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Karnataka Veterinary, Animal and Fisheries Sciences University, Bidar

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  • OtherItemOpen Access
    NEWS LETTER JULY - DECEMBER Vol. XIX ISSUE. II 2023
    (KVAFSU,BIDAR, 2023) KVAFSU
  • OtherItemOpen Access
    NEWS LETTER Vol. XIX, Issue II, JULY -DE.2023
    (KVAFSU,BIDAR, 2023) KVAFSU
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    DIAGNOSIS AND THERAPEUTIC STUDIES ON SUBCLINICAL KETOSIS IN GOATS
    (KARNATAKA VETERINARY, ANIMAL AND FISHERIES SCIENCES UNIVERSITY, BIDAR-585226, 2023-12-01) RAHUL; SANDEEP HALMANDGE; VIVEK R. KASARALIKAR
    Subclinical ketosis (SCK) in goats causes greater losses than clinical ketosis because it occurs more frequently and often cannot be detected by farmers. A total of 100 pregnant goats in last 4-6 weeks gestation were included in the study. The overall prevalence was 26.00 per cent of SCK by urine reagent strips.Whereas, prevalence of 56.00 per cent was observed based on blood BHBA test. The prevalence was highest in the goats belonging to unorganized farms. Age wise prevalence of SCK in pregnant goats was highest in 2-4 years and least in 4-6 years of age groups based on blood BHBA test. Blood samples and serum samples from affected goats were analysed for haematology and biochemical parameters. Haematological analysis showed mild erythrocytopenia and leucocytosis. Biochemical parameters like serum glucose, calcium, total protein and albumin were significantly lower, whereas blood BHBA and AST activities were significantly higher in subclinical ketosis affected goats. SCK affected goats were divided randomly into three groups consisting of 6 goats in each group and were subjected for different treatment regimens: Group I (Propylene glycol), Group II (Ketonil gel®) and Group III (25% Dextrose). After therapy haematological and biochemical parameters were found to be in normal physiological range in all treatment animals. Though all the three treatment regimes in the present study yielded improvement in various haematological and biochemical parameters. Treatment with propylene glycol and ketonil gel® revealed 100 per cent efficacy in combating SCK in pregnant goats. Keywords: Goats subclinical ketosis, Prevalence, Haemato-biochemical, Therapy.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    STUDIES ON STREPTOZOTOCIN INDUCED DIABETES IN RATS AND ITS AMELIORATION BY POMEGRANATE JUICE AND PEEL EXTRACT
    (KARNATAKA VETERINARY, ANIMAL AND FISHERIES SCIENCES UNIVERSITY, BIDAR-585401, 2022) YASHAS R KUMAR; H. D. NARAYANASWAMY
    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the antidiabetic effect of pomegranate juice and peel extract individually and in combination with metformin in STZ induced diabetes in rats for a period of 45 days. The study included seven treatment groups comprising of ten albino wistar rats each, randomized with minimal variation in initial body weights. The various groups in this study included normal control (Group I (NC)), diabetic control (Group II (DC)), diabetic rats treated with metformin at the rate of 500 mg/kg bw (Group III (MF)), diabetic rats treated with pomegranate fresh juice at (1ml/day) Group IV(PJ)), diabetic rats treated with pomegranate peel extracts (at 100mg) (Group V (PPE)), diabetic rats treated with pomegranate fresh juice (1mL) + pomegranate peel extracts (100mg) at 50 per-cent dosage and metformin (half dose) Group-VI (PJ+PPE+MF 50%), diabetic rats treated with pomegranate fresh juice (0.5mL) + pomegranate peel extract (50mg) at 50 per-cent dosage and metformin (half dose) Group-VII (PJ+PPE @ 50% +MF 50%). The results showed that there was a significant increase (p ≤ 0.05) in the mean glucose values in diabetic rats when compared to normal control rats. Similarly, the mean (± SE) serum glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol, ALT, AST level were significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher and in RBC, Hb and platelets values were significantly (p ≤ 0.05) lesser in diabetic control animals compared to the normal control animals. All the antioxidant enzymes (CAT, SOD and GPx) were markedly reduced in diabetic control (Group II). The treatment groups treated with metformin, pomegranate juice and pomegranate peel extract (Group III to VII) individually or in combination showed a significant improvement in all the parameters compared to diabetic control by the end of 45th day. However, it could be inferred that metformin substantially alleviated the effects of STZ in diabetic rats compared to all the treatment groups. Pomegrenate peel extract was observed to have marginally better antidiabetic effects compared to pomegranate juice and among the combination treatment groups (VI and VII) there was no dose dependent and synergistic effect observed. Keywords: Pomegrenate peel extract (PPE), Pomegrenate juice (PJ), Metformin, Catalase (CAT), Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Glutathione peroxidase (GPx)
