509 kg ha-1 ). Further, the application of 150 % RDF along with Pendimethalin 38.7 CS proved optimum for realizing higher net returns (Rs. 50023 ha-1 with B:C ratio of 2.50). The result of present investigation suggested that the application of 150 % RDF and Pendimethalin 38.7 CS or hand weeding proved as sustainable approach to augment the productivity and profitability of crop. There was no significant residual effect of fertility levels and weed management practices on succeeding summer fodder pearl millet ThesisItem Open AccessPopulation Abundance and Eco-friendly Management of Pest Complex on Okra, Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench under Semi Arid Agro-ecosystem of Rajasthan(2022) Choudhary, Pradeep; Dhaka, S.R.The study on “Population Abundance and Eco-friendly Management of Pest Complex on Okra, Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench under Semi Arid Agro-ecosystem of Rajasthan” was carried out at Rajasthan Agricultural Research Institute, SKNAU, Durgapura, Jaipur during years 2018 and 2019. Observations on population abundance of pest complex in okra showed whitefly population peak level in last week of September during 2018 and in first week of October during 2019. Minimum temperature during 2018 and morning and evening relative humidity and rainfall during 2019 showed significant and negative influence on population of whitefly. The leafhopper attained the peak in last week of August during 2018 and 2019. During 2018, maximum temperature, morning and evening relative humidity and rainfall showed positive and significant correlation with leafhopper population. Mite pest reached the peak in second week of October. During 2018, maximum temperature showed positive, while, minimum temperature and morning and evening relative humidity showed significant and negative correlation with mite population. Likewise, the influence of minimum temperature and morning and evening relative humidity was significant and negative on mite abundance during 2019. Infestation of shoot caused by shoot and fruit borer reached the maximum level in second week of September during both the years. Here, maximum temperature exhibited significant and negative influence during 2018, while, morning and evening relative humidity showed significant and positive influence during 2019 on shoot infestation. The fruit damage was recorded at maximum level on number and weight basis in last picking done in fourth week of October during both the years. The influence of minimum temperature and morning ThesisItem Open AccessBiochemical Changes in Pea Due to Powdery Mildew Incited by Erysiphe polygoni DC and its Management(2022) MEENA, DINESH KUMAR; Singh, JitendraPea (Pisum sativum L.) is an important cool season crop, belongs to the Leguminosae family. Pulses are providing quality food to teeming million and restoring soil fertility through nitrogen fixation. Pea crop is damaged by many fungal, viral and bacterial diseases. Powdery mildew of pea incited by Erysiphe polygoni emerged as a major disease in Rajasthan. Generally, this disease appeared in the first week of March and reaches at peak in April. Powdery mildew of pea is detected by presence of white floury patches appearing on upper and lower sides of the leaves as well as pods, stem, tendril etc. in extreme condition it causes significant losses in quantity and quality of the seed. In vitro studies showed that the highest conidial germination was reported at 250C temperature and 80 per cent relative humidity. Among biochemical basis of resistance in pea, peroxidase and phenol content are minimum in healthy plants compared to infected plants. Reducing sugar is maximum in healthy plants as compared to infected plants. Among tested six natural products used as two foliar applications; Neem Seed Kernel Extract (NSKE) was found most effective with 62.38 per cent disease control. Followed by Panchgavya with 57.50 per cent disease control. Among tested five SAR activators single spray of salicylic acid @250ppm before disease appearance recorded minimum 25.71 per cent disease intensity by decreasing 55.07 per cent disease intensity over control. Out of six fungicides tested for their efficacy for the control of Erysiphe polygoni on pea. Two foliar spray of Hexaconazole @0.1% first at before disease appearance and second at after disease appearance were found minimum 13.85 per cent disease intensity by decreasing 76.55 per cent disease intensity over control followed by Propiconazole was second best recorded with 16.68 per cent disease intensity by decreasing 71.76 per cent disease intensity over control. ThesisItem Open AccessGenetic Study of Grain Yield and its Contributing Traits in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) under Normal and Limited Moisture Conditions(2022) Yadav, Madhu; Ved PrakashThe present investigation was conducted to analyze combining ability, components of genetic variance, heterosis, heterobeltiosis, inbreeding depression and drought stress tolerance in ten genetically diverse parents viz., BH 946, RD 2592, DWRUB 64, DWRB 137, PL 426, PL 419, RD 103, RD 2035, RD 2052 and RD 2508 in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in two environments viz., E1 – normal irrigated and E2 – limited moisture conditions at Research Farm, Rajasthan Agricultural Research Institute (Sri Karan Narendra Agriculture University, Jobner), Durgapura, Jaipur. These parents were crossed in half-diallel mating design (excluding reciprocals) in rabi 2018-19 and their F1 seeds were advanced in summer 2019. The evaluation trial was conducted in rabi 2019-20 in which 10 parents along with their 45 F1‟s and 45 F2‟s were evaluated in a randomized block design with three replications. The observations were recorded for days to heading, days to maturity, plant height, number of effective tillers per plant, flag leaf area, peduncle length, number of grains per spike, number of spikelets per spike, spike length, biomass per