Loading...
Thumbnail Image

Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur

Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, is an autonomous nonprofit, research and educational organization working for the up-liftment of farmer's livelihood of Chhattisgarh. Education, Research and Extension are the major activities coordinated through agriculture, veterinary, dairy and agricultural engineering faculties and Directorates of instruction, research and extension. Grant in aid is received from ICAR, State Government and international agencies. Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur, has a long historical background. IGKV was established on 20 th January 1987 after bifurcating from Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Jabalpur . From that time to this date, the University has been expanded several fold. In the British regime one Agricultural Research Station was established in 1903 known as “Labhandi Farm” at Raipur . This Labhandi Farm had grown slowly and today it has become the campus of Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur . In Between, Rice Research Station (RRS) was established in mid sixties. Later in 1974 Madhya Pradesh Rice Research Institute (MPRRI) was established under the able leadership of great rice scientist Dr. R.H. Richharia. The College of Agriculture was established in 1961 under the government of Madhya Pradesh and it was shifted to the present campus in 1964. After the establishment of Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Jabalpur in 1964 as a State Agricultural University (SAU) under the land-grant pattern of USA , the College of Agriculture became a constituent college of Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwavidyalaya , Jabalpur , Madhya Pradesh. In 1979 National Agricultural Research Project (NARP) came into existence with the financial support of World Bank. The jurisdiction area of IGKV is the entire Chhattisgarh State situated in Eastern India consisting of 18 districts having 3 different Agro climatic Zones. The state is larger than Punjab , Haryana and Kerala states when put together. Rice is the main crop grown during the monsoon season (June-September). In fact, the role and responsibility of IGKV is vital, because it has to cater the needs of socio-economically resource poor, relatively illiterate and tribal farmers with tradition bound agriculture.

Browse

Search Results

Now showing 1 - 9 of 5092
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Studies on process mechanization and storage of gorgan nut (Euryale ferox) for enhanced recovery of popped makhana
    (Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur (C.G.), 2022) Karre, Mithun; Patel, S.; Khokhar, D.; Soni, Ravindra; Saxena, R.R.
    Plastics produced commonly from non-degradable petrochemicals have raised serious soil pollution, environmental and health concerns due to its improper disposal, which have triggered researchers to find alternative degradable plastics. Researchers developed biodegradable plastics from renewable natural resources, such as starches, proteins, fats, gums, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, chitosan, resins and their combination thereof. In the recent years, biodegradable plastics utilization has geared up in food packaging sector as primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary and edible packaging of fresh, semi-processed, and processed foods, i.e., fruits, vegetables, cereals and pulses. However, the research is very limited on the utilization of agro-industrial by-product wastes and some renewable resources, unexplored which otherwise can be viable source in the development of biodegradable polymers. The recent advances in the polymers are the incorporation of nanoparticles and extracts into the film forming solution matrix. In the past much of the work has been done on the development of biodegradable film with different combinations of various ingredients. Interestingly none have attempted to extract cellulose from spent lemongrass and preparation of cellulose nanocrystals in the development of biodegradable film. Spent lemongrass, an industrial by-product of lemongrass essential oil manufacturing industries globally had not been into the limelight of biodegradable packaging. These cellulosic rich naturally occurring spent applications were unearthed in the recent years. Still, the research on application of spent lemongrass cellulose and its nanoparticles in biodegradable packaging stands scanty. Lemongrass is very popular for its aromatic aura and its oil, which has wide application in the foods, cosmetics and in medicine. A huge quantity of spent is produced annually due to the increased cultivation of lemongrass. However, the high value application of spent straw cellulose in the preparation of biodegradable packaging film left unexplored. Considering the wide availability of spent lemongrass waste, the present work was planned to develop biodegradable film using spent lemongrass cellulose nanocrystals, chitosan and glycerol. The present research is divided into three parts. i.e., extraction of cellulose and its conversion into cellulose nanocrystals, development of biodegradable film using the film forming solutions by varying concentrations of cellulose nanocrystals, chitosan and glycerol and its optimization based on physico-mechanical properties and evaluation of biodegradability, and to find out the suitability of developed film as packaging material to store white button mushrooms. Series of unit operations viz., cleaning, drying, grinding, sieving, defatting, alkali treatment, acid treatment, bleaching treatment were given to each passing by treated spent to get pure form of cellulose by eliminating oil residues, hemicelluloses and lignin. Two methods, KOH-CH3COOH treatment and NaOH-HCl treatment were employed to extract cellulose from the spent lemongrass. Based on the comparatively higher cellulose yield, KOH-CH3COOH method was adopted. The cellulose nanocrystals were prepared by sulfuric acid hydrolysis of the spent lemongrass cellulose. Different films were developed by varying concentrations of chitosan (2.4-3.6%, w/3v), cellulose nanocrystals (0.1-0.3%, w/wch), glycerol (5-15%, v/wch) according to the Box-Behnken Design. The design (BBD) consisted of 15 experiments. The spent lemongrass cellulose nanocrystals, chitosan and glycerol were used in the preparation of film forming solution which was further casted onto a polypropylene surface to develop biodegradable film. The effect of varying concentration of chitosan, cellulose nanocrystals and glycerol on physico-mechanical responses like thickness (T), water vapour permeability (WVP), swelling index (SI), film transparency (Tf), tensile strength (TS), elongation at break (EAB) and puncture strength (PS) were investigated. The thickness (T), water vapour permeability (WVP), swelling index (SI), film transparency (Tf), tensile strength (TS), elongation at break (EAB) and puncture strength (PS) of the developed films ranged 0.030-0.046 mm, 3.13×10-9-5.89×10-9 g/s.m.Pa, 253.57-617.92%, 82.05-87.75%, 40.1-65.55 MPa, 2.25-19.3%, 12.49-19.96 N, respectively with the varying concentrations of cellulose nanocrystals, chitosan and glycerol. Analyses of the variances (ANOVA) and regression equations for all the responses were obtained using Design Expert Software 13.0.5.0. The process parameters were optimized by setting the goals to obtain desired quality product using the same software. The ANOVA indicated that the physical and mechanical properties of the developed films were significantly influenced by the independent process variables. On the basis of responses data obtained through these 15 experiments, the optimal conditions of the process variables were determined as chitosan concentration of 3.075% (w/3v), spent lemongrass CNC concentration of 0.3% (w/wch) and glycerol concentration of 12.24% (v/wch). The film developed with film forming solution of such optimal process variables was having a desirability index of 0.796. Soil burial test was conducted for developed films which revealed that chitosan film and developed film (chitosan-CNC-glycerol) resulted in a weight loss of 64.60% and 62.22%, respectively. The shelf-life of white button mushrooms was determined using three different packaging materials (chitosan film, developed film and PLA-PBAT (control) film) for a storage period of 12 days under refrigerated condition of 4°C. The white button mushrooms were found have market acceptable qualities based on the sensory evaluation up to 3rd day packed in chitosan film packages, 6th day in developed film (chitosan-CNC-glycerol) packages and 9th day in case of control film packages.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Development of protein Rich Products from oil cakes & Their Shelf life extension using Gumma irrediation
    (Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur (C.G.), 2022) Kumari, Asha; Patel, S.; Jamdar, S.N.; Khokhar, D.; Tripathi, M.P.; Saxena, R.R.
