ThesisItem RestrictedRECONSTRUCTIVE SURGICAL TECHNIQUES FOR CLOSURE OF CRITICAL ABDOMINAL SKIN DEFECTS IN DOGS(2021) VINILKUMAR R; TANUVAS; SANKAR P; UMARANI R; PRAKASHRUPAKARAN RThe present study was carried out on the clinical cases of tumours of abdominal skin and mammary gland brought to the small animal surgery outpatient unit of Veterinary Clinical Complex, Veterinary College and Research Institute, Namakkal. A total of 24 animals aged between 6 and 14 years with selected tumours more than 5cm in size with or without involvement of regional lymph node and without distant metastasis were selected for the study. Detailed clinical, hematobiochemical, fine needle aspiration cytology of tumour and radiographic examinations were done pre-operatively. All the 24 animals were randomly divided into four groups. Group I animals were subjected for advancement skin flap without platelet rich plasma, while group II with platelet rich plasma, group III animals were subjected for rotational skin flap without platelet rich plasma while group IV animals with platelet rich plasma. Planimetry of tumour and flap was done using biological skin marker. Surgical excision of tumour mass was performed with clean histological margins. Flaps were created and apposed to sew the skin edges closer to minimize the skin tension using walking sutures. The critical skin defects were reconstructed using skin flap techniques and drains sheets were placed intra-operatively. Subjective evaluation of the skin flap was done on 3rd, 6th and 9th post-operative days based on colour, dermal bleeding test, pain sensation test, hair growth test and atropine absorption test. Histopathological evaluation of the skin flap was done on 7th, 14th and 21st post-operative days. Most common post-operative complications were hematoma, dehiscence, limb edema, subcutaneous emphysema, flap necrosis and seroma. The Mean ± SE values of healing of the flap in days in Groups I, II, III and IV were16.33 ± 0.49, 17.83 ± 1.42,17.66 ± 0.88 and 16 ± 0 respectively. All the animals recovered uneventfully with good cosmetic appearance. ThesisItem RestrictedINFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT WATER SANITIZERS ON THE PRODUCTION PERFORMANCE OF BROILER CHICKEN(2021) GOSKULWAR PRIYA VASANTRAO; TANUVAS; RAJENDRAN K; KANNAN D; CHINNAMANI KA biological experiment was conducted to study the influence of different water sanitizers on the production performance of broiler chicken. The experiment was carried out with three hundred and twenty Cobb 400 day old straight run broiler chicks from single hatch and reared up to 35 days of age under standard managemental condition. The chicks were wing banded, weighed and randomly allotted to eight treatment groups with five replicates of eight chicks each. The treatment groups consisted of T1 - Control (untreated water), T2 - Reverse Osmosis water, T3 - Chlorine water, T4 - Chlorine dioxide water, T5 - Hydrogen peroxide water, T6 - Ozonized water, T7 - UV treated water and T8 –Ozone+UV treated water. A basal broiler diet was formulated according to the Cobb 400 standard and fed to the birds throughout the study period. During the experimental period, data on body weight, feed consumption and litter quality evaluation were recorded at weekly interval and water consumption on daily basis and mortality was recorded at occurrence. From the above data, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, water to feed intake ratio and livability were calculated. At the end of the experiment (35th day), one male and one female per replicate, totally ten birds per treatment group were randomly selected and blood samples were collected for analysis of serum biochemical parameters later the birds were slaughtered and recorded slaughter parameters and abdominal fat weight. The thigh and breast muscle samples were collected from each carcass and the protein content was estimated. An intestinal cut from loop of duodenum was taken to measure intestinal villi length. Litter samples were collected from each replicate and analysed for moisture, pH, electrical conductivity and total dissolved solids. ThesisItem RestrictedEFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL ENRICHMENT ON BEHAVIOURAL WELFARE AND FAECAL CORTISOL METABOLITE LEVELS IN CAPTIVE LION-TAILED MACAQUES (Macaca silenus)(2021) MOULIDHARAN M; TANUVAS; Prathipa A; Vijayarani K; Palanivelrajan M; Sridhar KThis study was carried out at Arignar Anna Zoological