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Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Chennai


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  • ThesisItemRestricted
    The present study investigates the design and development of Pulsed electric field system for processing donor mother’s milk - A novel food processing technology. The design and development of pulsed electric field system was carried out in two phases. In the first phase Pulsed electric field chambers of different types viz., coaxial cylinders and rectangular parallel plates were designed and developed. In the second phase the developed PEF chambers were validated by processing donor mother’s milk and by assessing the physicochemical, microbial and immunological parameters. A coaxial and rectangular chamber was designed by AutoCAD 2.0, Version - 2020 software and developed for a capacity of 50mL/200mL/500 mL using food grade stainless steel 304 and acrylic/ HDPE material. In PEF processing, the distance between the electrodes was fixed to be 10mm. For a capacity of 50 mL and 200mL in coaxial chamber, the diameter of outer and inner cylinders with thickness of 3mm were calculated to be 34 mm and 54 mm ; 138 mm and 118 mm respectively. Two cylinders were arranged concentrically over the insulated base in order to share the same axis point between them. The base and lid of the PEF processing chamber was made up of non conducting acrylic material which acted as an insulator to prevent short circuit between two concentric electrodes during the application of high voltage gradient. A rectangular parallel plate chamber was designed and developed for a capacity of 500mL using food grade stainless steel 304, acrylic material and high density polyethylene. For a capacity of 500mL dimensions of the chamber size was calculated to be 120x80x130 mm. Six rectangular electrodes with the dimensions of 108 X 115 mm were placed parallel to each other and distance between the electrodes was fixed to be 10 mm for PEF processing. High density polyethylelene unit was grooved to fix the rectangular electrodes with thickness of 2mm. The rectangular parallel plate electrodes were alternatively connected to the opposite polarity using patch cords in order to prevent flashover between the electrodes. Both coaxial and rectangular parallel plate chambers was designed such that the electrodes can be dismantled, washed and sterilized for subsequent PEF processing of liquid samples.
  • ThesisItemRestricted
    In recent years due to changes in lifestyle, beverages are not only considered as thirst quenchers, but also potential functional foods. Functional beverages are exceptional medium for the supplementation of nutraceutical components such as immunoglobulins, growth factors through fortification, which in turn provide necessary nutrients to prevent nutrition related diseases, beyond taste. Colostrum is the first mammary secretion obtained from mammary gland for upto 24 to 48 hours after parturition. It plays a significant role in curing autoimmune diseases, improves gut health, builds lean muscle mass and boosts immunological function. Commercial processing of bovine colostrum is hampered due to its irregular availability, perishability, heat sensitivity and lack of preservation technology. Thus, the present study was carried out to develop a functional bovine colostrum beverage powder with prolonged shelf life without altering its nutritional and immunoprophylactic properties. Bovine colostrum samples were collected on the 1st and2nd day after parturition and assessed for the quality using colostrometer. The samples were stored at - 20°C in deep freezer. Chemical composition and physico-chemical properties such as fat, protein, lactose, ash, moisture, pH and titratable acidity were analysed for the collected skimmed bovine colostrum sample. Beverage powder was formulated using skimmed bovine colostrum (P‘ and 2’“’ day), beetroot and banana. The inclusion levels of raw materials were standardized using conjoint analysis. The results suggested that the ratio of 1:1:1, l:0.5;1.5 and 1:0.5:0.5, 1:0.5:0.5 for the development of and 2"'’ day cow and buffalo colostrum beverage respectively. Response surface methodology (RSM) was utilized to optimize the spray drying process parameters viz. inlet air temperature and feed flow rate for the development of functional bovine colostrum beverage powder. The optimum conditions were found as 180°C inlet air temperature and 200 ml/h feed flow rate at which the spray dried powder had better physical properties.