    In India, oilseed crops are cultivated in about 31 million hectares, with a total production of nearly 24 million tons. Oilseeds occupy an important position in the Indian economy. The most important oilseed crops grown in India are groundnut, rapeseed, mustard, sesame, linseed, safflower, castor, sunflower, niger and soybean. India is one of the major oilseeds’ grower but however an importer of edible oils. In oilseeds, a large amount of storage proteins are accumulated and sequestered as protein bodies. Proteins are important in food processing and food product development, as they are responsible for various functional properties that influence consumer acceptability. Bothanimal and plant proteins are used commercially as functional ingredients. Plant proteins arethe most abundant in the world. A number of vegetable proteins have been tried for incorporation in various food products as functional and nutritional ingredients.Oilseed protein products are rapidly gaining importance in protein supplementation because of their unique functional properties. The intrinsic properties of proteins like the amino acid composition and conformation of the proteins, methods and conditions for their isolation,degree of purification and processing alterations are some of the important factors that influence the functional properties of food proteins. Various approaches like chemical modification, physical treatments and enzymatic modification have been tried to improvefunctional characteristics of proteins. Soybean, groundnut and sesame are the most widely cultivated oilseeds all over the world.Dehulled soybean contains 17-18% oil and 25-35% protein depending on the variety. Similarly, dehulled groundnut depending on the variety contains 50-60% oil and 30-35% protein. Defatted soybean flour contains 50-55% protein of good nutritional quality. Soybean proteins are rich in lysine and deficient in methionine. The major intrinsic anti nutritional factor is trypsin inhibitor, which affects its utility. Groundnut proteins are deficient in lysine and methionine. The protein digestibility corrected amino acid score for soy protein and groundnut protein is 0.92 and 0.52 respectively. The protein ingredients such as defattedflour, protein concentrate and protein isolates from these sources have a good potential for preparing speciality foods under native and modified conditions. The protein hydrolysates obtained from these sources can effectively replace commercially available milk protein hydrolysates because of their good nutritional quality. Food irradiation is a technology that addresses both food quality and safety because of its ability to, inactivate the parasites, spoilage, and food-borne pathogenic microorganisms, and control the post-harvest losses caused by insect infestation without significantly affecting the sensory or organoleptic attributes of food. Food irradiation along with combination treatment helps in achieving better shelf life of food which can be nutritious food to address the dietary needs of target groups such as army, mid-day meals for children, astronauts, traveller as well as immune-compromised patients (ICPs). Irradiation reduces the use of preservatives and chemicals to preserve food which acts as long-term health advantage. Hence, a prolonged increased in shelf life could be achieved with use of radiation processing which will be helpful in preventing food losses in world scale. Present study was carried under Food Quality and Nutrition Evaluation Group, Food Technology Division in Bhabha Atomic Research Centre,Mumbai, Maharashtra and Department of Agricultural Processing and Food Engineering, Swami Vivekanand College of Agricultural Engineering and Technology and Research Station, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur, Chhattisgarh. The present investigation for developing a protein rich product and extension of shelf life by using gamma ray wasundertaken with inclusion of studyof the radiation processing of oilseeds for fungal spore decontamination, assessment of the effect of irradiation on oil extraction and quality of oil and oilcakes, preparation of a protein isolate and protein hydrolysate from the mixtures of oil cakes, assessment of the functional properties and nutritional parameters of the protein isolates/hydrolysates and development of a shelf stable protein/energy enriched products from oil cakes/protein isolates. The seed samples of groundnut, sesame and soybean were screened to remove organic and inorganic foreign particles and then in dry state packed in double layer aluminium laminated pouches of 500 g each, to preserve it for further investigations. For irradiation, oilseeds (groundnut, soybean, sesame) were packed (500 g and 1Kg) in multilayered (12 mm polyester/12 mm aluminium foil/75 mm cast polypropylene) laminated pouches (dimension 15×20 cm) and vacuum packed at 90%. Out of these bags, one bag for each sample served as control i.e., non-irradiated and the other bag served as irradiated sample. The samples were then subjected to irradiation in Gamma Cell 5000 at FTD, FIPLY, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai. The samples were exposed to gamma irradiation dosage from 0.5 to 5.0 kGy (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0) with dose rate of 1.4 kGy/h. The gamma rays were obtained from Cobalt-60 source. Dose rate was determined using standard Fricke dosimetry (Sehsted,1970). Effect of varying dose levels was observed on the basis of microbial load. It was seen that no fungal growth was detected at 5.0 kGy dose indicating adequacy of dose for decontamination of the seed samples. Therefore it was decided to standardize the dose of 5 kGy gamma rays at the rate of 1.4 kGy/h which is considered to be safe for further processing. For preparation of flour from these oilseeds, whole seeds of groundnut, soybean and sesame were put into the hopper of seeds to oil machine which is a cold press machine. After the process of extraction, the de-oiled cake was separated from oil. Both the oil and the de-oiled cakes were placed in separate containers. The extracted oil was employed for quality analysis pertaining to different parameters. Then de-oiled cakes were pulverized into fine flour with mixer grinder and sorted in self sealable polyethylene bags. This process was employed for both irradiated and non-irradiated samples. Microbial analysis for oilseeds (groundnut, soybean, sesame)was performed on 0 day, 1,2,4,6 months. Microbial analysis for energy bar, protein powder and vegan curd was performed on 0 day to 150 days. Pour plate technique was used for PCA whereas spread plate technique was used for RBA. PCA was used for total aerobic bacterial count, RBCA was used for yeast and moulds count. The PCA and RBA plates were incubated at room temperature (RT) up to 72 hours and observed after every 24 h. All standard methods were employed for proximate analysis of samples. Measurement of water activity was measured by (Rotonic-HygroLab C1).Oil quality parameters like acid value, free fatty acid and peroxide value were determined using standard techniques.Protein isolate and hydrolysateswere prepared by isoelectric point method.Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was carried out on different samples. Functional properties (protein solubility, emulsification capacity, oil and water absorption capacity) were determined by using standard Value added products i. e. protein rich energy bars, protein powder, vegan curd were prepared by using standard protocols. These products were subjected to proximate analysis, microbial analysis and sensory evaluation using 9 point hedonic scale. Based on thestudy, research andexperimental analysis,results showed thatdose of 5 kGy gamma rays at the rate of 1.4 kGy/h wasfound sufficient to disinfect the fungal growth completely in the seed samples and considered to be safe for further processing.Prolonging the storage period upto 180days, the bacterial count of non-irradiated samples was increased to 150×102 for groundnut, 120×102 for soybean and 102×102 for sesame on 180th day. However, there was no bacterial count seen in all irradiated samples proving their goodness in comparison to non- irradiated samples. It was seen that there was no appreciable difference on the moisture contents of cakes obtained from irradiated and non-irradiated samples for all the three seeds. The values of protein contents were 56.00,50.00, and 50.33 for untreated samples and 57.67, 55.33 and 53.00, respectively for groundnut, sesame and soybean de-oiled cakes. The increase in protein contents of irradiated cakes might be due to irradiation process of the oilseeds prior to oil extraction. The irradiation process causes the de-naturation of the protein. After assessing the effect of gamma irradiation on oil yield of oil seeds, i.e., groundnut sesame and soybean, it can be seen that the percentage of oil yield has been found to be increased in irradiated samples for all the seeds compared to non-irradiated samples. The PV of groundnut, sesame, and soyabean oil showed significant increase when subjected to irradiation dose.It was seen that the TBA values of groundnut, sesame and soybean oils obtained from irradiated seed samples are comparatively higher. The mean values of protein isolates were found to be 22.13%, 11.05% and 19.90%, respectively for irradiated samples of groundnut, sesame and soybean oil seeds, whereas the mean values of non-irradiated these seeds were recorded to be 19.23%, 7.85% and 16.20%, respectively. The highest recovery of protein isolate was obtained in the groundnut defatted cakes and was followed by soybean and sesame. This was true for both the irradiated and non-irradiated seeds. The mean values of protein hydrolysates formed from the irradiated samples of groundnut, sesame and soybean protein isolates were found to be 49.95, 41.10 and 48.55%, and for that of the controlled or non-irradiated samples, the mean values for respective protein hydrolysate were found to be 47.20, 39.75 and 48.55%, respectively. It can be seen that among the irradiated samples, the quantity of protein hydrolysate obtained from groundnut protein isolate sample was recorded to be highest followed by soybean and sesame samples. The protein content in the