Park, Vandalur, Chennai, Tamil Nadu with the main objective to study the effect of environmental enrichment on behavioural pattern of captive lion-tailed macaques (LTMs) based on ethogram and faecal cortisol metabolite levels. A systematic ethogram was designed and general behaviour of the LTMs (total=18) from three different enclosures (six LTMs per enclosure) were assessed. The general behaviours were grouped into behavioural states and behavioural events. The behavioural states and events were categorized into normal self-directed, normal social interaction, abnormal self-directed and abnormal social- interaction. Based on the activity pattern of the LTMs, the behavioural states were further categorized into self-directed active, self-directed resting, social, abnormal behaviour and out of sight. In the normal self-directed state, the LTMs spent maximum time sitting and minimum time lying down. Similarly, in the normal social interaction state, the LTMs spent maximum time in allogroom and minimum time wrestling. Self-oral was the only abnormal behavioural state observed. Based on the activity pattern of the behavioural states recorded, it was found that the LTMs spent maximum time in self-directed active state and minimum time in abnormal behavioural state. The behavioural event with high frequency recorded was scan, whereas less frequency were recorded in hide and peek, scream, threat leap and regurgitate and reingest. ThesisItem RestrictedPUPIL EXPANSION DEVICE IN SMALL PUPIL CATARACT SURGERY IN DOGS(2021) YAMINI THAKUR; TANUVAS; SIVASHANKAR R; RAMANI C; SABIHA HAYATH BASHAA well-dilated pupil enhances the ease of cataract extraction, reduces time and decreases the likelihood of complications. Pharmacological treatment with Adrenaline is rapid and effective method to achieve sufficient pupil dilation but it may be ineffective in some cases. Pupil expansion device represent a more effective option for maintaining mydriasis as well as protecting the pupillary margins. The study was conducted on clinical cases with canine cataract presented to Small Animal Ophthalmology unit of Madras Veterinary College Teaching Hospital. They were subjected to detailed clinical and ophthalmic examinations for diagnosis of cataract. After detailed ophthalmic examination and ocular imaging, the twelve canine cataract cases were divided into two groups viz., Group I and II. In Group I, pharmacological treatment (intracameral adrenaline) was used whereas in Group II, pupil expansion device (iris retractors) was used for achieving sufficient pupillary mydriasis. Under general anaesthesia, pupillary mydriasis was achieved with intracameral adrenaline prior to phacoemulsification procedure in Group I. In Group II, self-sealing stab incisions were made at 3, 6, 9, 12 O’ clock position and iris retractors were engaged to the pupillary margin. Iris retractors were typically used in sets of four to create a quadrangular pupil. Careful arrangement of the retractors optimized visualization and prevented the interference with surgical instruments and manoeuvres during phacoemulsification ThesisItem RestrictedDECOMPRESSIVE PROCEDURES WITH POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL AND POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL WITH PLATELET RICH PLASMA FOR SPINAL INJURY IN DOGS(2021) MONIKAKRISH K; TANUVAS; JAYAKUMAR K; VIJAYAKUMAR M; BALACHANDRAN PThe clinical research was conducted on thoracolumbar spinal disorders in 12 dogs presented to the Small Animal Surgery Unit of Veterinary Clinical Complex (VCC), Veterinary College and Research Institute, Namakkal, Tamilnadu during the period from October 2019 to January 2021. Twelve dogs with clinical and radiological evidence of thoracolumbar spinal lesions were selected and divided randomly into two groups of six dogs each. Group I consisted of six animals which were subjected to decompressive procedure with intra-lesional engraftment of polyethylene glycol. Group II consisted of six animals which were subjected to decompressive procedure with intra-lesional engraftment of polyethylene glycol with platelet rich plasma. The percentage of thoracolumbar spinal disorders was found to be highest in Mongrel (57.38 per cent). The incidence of thoracolumbar spinal disorders was more at age group of 0-5 years (77.04 per cent) and also found most commonly in males (78.69 per cent). Among the thoracolumbar spinal disorders vertebral fracture (32.79 per cent) was found more than other