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    A study was carried out with the objective to retain maximum polyphenol during fermentation and other processing steps of cocoa bean for chocolate production. The native microflora such as yeast, lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria were isolated and identified during natural fermentation in Coimbatore, Salem and Dharmapuri districts of Tamil Nadu. The isolates of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Pichia kudriavzevii and lactic acid bacteria isolates Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus fermentum, and acetic acid bacteria isolates Gluconobacter oxy dans, Acetobacter aceti, Acetobacter pasteurianus were screened after morphological, biochemical and molecular techniques for accelerated fermentation of cocoa beans. Nine treatment combinations were formulated by orthogonal array method, out of which Treatment T6 containing Kluyveromyces marxianus, Lactobacillus fermentum, Acetobacter pasteurianus showed maximum catechin, epicatechin, total polyphenol and total flavonoid of 7.612±0.02 mg/g, 8.111±0.06 mg/g, 66.64±0.17 mg/g of GAE and 35.323±0.18 mg/g of QE respectively. The physicochemical parameters such as fermentation index, cut score, pH and temperature showed desirable values on the third day of fermentation thus decreasing days of fermentation with improved combinations of starter culture. The next level was drying of cocoa beans which was carried out in direct sun drying, tray drying and vacuum drying with different drying temperatures for tray and vacuum drying. Among the drying methods, vacuum drying at 60°C (VT6) depicted higher polyphenol and flavonoids content with required moisture content to produce chocolate. Tray drying at 70°C (TT6) showed best results among tray drying treatments and was also chosen as alternate drying method for farmers ease of adaptation. After drying, roasting and conching conditions determine the amount of polyphenols in cocoa beans. Response surface methodology (RSM) tool was utilized to determine desired solution using roasting temperature, roasting time and conching time. For VT6 the optimum roasting temperature, roasting time and conching time were found to be 135.5°C, 18 minutes and 4.5 hours respectively and 136.5 °C, 18 minutes and 3 hours respectively for TT6. In order to predict the storage stability of the chocolate, the parameters such as sensory evaluation, water activity, microbial count, total phenol, total flavonoid of the prepared dark chocolate from TT6, VT6 treatment for 150 days was analyzed. Both VT6 and TT6 showed longer shelf life with overall sensory acceptability while VT6 resulted in higher polyphenol content retention.
  • ThesisItemRestricted
    Micronutrient deficiency referred to as ‘Hidden hunger’ is a huge burden in terms of social, health and economic aspects. Cost effective strategies are in need of the hour for a developing country like India, where, calcium, vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin B12, folate, iodine and iron deficiencies are prevalent to an alarming extent. Although fruit and vegetables are capable of sufficing this need, it is difficult for the Indian population to diversify the diet on a regular basis. Moreover, consumer preference has seen a paradigm shift towards healthy convenience foods in recent times. Therefore, in order to combat the micronutrient deficiencies, a fortified milk based beverage using fruits and vegetables as fortificants has been developed. The fortificants such as carrot, moringa, mushroom, dates and seaweed have been incorporated in skim milk in the form of juice in the levels (15, 5, 6, 2 and 1 per cent, respectively) optimized using conjoint analysis as statistical tool. The level of sugar (10 per cent), nature identical colorant (0.06 per cent) and flavorant (0.15 per cent) were added at optimized levels using sensory evaluation. The proximate study for the developed beverage was carried out and the colour intensity of the product was analyzed using Hunter colorimeter. The physico-chemical properties such as pH, titratable acidity, total soluble solids, total solids, viscosity; sensory attributes including colour and appearance, taste, flavour, overall acceptability and microbiological parameters such as total plate count, coliform, spores and yeast and mold counts of the fortified beverage were estimated at an interval of 30 days for a storage period upto 120 days at ambient temperature. No growth of micro-organisms was observed till 90^ day and microbial growth found at the end of storage period (120^ day). Also the micronutrients, vitamins (vitamin A and D) and minerals (iron and iodine) in the fortified beverage were quantified in the storage intervals and it was found that it has met the recommended daily allowances. However, the concentrations decreased progressively during the storage period.
  • ThesisItemRestricted
    Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) is a polyunsaturated fatty acid predominantly present in ruminant sources like milk and milk products and muscle meat formed by bioconversion of certain fatty acids to CLA isomers. CLA is also present in various plant sources like safflower, sunflower, linseed and soybean. CLA is approved as Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) by many countries. However, CLA from both the sources provide distinct health benefits like weight management, reduction of tumor cells especially against breast and colon cancer, antiinflammatory effect and improved bone health.