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    CERTAIN STUDIES ON FELINE HAEMOTROPIC MYCOPLASMOSIS
    (KARNATAKA VETERINARY, ANIMAL AND FISHERIES SCIENCES UNIVERSITY, BIDAR, 2022) SUSHMA, R. E.; P. T. RAMESH
    The present study “Certain studies on Feline Haemotropic Mycoplasmosis” was designed to investigate epidemiological aspects, clinical and haemato-biochemical profile associated with feline haemotropic mycoplasmosis and its molecular diagnosis. Among the cats presented to Veterinary College Hospital, Bengaluru during the period from July 2020 to June 2021, 78 anaemic cats were suspected for Haemotropic Mycoplasmosis and were included for detailed study. Peripheral blood smear stained with Giemsa stain were examined for primary identification of organisms. Among 78 cats screened, 12 were positive for haemoplasma by blood smear examination. Most frequent clinical signs noticed in affected cats were pale mucous membranes, anorexia, lethargy, pyrexia, weight loss and splenomegaly. Haematological studies revealed reduction in RBC, haemoglobin and haematocrit values. Biochemical alterations were Hyperglobulinaemia and elevated total protein level. Higher occurrence was observed in summer season and among adult cats, male, non-descript cats with semi-outdoor access. The blood samples were subjected to PCR for amplification of 16S rRNA gene of haemoplasma. The occurrence of Mycoplasma haemofelis and Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum was five and thirteen per cent, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of Mycoplasma haemofelis derived from the hemoplasma infected cats showed high sequence identity to M. haemocanis sequences in Genbank and Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum showed 98 – 99 per cent sequence identity to Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum isolates of domestic cats from USA, Trinidad, Hungry, Italy, Yamaguchi, Brazil and Thaiwan. Statistically significant reduction in plasma reduced glutathione concentration was seen and no statistically significant difference in IgG quantity was observed between healthy and infected groups of cats. Key Words: Feline Haemotropic Mycoplasmosis, Blood smear, Polylerase Chain Reaction. Annexures
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    EPIDEMIOLOGY AND DEVELOPMENT OF RECOMBINANT ANTIGEN BASED DIAGNOSTICS FOR BOVINE LEPTOSPIROSIS
    (KARNATAKA VETERINARY, ANIMAL AND FISHERIES SCIENCES UNIVERSITY, BIDAR, 2022) SONALI MENAMVAR; B. M. VEEREGOWDA)
    The present study was aimed to study seroepidemiology of leptospirosis and to express the leptospiral surface adhesion (rLsa 44) protein of pathogenic Leptospira interrogans serovar Pomona in E. coli and its evaluation as a potential diagnostic antigen. The observed seroprevalence of bovine leptospirosis at animal level and farm level in Telangana state was 41.36 per cent and 77.61 per cent respectively. The highest seropositivity (80.95%) was observed in Wanaparthy and Rangareddy and the lowest seropositivity (20%) was observed in Mancheriala district. The prevalent leptospiral antibodies were predominantly against the serogroups Icterohemorrahgiae (32.4%), Pomona (22.16%), Javanica (19.07%), Australis (17.01%), Bataviae (15.46%), Bankinang (12.89%), Hebdomadis (12.89%). Further, the breed of the animal (p=0.03) and the health status of the animal (p=0.03) are the significant risk factors associated with the prevalence of leptospirosis. Furthermore, multivariate statistical analysis of farm factors revealed that the size of the farm (p=0.05), presence of the dog in and around the farm (p=0.039), presence of rodents in the farm (p=0.011), farms using fodder from wet soils (p=0.043) and farms closer to the water bodies (p=0.041) were significantly associated with the prevalence of bovine leptospirosis. Leptospiral surface adhesion (Lsa 44) gene was amplified employing designed primers by polymerase chain reaction and the purified amplicon was initially cloned in pGEM-T Easy vector in a pET vector expression in E. coli. The expressed recombinant protein after induction with IPTG was purified through