isolates obtained from groundnut defatted cakes were found to be 80.67 and78.33%, respectively for irradiated and non-irradiated samples. For sesame, the protein content in the protein isolates samples under irradiated and non-irradiated condition were 77.33 and 73.00%, respectively. In case of soyabean, the protein content in the protein isolates under irradiated and non-irradiated conditions were 89.00 and 84.67%, respectively. It could be seen that the solubility for each of the protein isolates were found to be increased in the pH range of 2 to 6. Additionally,the solubility of each of the protein isolates obtained for irradiated oil seed cakes were comparatively higher than the solubility of protein isolates obtained from non-irradiated conditions.After exposure to irradiation at doses of 5kGy there has been a significant increment in the emulsion activity(EAI (m2/g))of protein isolates. The mean values for solubility were found to be 70.98%, 58.91% and 77.451%, respectively for hydrolysates of non-irradiated groundnut, sesame and soybean oil seeds, whereas the mean values of hydrolysates from irradiated seeds were recorded to be 73.854%, 64.601% and 81.92%, respectively. The maximum solubility, in our finding was achieved at pH 6.0 for all the hydrolysates.It was clear that the solubility of protein hydrolysates obtained from irradiated samples were higher than the protein hydrolysates obtained from non-irradiated samples. The solubility of hydrolysates were found to be greater than that of protein isolates.After irradiation at doses of 5kGy, there has been a certain reduction in the emulsion activity and stability of protein hydrolysates.Similarly, the ESI was recorded to be decreasing substantially after subjecting the samples to gamma irradiation. The protein-rich energy bars and the protein powder prepared with irradiated samples did not show any microbial infestation even after the storage period of 150 days. Further, the presence of yeast and moulds (RBA) was not seen at all in any of the energy bar samples and the protein powder of both irradiated and non-irradiated conditions even after the storage period of 150 days. The overall acceptability scores for each of the protein enriched energy bars and the protein powder prepared with irradiated or non-irradiated defatted seed cakes, were rated to be good and well accepted by the panel of judges even after a storage period of 150 days. However, a slight non-appreciable decrease in overall acceptability scores was recorded. The vegan curd prepared with irradiated samples of oilseed cakes did not show any microbial infestation even after the storage period of 5days. Further, the presence of yeast and moulds (RBA) was seen in vegan curd prepared from both samples of irradiated and non-irradiated oilseed cakes on third day of storage. This indicates that the curd prepared with defatted oil seed cakes whether irradiated or non-irradiated had been found to be safe for consumption up to 2 days of storage period under normal conditions provided placed in refrigeration. Study concludes that it is possible to produce protein enriched products such as energy bars, powder, and vegancurd from the defatted oil cakes of groundnut, sesame and soybean.The exposure of groundnut, sesame and soybean oilseeds to dosage of gamma irradiation increases the overall oil yield as compared to the non-irradiated samples.Variables such as solubility, emulsion activity and emulsion stability, water absorption capacity and oil absorption capacity deeply impacted the quality content of the produce.The exposure of groundnut, sesame and soybean seeds to the gamma irradiation doses at 5 kGy helped tremendously in improving the quality and shelf-life of the produce without compromising the taste and other sensory features
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Design and Development of Vacuum PanEvaporatorforSolidandGranularJaggery
    (Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur (C.G.), 2021) Kuruba, Eresh Kuma; Khokhar, D.; Rao, P.V.K.; Jagernnadha; Patel, S.; Saxena, R.R.; Soni, Ravindra.
    Jaggery is an unprocessed sugar made from sugar cane juice that is utilised in all countries throughout the world under many names. It's not simply a sweetener; it's also a flavour and colour enhancer. More minerals and vitamins are found in jaggery than in pure sugar.Juiceboiling is the second most important unit operation in the preparation of jaggery. The mainobjective of boiling is to concentrate the juice to make thick syrup to form solid or powder formof jaggery. There are various types of boiling systems they are open pan with with bagasse/firehood,open pan steam boiling, and 3 pan furnaceboiling. Traditionally open pan boiling is being practiced by jaggery producers with pan made ofmild steel (or) galvanised iron (or) aluminium sheets and boils with bagasse/fire hood. Thisprocess consumes more time, energy and labour and there is no control overboiling process.Also the entire process is unhygienic as boiling of juice is carried out with direct burning of largeamount of bagasse in open grate furnace. As a result, the quality of juice is highly effecte colour and bitter in taste due to overheating of syrup, which leads to lower price of jaggery inmarket. To overcome these problems and for commercial adoption of upgraded technology onlarge scale unit an investigation was carried out to design, fabricate and testing of vacuum panevaporator for solid and granular jaggery to decrease the boiling time and increase the quality ofjaggery. Vacuum vanishing is that the technique for causing the weight in a fluid stuffed instrument to be decreased beneath the fume weight of the fluid, exacting the fluid to dissipate at a lower temperature than customary. Whentheprocessisappliedtojaggerythewaterisevaporated and removed thus jaggery can be stored for long period of time without spoilage. Thevacuum pan evaporation is the most advanced and automated method in terms of saving ofboiling time, fuel and labour. It also retains the quality parameters of jaggery. The principal partsvacuumpanevaporatoraremainbody,calendria,catchall,topcone,bottomconewithdischarge, top tube plate, vapor inlet and outlet, feed tube, inspection glasses, condensate piping,nozzles,flangesandsamplecollector.Thesystemisoperatedwithvacuumpumphavingultimatepressureof 33mbar-900m bar with liquid flowrate of 5Liters/min. Afterdesignandfabricationof800kgboilingcapacityvacuumpanevaporator,performance evaluation was carried out with a view to optimize operating process variables atvarious Pressure, Time and Temperatures ranges. Response surface methodology (RSM) withBox Behnken design of 3 variables and 3 levels each was used to investigate the impact of different levels of process variables on various quality indicators of jaggery products, such as (Brix, Moisture,Water activity, Color, Texture, Sucrose and Reducing sugars). The independent process variablesconsideredforexperimentwerePressure(550-700mmofHg),time(60-100min)andTemperature(100-120⁰C).UsingtheDesignExpertStatisticalSoftwarepackage(Version11.06.2, Stat-Ease) The process parameters were adjusted by establishing targets in order to achieve the required product quality. The dependent variables (Y) were expressed as a function of the independent variables using a 2nd order polynomial equation. The developed technology saves time of 60minutescompared to conventional methodof 150 min to raisebrix from 61.8º to 80º. Among the 17 combinations the best combinations sample suited was R 12 at 110⁰C for 80min at 700 mm of Hg sample which reported having good percentage of moisture content, wateractivity,colorandhardness.Whereasforsucrose,andreducingsugarstheoptimalqualityjaggerysuitedat100⁰Cfor80minat700mmofHg.Theexperimentaldatarevealedthatthe TSS of jaggery samples ranges varied from 60º to 83º brix with increase in time and temperature,showedincreasedtrend.TheTSSconcentrationwasmaximum83ºbrixat1080Ctemperatureand there was major change in TSS also with increase in pressure. The moisture content ofjaggery in different samples ranged from 4% to 11.5%. In result of numerical optimization, theoptimal water activity (aw) is obtained at 0.44 at R1 run sample of temperature 120ºC, time 80min and vacuum pressure of 700 mm of Hg. It was revealed that hardness of the jaggery samplesincreases from 12.6 to 17.5 with increase in temperature. There was no change in color value ofL* and a* (lightness-darkness) up to a temperature of 100ºC and time 90 min. Upon increaseintemperaturefrom60100ºCincreasesinsucrosecontentupto84.72%from81.88%.Therewasno significant change with increase in vacuum pressure in vessel.The reducing sugars increasedas vacuumpressureandtimeisincreased.There wassignificant increase inreducing sugars from 9.12 to 12.88% with increase in vacuum level from 550 to 700 mm of Hg and time from 60 to 90minutes. Thequalityjaggerydevelopedfromvacuumpanevaporatoratoptimizedprocessparameters was evaluated by sensory evaluation using fuzzy logic method and the order ofpreferencescoreswassweetness>color>texturalappearance>flavor.Amongtheoptimizedsix samples of S1, S2, S3, S4, S5 and S6 the highest sensory evaluation score revealed by panelmembers was for sweetness followed by color for sample S1 (Rank-1) obtained at optimizedvalue of (Vp: 700 t: 80 T: 100) and S2 (Rank 2) optimized at (Vp: 700 t: 80 T: 110) and forsampleS5 & S6 followed by S3 and S4respectively. At the end, the experiment is concluded with analysis of techno-economic feasibility.Variable cost of product was Rs. 1,26,000 and fixed cost was1,18,249. If the produced jaggeryof 1800 kg is sold at @Rs. 70/- per kg the net profit is Rs. 7751/-. The break even period can beachievedinabout 3 months withB/C ratio is 1.06. The developed technology opens new avenues for jaggery manufactures on large scaleproduction to develop good quality jaggery. This technology has been developed indigenouslyandthe componentshavebeenlocally manufacturedoffering greatvaluetomoney andtime.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Studies on osmotic and convective drying of ginger (Zingiber officinale) slices
    (Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur (C.G.), 2022) Shirast, Bhawna, Samadhan; Patel, S.; Bakane, P.H.; Naik, R.K.; Saxena, R.R.