  • ThesisItemRestricted
    (2021) Sowmya; TANUVAS; Pugazhenthi TR; Murugan B; Rita Narayanan
    Functional foods are becoming a significant trend in the food industry as they are known to impart positive effects on host health. The present study encompasses on development of functional chocobar incorporating pineapple fruit pulp, natural sweeteners viz. jaggery and palm sugar and microencapsulated probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus. The functional chocobar prepared were analyzed for their sensorial, physico-chemical, nutritional, textural, functional and microbiological attributes along with shelflife studies of up to 60 days of storage. On analyzing the sensorial attributes of chocobar, 15 per cent ingrained pineapple pulp was found to be highly acceptable compared to other treatments containing 5, 10 and 20 per cent fruit pulp. Likewise, the chocobar incorporated with 7.5 per cent of jaggery (PJCT2) and palm sugar (PPCT2) individually were awarded the highest sensory scores than the chocobar containing 5 (PJCTl and PPCTl) and 10 per cent (PJCT3 and PPCT3) of each of the natural sweetener. The sensory analysis of functional chocobar admixed with ideal levels of fruit pulp, natural sweeteners and microencapsulated probiotic showed no significant difference (p>0.05), where all the sensory parameters were almost equal to that of the control chocobar (Cl, C2 and NC). The physico-chemical analysis portrayed a lower pH (4.77 to 4.83) and higher specific gravity (1.17 to 1.22) and viscosity (193.99 to 212.69 cp) for the functional chocobar (PJPCT2 and PPPCT2), Cl and C2 than the plain chocobar, which might be due to the added functional ingredients in the functional chocobar. There was an increase in crude protein, crude fibre, total ash and moisture contents of the functional chocobar, Cl and C2 when compared to the negative control. A decreased content of carbohydrate (5.97 to 6.38) and total solids (45.20 to 45.40) were observed in the chocobar containing functional ingredients than the plain chocobar. But, there was no significant difference in fat content between the chocobar samples analyzed. The functional chocobar (PJPCT2, PPPCT2, Cl and C2) projected high mineral profile than the negative control G^IC) due to the added pineapple pulp and natural sweeteners. Among the functional chocobar, palm sugar incorporated functional chocobar (PPPCT2 and C2) showed higher calcium, potassium and protein contents owing to the superior nutritional profile of the palm sugar. The calorific value was also relatively less in palm sugar added chocobar PPPCT2 and C2 (162.63 and 162.41 kcal/lOOg respectively) compared to PJPCT2, Cl and NC which depicted 163.60, 164.14 and 173.52 kcal/100g respectively.
  • ThesisItemRestricted
    (2021) Sanchaya S; TANUVAS; Sujatha G; Rita Narayanan; Perasiriyan V
    Mother’s milk commonly regarded as “liquid gold” provides essential nutrients for the growth and development of infants. When mother’s own milk is not available for the infants, donor mother’s milk from mother’s milk bank is the only alternative. Holder pasteurization (62.5 °C for 30 min) is the recommended method for processing and preserving mother’s milk and is the widely adopted method in all mother’s milk banks. Holder pasteurization completely inactivates all the pathogens in mother’s milk but also destroys the bioactive components which are heat - labile. Pulsed electric field (PEF) technology, which is one of the novel, non - thermal methods has been investigated to process mother’s milk with better retention of immunoglobulin A (IgA) levels. Mother’s milk samples were collected from milk banks attached to hospitals in Chennai and also from local donor mother’s in and around Koduveli village. Mother’s milk was processed using PEF technology by applying different voltage gradients (25 kV, 30kV and 35kV) with different treatment times (3000 /i? and 4500 /is). A lab model PEF equipment comprising of PEF chamber which consists of two stainless steel circular, parallel plate electrodes were used for PEF processing. The distance between electrodes in PEF chamber was adjusted to 0,5cm. Pulse forming network (PFN) in PEF system produced square pulses of 2.5 /js pulse width. The processed samples were collected in sterile bottles. Physicochemical, nutrient, immunoglobulin and microbial load analysis were carried out before and after PEF processing, IgA, the predominant immunoglobulin found in human milk was determined using immunoturbidimetry method and statistical analysis was performed using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA). No significant difference (P>0.05) in pH, total titratable acidity (“D) and fat content