Ni-NTA column and characterized by SDS-PAGE and western blot, which confirmed the expressed reactive protein is Leptospira specific with a molecular weight of ~44 kDa. The antigen was coated on latex beads and assessed for its suitability as diagnostic antigen in latex agglutination Test (LAT) for the development of new diagnostics. Further, the evaluation of rLsa 44 LAT beads revealed a relative diagnostic sensitivity and diagnostic specificity of 93.55 per cent and 90.62 per cent respectively with an accuracy of 92.06 per cent against MAT while testing known MAT positive and negative bovine sera samples (n=126) collected from cattle and buffaloes associated with the reproductive problems. This rLsa 44 LAT is an extremely simple and rapid test and can be used as a diagnostic tool at the field level. This study appears to be the first to assess the prevalence of bovine leptospirosis at the farm level in endemic conditions and to use rLsa 44 protein for the detection of anti-leptospiral antibodies in cattle and buffaloes as a preliminary screening test.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    TOXICOLOGICAL CHARACTERISATION OF TITANIUM DIOXIDE (TiO2) NANOPARTICLES ON CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM FOLLOWING SUBCHRONIC EXPOSURE AND STUDIES ON AMELIORATIVE POTENTIAL OF EXOGENOUS MELATONIN IN WISTAR RATS
    (KARNATAKA VETERINARY, ANIMAL AND FISHERIES SCIENCES UNIVERSITY, BIDAR-585401, 2022) SHIVAPRASAD. G R; N. PRAKASH)
    Today titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles are one among the several environmental contaminants, essentially due to its widespread applications in food, medicine, cosmetic, electronic and other industries. The systemic toxicity due to titanium (Ti) following exposure to titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) is least understood. The current experimental study was undertaken to determine the impact of sub-chronic exposure to TiO2 NPs on systemic toxicity with special reference to central nervous system (CNS). Further, the antioxidant role of exogenous source of melatonin to overcome potential deleterious effects of TiO2 NPs was also examined. In the first phase toxicokinetics and tissue distribution characteristics of TiO2 NPs was studied before undertaking sub-chronic toxicological investigations. The Tmax(obs.), Cmax (obs.), elimination half-life (t1/2k10), area under the curve (AUC[0-336]) and AUC(0-∞) of TiO2 following single intraperitoneal administration of TiO2 NPs in whole blood was 0.5 h, 0.26±0.03 μg.ml-l, 486.31±39.66 h, 48.81±0.54 μg/ml*h and 128.28±7.17 μg/ml*h, respectively. The Cmax(obs.) in various tissues was in the order of liver > spleen > lung > kidney > testis > brain. The elimination half-life (t1/2k10) was in the order of spleen > kidney > liver > lung. Sub-chronic exposure to TiO2 NPs (phase 2) significantly (p<0.05) decreased both voluntary and involuntary motor activities but showed elevation in anxiety levels on Day 60 or Day 90 of the experimental study period. However, exogenous melatonin administration significantly (p<0.05) decreased the anxiety and improved voluntary and involuntary motor activities in experimental rats. Further, melatonin supplementation significantly (p<0.05/p<0.01) ameliorated TiO2 NPs induced alterations in hematology as well as serum biochemical parameters on Day 60 or Day 90 of the experimental study. Sub-chronic exposure to TiO2 NPs not only showed increased levels of ‘Ti’ in brain tissue but also induced significant (p<0.05/p<0.01) increase in some of the elements (Fe, Cu, Ca, Na) at term. However, rats receiving melatonin showed significant (p<0.05) reduction in Fe, Cu, Ca and marked reduction in Na in brain tissue. Sub-chronic exposure to TiO2 NPs induced a significant (p<0.05/p<0.01) decrease in activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) as well reduction in glutathione (GSH) levels in brain tissue (Group-II). On the contrary, rats receiving melatonin showed significant (p<0.05) restoration of these antioxidant defence mechanisms (Group-III) when examined on Day 60 or Day 90 of the experimental study. Further, melatonin administration significantly (p<0.05/p<0.01) reduced lipid peroxidation (LPO) measured in terms of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) 300 called (MDA) at 60 days (Group-II: 36.79+1.76 vs Group-III: 26.99+1.08nmol.g-1) or 90 days (Group-II: 41.50+2.50 vs Group-III: 28.821+1.28 nmol.g-1) of the experimental study, and the levels of MDA was comparable to control (Group-I: Day 60: 25.40+1.97 and Day 90: 26.61+1.58 