    Fruits and vegetables play most significant role in nutritional security in India. Horticultural produce is highly perishable, because of its high moisture and nutritional content. It is well documented that during the last few decades, the horticultural sector has made commendable progress in increasing the production and productivity of horticultural crops. At the same time post-harvest losses in many horticultural crops has been a matter of great concern. Much of the efforts have been demonstrated worldwide on processing and value addition of the horticultural commodities through the application of improved processing techniques to produce diversified products of high value which, to some extent played a key role in reducing the post-harvest losses. Over the years, India has made significant progress in production and availability of fruits and vegetables for consumption and export. Ginger is an important and oldest known spice for its pleasant aroma, warm and pungent taste. Ginger is one of the medicinal plants and finds critical application in pharmaceutical, cosmetic, agricultural and food industry. It is one of the important cash crops and principal spices all over the world. The ginger has the ability to preserve its critical properties if processed properly under controlled conditions in to a variety of food products. Due to characteristic properties, ginger is widely used in the preparation of various food products such as bread, confectionery, different drinks, cordials, cocktails, alcoholic drinks in the different parts of the world particularly in the western countries. On the other hand, fresh ginger cannot be kept for longer time after harvesting due to higher moisture content. This compels the processing of ginger into different products to enhance its shelf-life and reduction in post-harvest losses. Hot air dehydration is simple and commonly employed to preserve fruits and vegetables. Nevertheless, the dehydrated products of fruits and vegetables have less popular acceptance due to considerable degradation in the quality of the product. Of late the osmotic dehydration is released as one of the most significant complementary treatment, which not only avoids the storage problem but also improves the quality of the dehydrated food product. This suggested undertaking a comprehensive study on osmotic dehydration coupled with convective drying of ginger slices for the preparation of quality product. The present investigation comprised of two parts i.e. osmotic dehydration of ginger slices followed by air drying of osmosed slices. In the osmotic dehydration, the effects of independent variables such as concentration of osmotic solution (sugar solution) (30-70ºB), osmotic temperature (30-50ºC), time of osmosis (30-150 min) and slice thickness (2-6 mm) on water withdrawal and solid uptake were studied. An effort has been made to find out the optimum level of independent parameters for maximum water withdrawal and minimum solute (sugar) uptake following the Response Surface Methodology. Diffusion coefficient of water and sugar were estimated during osmotic dehydration. For predicting the kinetics of osmotic dehydration, the mathematical model was also developed. Drying characteristics of osmo-dehydrated ginger slices were determined using heated ambient air temperatures at 40, 50, 60 and 70°C, at constant air velocity of 1.3 m/s with sample layer thickness of 3, 6, 9 mm. The optimization of the air-drying parameters has been attempted utilizing the drying data obtained through set of convective drying experiments. During the osmosis process, it was observed that the higher water withdrawal took place in the first hour of osmosis, there after declined but stage of equilibrium was not seen to be established even after 150 min of osmotic process. Water loss and sugar gain both increased with the increase in the concentration of osmotic solution and temperature, but noted to be decreased with the increase in slice thickness. The diffusivity of water and sugar varied in the range of 1.078×10-9 to 2.067×10-9 m2/s and 1.078 x 10-9 to 2.049 x 10-9 m2/s, respectively. The activation energy needed for moisture withdrawal and solutes uptake increased with increasing the slice thickness, while it decreased with the increase in solution concentration. The energy of activation for moisture and solute flow ranged from 17.246 to 20.032 and 17.224 to 18.512 kJ/mol, respectively. The sugar solution concentration of 63°Brix and temperature of 50°C along with 150 min osmosis duration and slice thickness of 3 mm were found to be optimum for osmotic dehydration of ginger slices. The convective drying of osmotically dried ginger slices indicated that with the increase of drying period the moisture content of the product reduced and the whole process of drying was observed to follow the falling rate period of drying. The effective moisture diffusivity during convective drying varied between 3.40137×10-8 to 11.0513×10-8 m2/s, 3.66057×10-8 to 14.7149×10-8 m2/s and 3.95479×10-8 to 16.23669×10-8 m2/s for layer thickness of 3, 6 and 9 mm, respectively depending on the air-drying temperature. For moisture diffusion process the energy of activation were 35.081, 41.148 and 41.391 kJ/mol for 3, 6 and 9 mm slice thickness, respectively. Midilli Kucuk model was found to describe the convective drying characteristics of the ginger slices adequately compared to all other models for the given range of experimental conditions. Further, the optimum condition of drying was determined as air-drying temperature of 60°C with single layer of sample thickness (3 mm) of osmotically dehydrated ginger slices. The osmo-convectively dried ginger slice sample retained 7.92% (db) moisture content, 0.440% essential oil, 2.22% oleoresin, 4.353% protein, 1.91% fat, 1.196% ash, 2.82% fiber, 89.72% carbohydrate. The rehydration ratio of the osmo-convectively dried ginger slice samples was in the range of 1.804 to 2.186 over a period of 6 hours. The findings of the investigation indicated that the application of osmotic dehydration coupled with convective air drying can be successfully applied with the selection of suitable ranges of process variables for the preparation of osmo-air dried ginger slices with acceptable quality parameters.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Assessment of crop establishment methods and weed management practices on growth, yield and weed dynamics of direct seeded rice (Oryza sativa L.)