spinal disorders. In group I and group II, 50 per cent of cases were presented with Upper Motor Neuron syndrome and remaining cases were presented with Lower Motor Neuron syndrome. In group I, two dogs were graded as 4 and four dogs were graded as 5 and all the dogs in group II were graded as 5. Diagnosis of Upper Motor Neuron bladder syndrome and Lower Motor Neuron bladder syndrome was based on neurological examination and localization of the spinal segment. The grading and evaluation procedure used in the present study were good prognostic indicators to assess the neurological status of the animal. Lateral and ventrodorsal plain radiographs provided good detail in evaluating the thoracolumbar vertebral lesions. Precise radiographic diagnosis was possible only in cases of fracture and spondylitis. ThesisItem RestrictedPATHOLOGY OF PESTE DES PETITS RUMINANTS AND CONCURRENT INFECTIONS IN GOATS(2021) SHANMUGAVADIVU P; TANUVAS; 1-166; ARULMOZHI A; SIVARAMAN SA study was undertaken during the period of October 2019 to September 2020 to determine the incidence of PPR and concurrent infection in and around Namakkal. A total of 509 clinical samples were collected from goats showing clinical signs suggestive of PPR and 39 tissue samples from PPR affected dead animals. Peste des petits ruminants and its concurrent infections were detected by polymerase chain reaction and cultural examinations. Systematic post-mortem examination was carried out on 39 carcasses to ascertain the pathological changes in PPR and concurrent infections. The disease was recorded more in non-descript and Tellicherry than Salem black goat. Among the sex, female were more affected than male. Among different age groups, 6-12 months were more affected than 0-6 months and more than 12 months. The disease occurrence was high in the months of December, January and February. Out of 509 samples, 339 were positive for PPRV. Twelve of the 339 PPRV positive clinical samples yielded a positive reaction for Orf virus. Fourteen of the 339 PPRV positive clinical samples and five out of the 39 post mortem samples yielded a positive reaction for Mycoplasma sp. Six of the 339 PPRV positive clinical samples and seven out of the 39 post mortem samples revealed the presence of Pasteurella sp. One out of 39 PPR positive post mortem samples showed positivity both for Mycoplasma sp. and Pasteurella sp. ThesisItem RestrictedINCLUSION OF CIDR IN SUPEROVULATORY PROTOCOL ON EMBRYO RECOVERY IN KANGAYAM COWS(2021) PERIYANNAN M; TANUVAS; SELVARAJU M; RAVIKUMAR K; RAJA AIn cows, superovulation should allow the production of a maximum number of transferable embryos capable of establishing pregnancy after transfer, maintaining normal embryonic development and resuming pregnancy with the expulsion of healthy progenies of genetic superiority. A total of 16 Kangayam cows were selected and randomly divided into two equal experimental groups viz., group I and II. All the donor cows were treated with two doses of 500 μg PGF2α (i.m.) at an interval of 11 days. In group I donor cows, CIDR was inserted intravaginally on day 7 after estrus. Two mg of estradiol benzoate was injected intramuscularly at the time of CIDR insertion to all the donor cows. In group II donor cows, injection estradiol benzoate 2 mg was injected intramuscularly on day 7 after the estrus without CIDR insertion. In both the groups, from day 11, 50 mg of NIH FSH was given (i.m.) during morning and evening (twice daily) to each donor cow for a period of 4 days at an interval of 12 hours. On day 13, 500 μg of PGF2α was administered (i.m.) during morning and evening followed by CIDR was removed 12 hours after the second PGF2α injection. At 12 hours after the last FSH injection, 20 μg of inj. GnRH was given to each donor cow (i.m.). A total of 3 AIs were done at an interval of 12 hours starting at 12 hours after the GnRH injection. The embryos were collected from superovulated donors on day 7 after 1st AI by non-surgical transcervical method. A Foley catheter was fixed at the anterior 1/3rd of the uterine horn and the balloon of Foley catheter was inflated with 8 – 12 ml of air. The right uterine horn was thoroughly flushed for 3-5 times using flushing media and the same procedure was repeated for the opposite horn. ThesisItem RestrictedSPERM VIABILITY AND FERTILITY RATE OF KANGAYAM BULL SEMEN EXTENDED WITH DIFFERENT DILUENTS(2021) ELAMURUGAN K; TANUVAS; EZAKIAL NAPOLEAN R; SELVARAJU M; MURALI NAwareness of artificial