plant, 1000-grain weight, grain yield per spike, grain yield per plant and harvest index. The significant differences among the parents and generations in both the environments for all the studied characters suggested the presence of sufficient genetic variability. Significance of GCA and SCA for all the studied characters in both the generations indicated the importance of both additive and non-additive gene action. The GCA/SCA variance ratio (predictability ratio) indicated the preponderance of non-additive gene action. An overall assessment showed that the parents RD 2508, RD 2052 and PL 419 appeared as good general combiners and the crosses DWRUB 64 x RD 2508 and RD 2592 x PL 419 appeared as good cross combinations for grain yield per plant and its contributing traits in both the environments. Evaluation of the genetic components of variance manifested that both additive (D) and dominance (H1 and H2) components were significant for all the studied characters which indicated that both components were operating in the expression of the traits. The results of graphical analysis revealed partial and over dominance for different characters in normal irrigated and limited moisture conditions. The dispersed array point indicated the presence of satisfactory diversity among the parents. Sufficient degree of heterosis and heterobeltiosis were observed for all the studied characters. The cross DWRUB 64 x RD 2508 in E1 (normal irrigated) and DWRB 137 x RD 2052 in E2 (limited moisture) exhibited desirable heterosis and the cross PL 419 x RD 2052 in E1 (normal irrigated) and PL 419 x RD 2508 in E2 (limited moisture) exhibited desirable heterobeltiosis for grain yield per plant and its attributing characters. An overall assessment on the basis of per se performance, SCA effects and heterosis, revealed that the cross RD 103 x RD 2508 in E1 (normal irrigated) and DWRB 137 x RD 2052 in E2 (limited moisture) environment were emerged as good cross combinations for grain yield per plant and its attributing characters. Hence, these crosses may be considered desirable under particular environment and may be used further in specific breeding programmes. The result of drought susceptibility index (DSI), it could be visualized that parents DWRUB 64, BH 946, RD 103 and RD 2592, were found the most desirable for most of the characters. Among the crosses, RD 2592 x PL 426 and PL 426 x RD 103 were found more desirable as they possessed high drought tolerance for most of the studied traits across the generations and could be used as promising breeding material for the development of new drought tolerant varieties. An overall assessment of the result of this study advocated that restricted recurrent selection, diallel mating design and bi-parental mating could be used as effective and alternative breeding approaches for the development of superior genotype and appreciable improvement of barley in forthcoming years. ThesisItem Open AccessMutagenic Variability in M2 Generation of Clusterbean [Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) Taub.](2022) GURJAR, ADITYA SINGH; Ram KunwarThe present investigation was carried out in a set of 322 M2 mutant lines along with 5 check varieties of clusterbean. The progenies employed in the present investigation were derived from parents RGC 1038 and RGr 12-1 treated with three doses of sodium azide (0.3 mM, 0.4 mM and 0.5 mM), three doses of gamma rays (300 Gy, 400 Gy and 500 Gy) and their combination (400 Gy with 0.3 mM, 0.4 mM and 0.5 mM) in seven blocks in Augmented Randomized Block Design during kharif, 2021. 161 progenies of each variety were evaluated for macro and micro mutational changes. In the progenies of RGC 1038, higher frequency of morphological mutants was detected as compared to RGr 12-1. Among chlorophyll deficient mutants, only xantha types were observed in both the varieties with higher frequency in RGr 12-1 as compared to RGC 1038. The analysis of variance showed significant differences among the mutant lines for all of the traits studied, viz., days to 50 per cent flowering, days to maturity, plant height, branches per plant, clusters per plant, pods per cluster, pods per plant, pod length, seeds per pod, 1000- seed weight, seed yield per plant and chlorophyll content, indicated the existence of significant variability among the mutants. The high PCV and GCV were observed for seed yield per plant, pods per cluster and pods per plant. All the characters exhibited high heritability except chlorophyll content. Most of the characters showed high genetic advance as per cent of mean. Test weight and chlorophyll content showed moderate genetic gain while days to 50 per cent flowering and days to maturity revealed low genetic advance as per cent of mean. High genetic advance as per cent of mean coupled with high heritability was observed for plant height, branches per plant, clusters per plant, pods per cluster, pods per plant, pod length, seeds per pod and seed yield per plant. Selection based on these characters will be rewarding for the improvement of clusterbean. The character association analysis revealed that plant height, clusters per plant, pods per cluster, pods per plant, pod length, seeds per pod, test weight and days to maturity had positive and significant correlation with seed yield per plant. The path analysis reported that seeds per pod, pods per plant, test weight and pods per cluster were effective for selecting high yielding mutants as they exhibited high positive direct effect along with a significant positive correlation with seed yield per plant. Based on seed yield per plant, ten high yielding mutant lines viz., T4-66, T2-31, T1-15, T4-57, T5-88, T9-151 identified from the mutant progenies of RGC 1038 and T4-217, T8-304, T6-256 and T2-193 from the progenies of RGr 12-1 could be used in clusterbean breeding programme for generating elite mutant cultivars or through hybridization for obtaining desirable segregants in the subsequent generations.