    (Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur (C.G.), 2022) Satyaraj, Rama, Krishna; Dwivedi, Sanjay, K.; Bhambri, M.C.; Saxena, R.R.; Tiwari, Alok
    The present investigation entitled “Assessment of crop establishment methods and weed management practices on growth, yield and weed dynamics of direct seeded rice (Oryza sativa L.)” was conducted during the kharif 2020 and 2021 at Research cum Instructional Farm, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur, Chhattisgarh. The soil of the experimental field was clayey in texture and neutral (pH 6.8) in reaction with medium fertility having 0.51 and 0.50% soil organic carbon, low nitrogen (219.5 and 211.0 kg ha-1), medium phosphorous (13.5 and 12.9 kg ha-1) and high potassium (340.7 and 343.7 kg ha-1) content during kharif 2020 and 2021, respectively. Two different experiments were undertaken to achieve the objectives during kharif 2020 and 2021. The first experiment was laid out in a randomized block design (RBD) with four replications and six treatments viz. conventional tillage - vattar-DSR through multi-crop planter fitted with inclined plate seed metering mechanism [CT-DSR(V)-MCP)], conventional tillage - dry-DSR through multi-crop planter with inclined plate seed metering mechanism [CT-DSR(D)-MCP], conventional tillage - vattar-DSR through seed-cum-fertilizer drill fitted with fluted roller seed metering mechanism [CT-DSR(V)-SCFD], conventional tillage - dry-DSR through seed-cum-fertilizer drill fitted with fluted roller seed metering mechanism [CT-DSR(D)-SCFD], conventional tillage -manual broadcast seeding [CT-DSR(B)] and conventional tillage – manual broadcast seeding with Biasi [CT-(B fb B)]. The test rice variety “Indira Rajeshwari (IGKV R 1)” was sown as per the treatments on 08th and 17th June [CT-DSR(V)-MCP, CT-DSR(D)-MCP, CT-DSR(V)-SCFD and CT-DSR(D)-SCFD] and 30th and 26th June [CT-DSR(B) and CT-(B fb B)] during kharif 2020 and 2021, respectively. The crop received rainfall of 1035 and 914 mm [CT-DSR(V)-MCP, CT-DSR(D)-MCP, CT-DSR(V)-SCFD and CT-DSR(D)-SCFD] and 797 and 855 mm [CT-DSR(B) and CT-(B fb B)] in kharif 2020 and 2021, respectively. The second experiment was also laid out in a randomized block design with three replications and fourteen treatments viz. oxadiargyl 80 WP @ 80 g ha-1 PE fb one hand weeding at 25 DAS [OD fb HW (25 DAS)], oxadiargyl 80 WP @ 80 g ha-1 PE fb one motorised weeding at 20 DAS [OD fb MW (20 DAS)], oxadiargyl 80 WP @ 80 g ha-1 PE fb two hand weeding at 20 & 40 DAS [OD fb HW (20 and 40 DAS)], oxadiargyl 80 WP @ 80 g ha-1 PE fb one motorised weeding at 20 DAS fb one hand weeding at 40 DAS [OD fb MW (20 DAS) fb HW (40 DAS)], oxadiargyl 80 WP @ 80 g ha-1 PE fb bispyribac-sodium @ 25 g ha-1 at 20 DAS [OD fb BS (20 DAS)], oxadiargyl 80 WP @ 80 g ha-1 PE fb premix penoxsulam (1.02%) + cyhalofop-butyl (5.1%) (P+C, 6.12%) @ 0.135 kg ha-1 EPoE as ready-mix at 20 DAS (at 2-5 leaf stage of weed) [OD fb PXS+CFB (20 DAS)], oxadiargyl 80 WP @ 80 g ha-1 PE fb fenoxaprop-p-ethyl (6.7%) @ 60 g ha-1 + ethoxysulfuron (15% WDG) @ 15 g ha-1 as EPoE at 20 DAS (at 2-5 leaf stage of weed) [OD fb FPE+EXS (20 DAS)], oxadiargyl 80 WP @ 80 g ha-1 PE fb premix florpyrauxifen-benzyl + cyhalofop-butyl at 20 DAS (at 2-5 leaf stage of weed) [OD fb FPB+CFB (20 DAS)], triafamone 20% + ethoxysulfuron 10 WG (premix) @ 67.5 g ha-1 at 15 DAS + one spot hand weeding at 40 DAS [TFM+EXS (15 DAS) fb SHW (40 DAS)], premix florpyrauxifen-benzyl + cyhalofop-butyl at 15 DAS (at 2-5 leaf stage of weed) + one spot hand weeding at 40 DAS [FPB+CFB (15 DAS) fb SHW (40 DAS)], motorised weeding twice (single/double row type) at 15 and 35 DAS [MW (15 and 35 DAS)], motorised weeding twice (single/double row type) + intrarow hand weeding at 15 and 35 DAS [MW+IHW (15 and 35 DAS)], weed free (20, 40 & 60 DAS) [WF (20, 40 and 60 DAS)] and weedy check . The test rice variety “Indira Rajeshwari (IGKV R 1)” was sown on 03rd July and 26th June, during kharif 2020 and 2021, respectively. The crop received 783 and 855 mm rainfall during the crop period in kharif 2020 and 2021, respectively. In the first experiment the CT-DSR(V)-MCP treatment registered highest value of growth parameters of rice viz. plant height, dry matter accumulation, number of tillers, leaf area, SPAD value, root dry weight and volume, crop growth rate, relative growth rate, leaf area index and yield attributing characters like number of number of effective tillers, number of grains, number of filled grains, panicle length and weight, grain and straw yield, on pooled data basis. The CT-DSR(V)-SCFD and CT-DSR(D)-MCP treatments found statistically similar with the CT-DSR(V)-MCP treatment in majority of parameters, on pooled data basis. The CT-DSR(V)-MCP, CT-DSR(V)-SCFD and CT-DSR(D)-MCP treatments registered higher grain yield of 30, 24 and 21%, respectively over the farmers practice of Biasi in CT-(B fb B) treatment, on pooled data basis. The different establishment methods didn’t influence the test weight and harvest index, on pooled data basis. The CT-(B fb B) treatment observed with the highest total weed biomass at 15 and 90 DAS, on pooled data basis. The nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium content in grain and straw showed no significant difference, on pooled data basis. The maximum nitrogen and potassium uptake were estimated in the CT-DSR(V)-MCP treatment, on pooled data basis. The favourable condition in the CT-DSR(V)-MCP treatment showed maximum value for soil enzymatic activity viz. dehydrogenase activity, urease activity, acid and alkaline phosphatase activity, on pooled data basis. The highest net monetary return, B:C ratio, net energy output and energy productivity were computed in the CT-DSR(V)-MCP treatment, on mean data basis. The CT-DSR(V)-MCP treatment computed with 47% higher net monetary return than the CT-(B fb B) treatment, on mean data basis. In the second experiment the WF (20, 40 and 60 DAS) treatment observed with highest value of growth parameters of rice viz. plant height, dry matter accumulation, number of tillers, leaf area, SPAD value, root dry weight and volume, crop growth rate, relative growth rate, leaf area index and yield attributing characters like number of number of effective tillers, number of grains, number of filled grains, panicle length and weight, grain and straw yield. The OD fb HW (20 and 40 DAS), OD fb MW (20 DAS) fb HW (40 DAS), MW+IHW (15 and 35 DAS) and OD fb BS (20 DAS) treatments were found at par with the WF (20, 40 and 60 DAS) treatment on most of the parameters, on pooled data basis. The WF (20, 40 and 60 DAS), OD fb HW (20 and 40 DAS) and OD fb BS (20 DAS) treatments registered higher grain yield of 97, 92 and 82%, respectively over the weedy check treatment. The weed management practices didn’t affect the test weight and harvest index. The weedy check and WF (20, 40 and 60 DAS) treatments observed with the highest and lowest total weed biomass, on pooled data basis at all the stages. Among the pre fb post emergence application of herbicides and integrated weed management practices the OD fb BS (20 DAS) and OD fb HW (20 and 40 DAS) treatments, respectively computed with maximum weed control efficiency, on mean data basis. The maximum weed persistence index was computed in the OD fb FPE+EXS (20 DAS) treatment, on mean data basis. Among the pre fb post emergence application of herbicides, the OD fb BS (20 DAS) witnessed with highest herbicide efficiency index, on mean data basis. The most dominant weed was Echinochloa colona in the weedy check treatment based on summed dominance ratio, during both years. The nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium content in grain and straw were found statistically similar. The maximum phosphorous uptake was computed in the OD fb HW (20 and 40 DAS) treatment. The OD fb HW (25 DAS) treatment estimated with maximum soil enzymatic activity viz. dehydrogenase activity, urease activity, acid and alkaline phosphatase activity at 90 DAS, on pooled data basis. The highest net monetary return and B:C ratio were computed in the OD fb BS (20 DAS) treatment. The OD fb HW (20 and 40 DAS) and OD fb BS (20 DAS) treatments, computed with 26 and 39% lower cost of cultivation and 12 and 14% higher net monetary return, respectively in comparison to WF (20, 40 and 60 DAS) treatment, on mean data basis.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Effect of different methods of sowing and weed management practices on chickpea, lathyrus, linseed and safflower productivity under direct seeded rice based cropping system in conservation agriculture”
    (Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur (C.G.), 2022) Rajwade, Omprakash; Savu, Rama Mohan; Tiwari, Nitish; Shrivastava, Lalit; Saxena , R. R.