insemination (AI) in Kangayam and other native cows among farmers of Tamil Nadu state is increasing due to non-availability of pedigreed and suitable breeding bulls and the Jallikattu fest. Identification of suitable extender for cryopreservation of native bull semen is the need of hour in native animal breeding. Kangayam bull No NK 14 aged 5 years was utilized for the study. The semen was collected twice in a week and each time two ejaculates were collected. Then they were immediately transferred to semen processing laboratory and kept at 34° C in the water bath. The semen collected from the bull into the sterile disposable plastic graduated tubes was immediately subjected to macroscopic, microscopic and biochemical analysis. A two μl of neat semen sample was diluted with 400 μl of Tris solution. After dilution, two μl of sample was loaded in one chamber of prewarmed Leja slide and kept in microscopic stage of CASA and all the sperm kinetic characters were analyzed. Tris- egg - yolk glycerol (TEYG) (group I), soya lecithin based extender (group II) and liposome based extender (group III) were prepared on the day of semen collection and kept in water bath at 34° C for processing of semen. Initially the semen sample was diluted at 1:1 ratio with the corresponding extender (TEYG or soya lecithin based or liposome based extenders) according to the group. The 1:1 diluted semen samples from each group were kept at 22° C for 7 minutes in the laminar air flow. During this time the temperature of semen sample was reduced from 34° C to 22° C. After reaching 22° C, the 1:1 diluted semen samples from each group was finally extended with respective semen extender as per the dilution rate. ThesisItem RestrictedBLOOD TRANSFUSION STUDIES IN SHEEP AND GOAT(2021) BANKA PUSHKAR RAJENDRA; TANUVAS; SIVARAMAN S; SEMTHILKUMAR G; BALACHANDRAN PThe present study entitled “Blood transfusion studies in sheep and goats” was conducted for a period of 12 months, from September 2019 to August 2020, with the objectives of studying the shelf life of donor blood and blood transfusion protocol in sheep and goats. Blood collected in CPDA blood bags (@10-15ml/kg body weight) from 10 apparently healthy sheep and goat donors were stored for a period of 20 days and analysed to study various parameters. On storage, sheep blood showed 1 per cent haemolysis on day 16 and marked change in cell types were noted from day 13 onwards.Whereas in goats, 1 per cent haemolysis was observed on day 12 and marked change in cell types were noted from day 7 onwards. In total of 263 sheep and 1836 goats were presented to medicine unit ofVeterinary Clinical Complex, Veterinary College and Research Institute, Namakkal during the study period. The incidence of anaemia in sheep and goats were 13.69 and 7.19 per cent, respectively. Highest incidence was noticed in less than 3 months of age group animals [sheep (30.56 %) and goats (41.67 %)] and in the winter season [sheep (44.44 %) and goat (48.48 %). Various etiologies observed in sheep and goats included ectoparasitic infestation (55.56 % and 63.64 % respectively), endoparasitic infection (19.44 % and 21.97 % respectively) and mixed infection (11.11 % and 6.06 % respectively).The most clinical signs noticed in sheep with anaemia were thin body condition, anorexia, occasional rumination, pale mucous membrane and dull mentation and in goats were thin body condition, doughy ruminal consistency, inappetence, pale mucous membrane and absence of rumination.On haemato-biochemistry, anaemic sheep had a significant reduction in Hb, PCV, RBCs, MCV, monocytes, neutrophils and albumin and significant leukocytosis, lymphocytosis and eosinophilia. Anaemic goats had a significant reduction of Hb, PCV, RBCs, neutrophils, total protein and albumin leveland significant elevation of MCV, MCH, monocytes and eosinophils. Cross matching was done prior to blood transfusion, in all the cases to check compatibility between donor and recipient blood. Blood transfusion was carried out with stored blood in 6 sheep and 9 goats (@ 10-15ml/kg body weight). Marked improvement was noticed soon after transfusion. Haemato-biochemical studies showed significant increase in Hb, PCV and total protein values in sheep and significant increase in Hb, PCV, RBC, WBC and eosinophils in goats after blood transfusion. In the present study, blood transfusion done with stored blood in anaemic sheep and goats was successful in all the cases without any adverse reactions.