was observed between raw and PEF processed mother’s milk samples. A significant difference (P<0.05) between the mean concentration of protein content in raw mother’s milk and PEF processed mother’s milk samples was observed. The level of retention of IgA (71 - 75%) was higher in PEF treated milk when compared to holder pasteurized milk (52.74%). The results showed that the microbial load were completely eliminated at higher voltage gradient (35kV) at both treatment times (3000 /is and 4500 /is) and were chosen as the optimized treatments. Storage studies were conducted at 5 “C and -20 "C for the optimized treatments and the results were compared with the holder pasteurized mother’s milk samples. pH, total titratable acidity ("D), TPC and coliform count were performed at regular intervals throughout the storage period. The results showed that PEF treated samples stored at 5 ®C remained shelf stable for 17 days whereas pasteurized milk samples stored at 5 ®C remained shelf stable for 5 days. The PEF treated samples stored at -20 ®C remained stable throughout the storage period of 12 weeks. Thus the study revealed that the PEF treatment can be used as an effective alternate method for processing mother’s milk.
  • ThesisItemRestricted
    (2021) Preetha SS; TANUVAS; Perasiriyan V; Sudha K; Marx Nirmal R
    Consumers prefer healthier, more natural products and ingredients that present unique functional properties. Moringa oleifera also known as “miracle tree” with enormous minerals and vitamins makes it a healthy superfood and is utilized as an ingredient in dietary supplements, nutraceuticals and functional foods. It acts as a potential functional food with nutritional, therapeutic, industrial, agricultural and socioeconomic value. This increase in demand for M.oleifera could make moringa cultivation a profitable business for growers. Owing to its enormous potentials, the use of M.oleifera as a food fortificant is on the rise. Scientific research has proven that almost all the parts of moringa, viz., leaves, flowers, seeds, pods, gums and bark afford exemplary nutritive and medicinal properties. To utilize a natural resource as an alternative to conventional supplements and to promote the use of the plant that is economical, easily and locally available as well as a potent nutrient and therapeutic properties native to our country source of food rather than use of supplements, a formulation containing different parts of M.oleifera was designed using Linear Programming model. Three different moringa parts chosen viz., leaves, pods and flowers were thermally processed and powdered. Moringa oleifera leaves and flowers were shade dried for 5 and 6 days, respectively; while Moringa oleifera pods with the pulp was cabinet tray dried at 6O‘’C. Moringa oleifera Leaf Powder (MOLP), Moringa oleifera Pod with pulp Powder (MOPP) and Moringa oleifera Flowers Powder (MOFP) were analyzed for its proximate, mineral (calcium, magnesium, phosphorous, iron, zinc and potassium) and vitamin contents (vitamin A, vitamin C and vitamin E). The amino acid and vitamin E contents of MOLP, MOPP and MOFP were collected from literatures. Moringa Super Greens Powder (MSGP) formulation using Linear Programming model was designed for both men and women (moderate activity) based on the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) values of ICMR - NIN, 2020 guidelines. The objective function of the proposed linear programming model aimed to design a nutrient rich moringa based formulation satisfying 100% Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) of target group with minimized cost. The model recommended that a combination of 332.11 g of MOLP and 57.39 g of MOFP could meet the nutritional requirements of both men and women; while the minimized cost of the formulation for RDA requirements of both men and women as given by Linear Programming (LP) was Rs 645.54. To examine the strength of the proposed model after determining the optimum solution, sensitivity analysis was carried out. The analysis provides the reduced costs, dual price and the allowable ranges of input cost and Right Hand Side (RHS) of constraints for which the optimized solution does not change. Following the design of MSGP. its proximate, minerals and vitamin contents, DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging activity, Total Phenolic Content (TPC), Total Flavonoid Content (TFC) and functional properties were analyzed. The mean values of TPC, TFC and percent inliibition of MSGP formulation was higher than other part powders considered. The objective of the sensory analysis was to determine the acceptance level for incorporation of Moringa Super Greens Powder (MSGP) formulation into