    The present investigation entitle “Effect of different methods of sowing and weed management practices on chickpea, lathyrus, linseed and safflower productivity under direct seeded rice based cropping system in conservation agriculture” was carried out during kharif and rabi season of 2019-20 and 2020-21.The field experiment was carried out at Research cum Instructional Farm, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur (Chhattisgarh).The soil of the experiment field was clay in texture, neutral in reaction, low in organic carbon, low in nitrogen and low in phosphorus and high in potassium contents. The experiment was conducted with the objective to determine the appropriate method of sowing and weed management practices under direct seeded rice based cropping system in rice residues retention condition. The experiment consisted were laid out with rice-chickpea, rice-lathyrus, rice-linseed and rice-safflower cropping system. In kharif season rice variety: Rajeshwari was directly sown in the main field without any treatment adopted and only general package practices were followed. In rabi season, chickpea, lathyrus, linseed and safflower crops was grown in the four set of same layout in split plot design with three replications. Treatments comprised of three methods of sowing viz., T1: zero seed drill, T2: happy seed drill and T3: normal seed drill (soil preparation only by rotavator) in main plot, three weed management practices viz., W1: chemical weed control, W2: hand weeding twice and W3: unweeded check control in sub plot, respectively. The growing variety for test crop was chickpea: Indira chana-1, lathyrus: Prateek, linseed: RLC-92: Indira Alsi and safflower: PBNS-12. The result of the experiment revealed that, among the methods of sowing all the growth parameters i.e. plant population, plant height, number of branches plant-1, dry matter accumulations, number and dry weight of root nodules plant-1 (mg) and yield attributes viz., number of pods/capsules/capitulum’s plant-1, number of seeds pod-1/capsule-1 /capitulum-1 plant-1, 100 seed weight/1000 seed index (g) were significantly higher under T2- happy seed drill, which was followed by T3-normal seed drill (soil preparation only by rotavator). All the growth parameters and yield attributes were equally highest in all the winter crops i.e. chickpea, lathyrus linseed, and safflower under the treatment of happy seed drill during both years. The seed and stover yield of chickpea (Mean viz., 1654 and 2019 kg ha-1), lathyrus (Mean viz., 1047 and 2007 kg ha-1), linseed (Mean viz., 1492 and 2991 kg ha-1) and safflower (Mean viz., 1381 and 3459 kg ha-1) were also found maximum under the treatment of happy seed drill, which was highest in comparison to the sowing methods of normal seed drill (soil preparation only by rotavator) and zero seed drill. In terms of monetary advantage during both years of observations, adoption of happy seed drill in chickpea, lathyrus, linseed and safflower gave the maximum net return (Mean viz., Rs 54619, 8433, 45676 and 47202 ha-1, respectively) and B:C ratio (Mean viz., 2.95, 1.36, 2.99 and 2.80, respectively). Among the various winter pulse crops (chickpea, lathyrus, linseed and safflower) sowing done with happy seed drill, gave the maximum weed control efficiency (Mean viz., 63.69, 50.53, 49.60 and 50.22 %, respectively) and normal seed drill (soil preparation only by rotavator) gave the minimum weed index (Mean viz., 14.1, 5.8, 20.5 and 12.7, % respectively). Zero seed drill was found to be least effective in increasing the growth parameters and yield attributing characters of all the four pulse crops during both years. The result of the study revealed that, hand weeding twice followed by chemical weed management for weed management was to be found most effective in controlling the weeds of all the four winter pulse crops taken under observations during both years. All the various growth parameters and yield attributes of chickpea, lathyrus, linseed and safflower showed that the highest values was observed in the treatments of hand weeding twice and the lowest values of these characters were recorded under the unweeded control. During both years of observations, hand weeding twice proved to be significantly superior in increasing the seed and stover yield of chickpea (Mean viz., 1740 and 2223 kg ha-1), lathyrus (Mean viz., 1230 and 2236 kg ha-1), linseed (Mean viz., 3292 and 8120 kg ha-1) and safflower (Mean viz., 1629 and 4050 kg ha-1). Hand weeding twice in chickpea, lathyrus, linseed and safflower recorded maximum net return (Mean viz., Rs. 54615, 9640, 35401 and 56011 ha-1, respectively) and B:C ratio (Mean viz., 2.69, 1.36, 2.40 and 2.88, respectively). The treatment of hand weeding twice, obtained maximum weed control efficiency in chickpea, lathyrus, linseed and safflower (Mean viz., 79.42, 78.06, 80.43 and 80.24 %, respectively). However, the weed index (Mean viz., 15.7, 17.3, 10.8 and 23.7, % respectively) were obtained minimum under chemical weed control. On the other hand, from the data obtained during both years of experiments the system approach of chickpea, lathyrus, linseed and safflower suggested that sowing methods and weed management practices showed significant response and rice equivalent yield, system productivity and production efficiency was increased under the happy seed drill and hand weeding twice. The interaction effect of methods of sowing and weed management practices emphasized that, the combination of happy seed drill with hand weeding twice in rice residues retention condition can be a better option as compare to other treatment combinations in all the four winter pulse crops. In methods of sowing and weed management practices, rice-chickpea based cropping system performed superior in terms of economics returns, rice equivalent yield, system productivity and production efficiency followed by rice-linseed, rice-safflower and rice-lathyrus during both years of experiment.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    System Based Phosphorus Management in Rainfed Rice (Oryza sativa L.) – Geengram (Vigna radiata L.) Cropping System”
    (Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur (C.G.), 2022) Rath, Harmohan; Verma, A.K.; Panda, B.B; Pandey, N.; Anurag; Saxena, R. R.
    The field experiment was carried out during both kharif and rabi season of 2019-20 and 2020-21 at Research Farm, ICAR-NRRI Cuttack, Odisha. Split-plot design was adopted for the experiment with three replications. The main plot consists of four nutrient management in rice i.e. RDF (80:40:40::N:P2O5:K2O kg ha-1), RDF+ 25% additional phosphorus through FYM, RDF+ 25% additional phosphorus through fertilizer, 75% of RDF (RDF75). The sub-plot consists of nutrient management in greengram i.e. Control, RDF (20:40:20::N:P2O5:K2O kg ha-1), RDF + PSB inoculation, RDF + foliar spray of 2% DAP and RDF + PSB inoculation + foliar spray of 2% DAP. The result revealed that nutrient management in rice had significant effect on growth parameters, yield attributes, yield, nutrient uptake and economics of rice. RDF+ 25% additional phosphorus through FYM recorded the highest value in terms of growth parameters, yield attributes, yield (grain and straw) and total nutrient (N, P and K) uptake which was on par with RDF + 25% additional phosphorus through fertilizer. However, the mean highest net return and B:C ratio was recorded under RDF + 25% additional phosphorus through fertilizer. Effect of nutrient management in greengram on succeeding rice was observed in the second year. RDF + PSB inoculation + foliar spray of 2% DAP obtained the highest growth parameters, yield attributes, yield, nutrient uptake, gross return, net return and B:C ratio in second year and mean data of study. Growth parameters, yield attributes, seed yield, stover yield, nutrient uptake and economic returns of greengram were significantly influenced by different nutrient management in preceding rice. Application of 25% additional phosphorus either through FYM or through fertilizer had a significant effect in the succeeding green gram. Regarding nutrient management in greengram, RDF + PSB inoculation + foliar spray of 2% DAP was significant over all other treatments with respect to the above parameters in both the years and mean data of study. The highest grain yield, straw yield, nutrient uptake and gross return of the system was received under RDF + 25% additional phosphorus though FYM however, highest net return and B:C ratio was fetched under RDF + 25% additional phosphorus though fertilizer in rice. Similarly, the highest grain yield, straw yield, nutrient uptake and gross return, net return and B:C ratio of the system was obtained under RDF + PSB inoculation + foliar spray of 2% DAP in greengram The phosphorus balance under rice - greengram cropping system was significantly varied with respect to nutrient management in rice. Among the main plot treatments, the highest phosphorus balance was recorded under RDF + 25% additional phosphorus through fertilizer which was at par with RDF + 25% additional phosphorus through FYM during both the years. The mean highest nitrogen and potassium balance was recorded under RDF. Among the sub plot treatments, the mean highest nitrogen and phosphorus balance were recorded under RDF while the mean highest potassium balance was recorded under control. Available soil nutrients were determined after each cropping year. The result revealed significant difference in available soil nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. With respect to main plot treatments, RDF recorded the mean highest available soil nitrogen and potassium, while highest available phosphorus was recorded under RDF+25% additional phosphorus through fertilizer. The treatment RDF75 recorded the lowest available soil nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. With respect to sub plot treatments, significant difference in soil available phosphorus was observed after the second year. RDF recorded the highest soil available phosphorus which was comparable with all other treatments except control. The acid and alkaline phosphatase activity of soil differed significantly with respect to nutrient management in both rice and greengram. Among the main plot treatments, maximum activities of acid and alkaline phosphatase were recorded under RDF + 25% additional phosphorus through FYM which was statistically at par with RDF + 25% additional phosphorus through fertilizer. Among the sub plot treatments, maximum acid and alkaline phosphatase activities were recorded under RDF + PSB inoculation + foliar spray of 2% DAP.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    “Effect of residue and nutrient management on productivity, soil quality and greenhouse gas emission in intensified rice-based cropping systems”
    (Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur (C.G.), 2021) Jena, Jagadish
    A field experimentation was carried out during kharif, rabi and summer season of 2017-18 and 2018-19 at NRRI Research Farm, ICAR-National Rice Research Institute (NRRI), Cuttack, Odisha. Split-plot design was taken along with three replications for the experimentation. The main plot consists of two rice-based cropping systems i.e., rice-maize-cowpea (R-M-C) and rice-groundnut-cowpea (R-G-C). The sub-plot consists of nutrient management options i.e., no fertilizer or residue application to the component crops (C-C-C), recommended dose of fertilization to the component crops (R-R-R), cowpea residue incorporation prior to rice transplanting followed by one fourth reduction of recommended dose of fertilization in rice and application of recommended dose of fertilization in rabi and summer season crops (RI+R75-R-R), cowpea residue incorporation prior to rice transplanting followed by one fourth reduction of recommended dose of fertilization in rice followed by rice straw mulching in rabi season crops and application of recommended dose of fertilization in summer season crop (RI+R75-SM+R-R) and cowpea residue incorporation prior to rice transplanting followed by one fourth reduction of recommended dose of fertilization in rice followed by rice straw mulching in rabi season crops and application of half of the recommended dose of fertilization in summer season crop (RI+R75-SM+R-R50). Cowpea residue incorporation in rice followed by rice straw mulching in rabi season maize and groundnut and half or full dose of recommended fertilizer application in cowpea i.e., RI+R75-SM+R-R and RI+R75-SM+R-R50 resulted significantly higher growth rate, yield attributes, yield, nutrient uptake and economics in all the component crops i.e., rice, maize, groundnut and cowpea than recommended dose of fertilization i.e., R-R-R in component crops of both cropping systems. The rice equivalent yield and protein yield of system was higher in cowpea residue incorporation in rice followed by rice straw mulching in rabi maize and half or full dose of recommended fertilizer application in cowpea i.e., RI+R75-SM+R-R and RI+R75-SM+R-R50 followed in R-M-C. Soil quality was significantly improved due to residue incorporation in both the cropping systems. Lower penetration resistance, near optimum soil bulk density and soil reaction, higher macro- and micro-nutrient availability and higher soil enzyme activity was recorded in cowpea residue incorporated treatments i.e., RI+R75-SM+R-R and RI+R75-SM+R-R50 compared to recommended dose of fertilization i.e., R-R-R in component crops of both cropping systems. The greenhouse gas emission was significantly influenced by both cropping systems and nutrient managements. Higher methane emission in component crops as well as annual methane emission was found in rice-groundnut-cowpea cropping system (R-G-C), whereas higher nitrous oxide emission was recorded from rice-maize-cowpea cropping system (R-M-C). Among nutrient managements, higher methane emission was recorded in cowpea residue incorporation in rice followed by rice straw mulching in rabi season maize and groundnut and half or full dose of recommended fertilizer application in cowpea i.e., RI+R75-SM+R-R and RI+R75-SM+R-R50 whereas, higher nitrous oxide emission was recorded in recommended dose of fertilization i.e., R-R-R in component crops of both cropping systems. Cowpea residue incorporation in rice followed by rice straw mulching in rabi season maize and groundnut and half dose of recommended fertilizer application in cowpea i.e., RI+R75-SM+R-R50 in R-M-C recorded higher net return (profit) and benefit cost ratio (B:C ratio) followed by cowpea residue incorporation in rice followed by rice straw mulching in rabi season maize and groundnut and full dose of recommended fertilizer application in cowpea i.e., RI+R75-SM+R-R in R-M-C. Due to longer growing season of rabi groundnut than rabi maize, summer cowpea sometimes affected with pre-monsoon rain and couldn’t be adjusted properly in rice-groundnut-cowpea cropping system and leading to lower yield in R-G-C than R-M-C. Among nutrient management options, as RI+R75-SM+R-R and RI+R75-SM+R-R50 both resulted similar growth rate, yield, soil quality improvement and economics, RI+R75-SM+R-R50 can be recommended to be practiced by farmers in R-M-C cropping system to achieve higher profitability.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Effect of tillage and nutrient management practices on productivity and profitability of rice-linseed cropping system under conservation agriculture”
    (Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur (C.G.), 2021) Puhup, Chhatrapal, Singh; Pandey, Narendera; Dwivedi, Sanjay, K.; Mishra, V.N.; Saxena, R. R.