selected Ready To Eat (RTE) foods viz., chutney powder, nuts based ladoo and millets based ladoo. Each selected RTE foods were subjected to three different treatments (10%, 20% and 30%). The results of organoleptic evaluation of MSGP formulation revealed that 20% MSGP mix was most acceptable in all the three selected RTE food products. The percent RDA met by 20 g MSGP formulation for calcium, iron, magnesium, zinc, vitamin C and vitamin E were more than 50% for both men and women. The percent RDA for iron, zinc, vitamin A and vitamin E were observed to be more than 100%. The antioxidant activity of MSGP clearly indicates that it can act as a natural source of antioxidants, thereby lowering the risk of incidence of degenerative diseases and even in curing these diseases. The cost analysis of MSGP revealed that the cost of production of 100 g MSGP formulation mix was Rs 117/- (approx.). At a cost of Rs 23/- for 20 g, more than 50 % daily nutritional requirement of most of the nutrients considered could be satisfied. The cost of MSGP formulation mix was also found to be comparatively cheaper than other health supplements and fortificants targeting micronutrient intake available in market such as, Oziva Superfoods Greens & Herbs, JustHer Daily Greens and Superfoods, Kapiva Green Superfoods, Wellversed Superfood Greens & Herbs, Wholefood Multivitamins, Wellversed Superfood Greens & Herbs, Wholefood Multivitamins, Your super.com super greens mix etc. MSGP is a mix of vital nutrients that support strength, immunity and energy with strengthening nutrients (protein, calcium, phosphorous and magnesium), immunity nutrients (vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, zinc and iron) and energy nutrients. The results of the study clearly shows that MSGP formulation could be utilized as an effective fortificant due to its rich source of micronutrients and appreciable source of protein and crude fiber contents.
  • ThesisItemRestricted
    (2021) Manikandan B; TANUVAS; Perasiriyan V; Murugan B; Sujatha G
    The consistency determination is the critical process in jaggery production which defines the final product quality. The equipment was developed with resistance temperature detectors (RTD), red green blue (RGB) sensor and electrical conductivity sensor to conclude the consistency of jaggery by measuring the temperature ( C), colour and electrical conductivity (dS/m) respectively so that the final product will be of less deterioration and loss. These three suitable physical parameters were picked by conducting the literature study and their corresponding sensors were chosen for developing the equipment. The developed equipment was tested in field on jaggery prepared from Co 86032, VcF 0517 and Co 8371 sugarcane variety. The temperature, colour and electrical conductivity values of finest jaggery produced by employing the manual method of consistency checking (Hard ball stage or based on sound produced by the hard ball on hitting the pan)were statistically analysed and the mean±SE values were fed to the developed Process End Point Sensor as a set point to conclude the consistency of jaggery. By using the standardised developed Process End Point Sensor, the jaggery has been produced and their recovery percentage (percentage of jaggery with acceptable sensory quality) and loss percentage (dark coloured jaggery or dark solid lumps of jaggery) has been calculated. On performing statistical analysis (ANOVA) on the recovery and loss percentage values obtained for jaggery produced by manual method of consistency checking three sugarcane varieties showed highly significant difference between them. The jaggery produced by employing Process End Point Sensor showed only significant difference between them. The jaggery produced from sugarcane varieties, viz. Co 86032, VcF 0517 and Co 8371 with Process End Point Sensor was compared with jaggery produced by manual method in which former possessed better quality with good recovery percentage and less loss percentage. The sensory scores of jaggery produced by both the methods were statistically analyzed which showed Co 86032 and Co 8371 variety of jaggery had significant difference between the methods employed in producing them, while the VcF 0517 variety showed highly significant difference between the methods. The sensory evaluation of jaggery produced by using both the method where compared and it gave the result in favor of Process End Point Sensor. Productively and economically the Process End Point Sensor will be efficient to farmers. It is concluded that the developed Process End Point Sensor when employed to determine the consistency of jaggery yielded jaggery with improved quality and minimum loss.