    An investigation entitled “Effect of tillage and nutrient management practices on productivity and profitability of rice-linseed cropping system under conservation agriculture” was carried out consecutively for two years i.e. during kharif (Rice) 2018 and 2019 and rabi season (Linseed) of 2018-19 and 2019-20, respectively at Research-cum-Instructional Farm, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya Raipur (C.G.). In rice crop, treatments comprised with nine tillage with nutrient management practices i.e. T1: Conventional tillage (CT)-Transplanted rice (TPR) 100 % RDF, T2: CT-TPR 100 % recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF) + 2 t FYM, T3: CT-TPR 100 % RDF (75 % inorg + 25 % FYM), T4: CT-Direct seeded rice (DSR) 100 % RDF, T5: CT-DSR 100 % RDF + 2 t FYM, T6: CT-DSR 100 % RDF (75 % inorg + 25 % FYM), T7: Zero tillage (ZT)-DSR 100 % RDF, T8: ZT-DSR 100 % RDF + 2 t FYM and T9: ZT-DSR 100 % RDF (75 % inorg + 25 % FYM) were laid out in randomized block design with three replications. Rice variety Rajeshwari-1 was taken as test crop. The RDF for rice crop was 100:60:40 N, P2O5 and K2O kg ha-1 respectively. In rabi season, linseed crop was grown in the Split-split plot design with three replications. The residual of nine rice treatments as mention above were taken in main plot to study the effect of tillage and nutrient applied to rice on linseed crop. While, three direct applied tillage to linseed was assigned in sub-plot and three direct applied nutrients to linseed was taken as sub-sub plot treatments. The nine tillage and nutrient management practices of rice as mentioned above was taken as residual treatments and taken main-plot for linseed crop. In sub plot three tillage viz. T1: Linseed CT, T2: Linseed ZT+R (Residue) and T3: Linseed ZT and in sub-sub plot, three nutrient management practices viz., N1: Linseed 100 % RDF, N2: Linseed 100 % RDF + 2 t FYM and N3: Linseed 100 % RDF (75 % inorg + 25 % FYM was studies. The recommended dose of fertilizer was taken 60:30:30 N, P2O5 and K2O kg ha-1 respectively. Linseed variety RLC-92 was taken as test crop. During kharif 2018 and 2019 in rice, treatment T2: CT-TPR with 100 % RDF + 2 t FYM produced significantly the highest growth parameters viz. number of tillers, number of leaves, leaf area, leaf area index, leaf area duration, dry matter accumulation, crop growth rate and yield attributes viz. effective tillers m-2, number of grains panicle-1 and reduced sterility percentage. Similarly, significantly the highest seed and straw yield as well as yield attributes were also observed under T2: CT-TPR with 100 % RDF + 2 t FYM. However, it was at par to T1: CT-TPR with 100 % RDF and T5: CT-DSR with 100 % RDF + 2 t FYM. The gross and net returns were observed significantly the highest under the treatment of T2: CT-TPR with 100 % RDF + 2 t FYM, which was comparable to the treatment of T1: CT-TPR with 100 % RDF, T4: CT-DSR with 100 % RDF and T5: CT-DSR with 100 % RDF + 2 t FYM. While, significantly the highest B:C ratio was obtained under the treatment of T8: ZT-DSR 100 % RDF + 2 t FYM followed by T5: CT-DSR with 100 % RDF + 2 t FYM on mean basis. The maximum gross output energy, net output energy, ratio (output-input) and energy profitability was calculated under the treatment of T2: CT-TPR with 100 % RDF + 2 t FYM followed by T5: CT-DSR with 100 % RDF + 2 t FYM on mean basis. At harvest, the treatment T9: ZT-DSR 100 % RDF (75 % inorg + 25 % FYM) left the highest available nitrogen in soil which was comparable with the treatments of T3: CT-TPR 100 % RDF (75 % inorg + 25 % FYM), T7: Zero tillage (ZT)-DSR 100 % RDF and T8: ZT-DSR 100 % RDF + 2 t FYM. While, comparable performance was obtained in the treatments of T4: CT-DSR with 100 % RDF, T5: CT-DSR with 100 % RDF + 2 t FYM, T6: CT-DSR 100 % RDF (75 % inorg + 25 % FYM) and T9: ZT-DSR 100 % RDF (75 % inorg + 25 % FYM) for available phosphorus and potassium in the soil at harvest of rice. Furthermore the highest organic carbon was obtained under the treatment of T9: ZT-DSR 100 % RDF (75 % inorg + 25 % FYM). During rabi season of 2018-19 and 2019-20 in linseed, among the residual of rice, treatment R5: RRCT-DSR 100 % RDF + 2 t FYM registered significantly the highest seed and stover yields which was at par to the treatments of R2: RRCT-TPR 100 % RDF + 2 t FYM and R4: RRCT-DSR 100 % RDF. The increased in seed and stover yields mainly attributed to significant increase in plant height, number of secondary branches plant-1, leaf area cm-2, leaf area index, dry matter accumulation and yield attributes viz. capsules plant-1, seeds capsule-1 and test weight (g). The increased in seeds and stover yield led to significant increased in uptake of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium under these treatments. The highest gross return and net return (B:C) ratio was obtained under the treatments of R5: RRCT-DSR 100 % RDF + 2 t FYM followed by R2: RRCT-TPR 100 % RDF + 2 t FYM and R4: RRCT-DSR 100 % RDF. At harvest, the highest available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in the soil was left under the treatment of R9: RRZT-DSR 100 % RDF (75 % inorg + 25 % FYM), which was higher than treatments of R1: RRCT-TPR 100 % RDF and R4: RRCT-DSR 100 % RDF. The remaining treatments left comparable nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content in the soil to that of R9: RRZT-DSR 100 % RDF (75 % inorg + 25 % FYM). As regard to direct effect of tillage in linseed, treatment T1: Linseed CT produced significantly the highest growth parameters i.e. plant height, number of secondary branches plant-1, leaf area cm-2. leaf area index, dry matter accumulation and yield attributes viz. capsules plant-1, seeds capsule-1, and test weight (g) and yields of seed and stover. The treatment T2: Linseed ZT+R was comparable growth and yield parameters and seed and stover yield to that of treatment T1: Linseed CT. The increased concentration and seed and stover yield under these treatments gave comparable uptake of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. The highest net return and B:C ratio was obtained under the treatment of T2: Linseed ZT+R followed by T1: Linseed CT during both the years and on mean basis. At harvest, the highest available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in the soil was left under the treatment of T2: Linseed ZT+R, which was significantly higher than the other treatments. In case of organic carbon content comparable performance was obtained under the treatments of T2: Linseed ZT+R and T3: Linseed ZT. The interaction between residual effect of tillage with nutrient management practices of rice and direct effect of tillage on seed yield of linseed revealed that the treatment combination of T2: Linseed ZT+R with R5: RRCT-DSR 100 % RDF + 2 t FYM gave the highest seed yield as compared to others except interaction between T2: Linseed ZT+R with R4: RRCT-DSR 100 % RDF, T1: Linseed CT with R2: RRCT-TPR 100 % RDF + 2 t FYM with R4: RRCT-DSR 100 % RDF and with R5: RRCT-DSR 100 % RDF + 2 t FYM. Almost similar interaction effects have been also observed for the number of seeds capsule-1, stover yield and uptake of nitrogen and potassium, net return and B: C ratio. Among direct applied nutrient management practices in linseed, the application of N2: Linseed 100 % RDF + 2 t FYM registered the highest growth (plant height, number of secondary branches plant-1, leaf area, leaf area index, dry matter accumulation) and yield attributes (capsules plant-1, seeds capsule-1 and test weight) which was significantly higher than other treatments. Similarly, higher uptake of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium was also obtained under N2: Linseed 100 % RDF + 2 t FYM due to increased concentration and seed and stover yields. The highest gross return, net return and B:C ratio were obtained under the treatment of N2: Linseed 100 % RDF + 2 t FYM during both the years and on mean basis. At harvest, the highest available nitrogen in the soil was noted under N3: Linseed 100 % RDF (75 % inorg + 25 % FYM) which was at par with the treatment of N2: Linseed 100 % RDF + 2 t FYM. While, the highest available phosphorus and potassium and organic carbon in the soil was left under the treatment of N2: Linseed 100 % RDF + 2 t FYM which was significantly higher than the others treatments. The interaction between residual of tillage with nutrient management practices of rice and nutrient management practices of linseed was found significant on seed yield. The significantly maximum seed yield was obtained from the treatment combination of N2: Linseed 100 % RDF + 2 t FYM) with R5: RRCT-DSR 100 % RDF + 2 t FYM, which was found to be at par to interaction between N2: Linseed 100 % RDF + 2 t FYM) with R1: RRCT-TPR 100 % RDF, with R2: RRCT-TPR 100 % RDF + 2 t FYM, with R4: RRCT-DSR 100 % RDF and N1: Linseed 100 % RDF with R5: RRCT-DSR 100 % RDF + 2 t FYM. The minimum seed yield was obtained from the treatment combination of N1: Linseed 100 % RDF + 2 t FYM) + R9: RRZT-DSR 100 % RDF. Almost similar interaction effects have been observed for stover yield, uptake of nitrogen and potassium by seed and net return and B:C ratio too. The interaction between direct tillage practices and nutrient management was also significant on seed of linseed. The treatment combination of N2: Linseed 100 % RDF + 2 t FYM with T2: Linseed ZT+R) produced significantly maximum seed yield, but it was found at par with treatment combination of N2: Linseed 100 % RDF + 2 t FYM) with T1: Linseed CT. Almost similar interaction effects have been observed for test weight, stover yield and nitrogen and potassium uptake by seed and net return and B:C ratio also. In system analysis of rice-linseed cropping system, among the residual of rice, significantly highest rice equivalent yield and system productivity was recorded under the treatment of R5: RRCT-DSR 100 % RDF + 2 t FYM and R2: RRCT-TPR 100 % RDF + 2 t FYM, respectively. On the other hand, among the tillage and nutrient management practices, rice equivalent yield and system productivity were significantly highest under T1: linseed CT and N2: Linseed 100 % RDF + 2 t FYM as compared to the respective treatments.