nmol.g-1). Sub-chronic exposure to TiO2 NPs showed significant (p<0.05) increase in nitrite content in the brain (Group-II) on Day 60 or Day 90 of experimental study, but melatonin administration (Group-III) effectively countered its overload. Similarly, the study revealed that melatonin can prevent TiO2 NPs induced inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in CNS. Sub-chronic exposure to TiO2 NPs induced significant (p<0.05/p<0.01) increase in the levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and calcium binding protein-S100B in brain or serum on Day 60 or Day 90 of the study. Melatonin administration significantly (p<0.05/p<0.01) reduced the IL-6, GFAP and S100B levels in brain as well as serum of experimental rats receiving TiO2 NPs (Group-III). Histopathological examination of sections of brain revealed that sub-chronic exposure to TiO2 NPs induced loss of purkinje layer in cerebellum, and condensation and vacuolation of neuronal cells with disruption of pyramidal cells in hippocampus and cerebral cortex. Further, swelling of endothelial cells and focal necrotic area with infiltration of glial cells was evident in sections of cerebral cortex. However, exogenous melatonin administration showed marked progressive restoration in loss of architecture induced by TiO2 NPs in experimental rats. The current experimental study explicitly demonstrates that sub-chronic exposure to TiO2 NPs can primarily cause significant alterations in redox homeostasis leading to functional and structural damage to central nervous system. Secondly, exogenous source of melatonin can play a pivotal role to overcome systemic toxicological effects including neurotoxicity. Thus, there exists a vast scope for undertaking long term studies with toxico-epidemiological relevant concentration, as well as to re-visit safety pharmacology governing TiO2 -nanoparticles exposure through various means including pharmaceuticals. Key words: Titanium dioxide (TiO2), nanoparticles, toxicokinetics, sub-chronic exposure, central nervous system (CNS), Wistar rats
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    CHARACTERIZATION AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF NATIVE CHICKEN IN FOUR DISTRICTS (TUMAKURU, SHIVAMOGGA, DAVANAGERE AND CHITHRADURGA) OF BENGALURU DIVISION OF KARNATAKA STATE
    (KARNATAKA VETERINARY, ANIMAL AND FISHERIES SCIENCES UNIVERSITY, BIDAR-585 226, 2022) SHIVAPPA NAYAKA, H.B.; JAYANAIK
    A study was carried out to characterize indigenous chicken from four Districts of Bengaluru Division of Karnataka State viz., Tumakuru, Chithradurga, Shivamogga and Davanagere and to evaluate production performance under farm conditions. Survey results revealed that the average flock size, marketing age, egg production per year, hatchability and fertility per cent were 19.77, 9.02 months, 53.76, 56.9 and 44.78, respectively. Morphological characteristics of indigenous chicken revealed that the highest per cent of plumage color and pattern was multicolor (38.34 %) and patchy pattern. The predominant skin and shank colour observed was yellow, eye colour was brown and majority of the birds had wattles under field and farm conditions in Bengaluru division. A significant (P˂0.05) difference could be observed in the body weight, feed consumption and FCR between districts with better FCR in birds from Chithradurga followed by Davanagere, Tumakuru and Shivamogga. Male birds had significantly (P˂0.05) higher morphometric measurements as compared to the female counterparts in all the districts studied. The dressing per cent in male and female indigenous birds were 67.15±1.25 and 64.07±0.76, respectively and per cent heart, liver and gizzard ranged from 0.48 to 0.64, 2.61 to 2.79 and 2.89 to 3.54, respectively. The average HHEP, average feed efficiency per dozen of eggs under farm condition at 52nd week was 47.54 ±0.23 and 4.05±0.03, respectively. The age at sexual maturity and body weight at sexual maturity was 171±0.49 days and 1045±0.45 g. The mean chick mortality per cent in all the four Districts was 7.41 per cent and birds vaccinated against NDV has better titre values. Based on various parameters assessed indigenous chicken germplasm from Chithradurga District of Bengaluru division was found to be superior compared to that of the other three districts studied.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    ISOLATION AND MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANT Escherichia coli IN PORK PRODUCTION CHAIN IN AND AROUND BENGALURU
    (KARNATAKA VETERINARY, ANIMAL AND FISHERIES SCIENCES UNIVERSITY, BIDAR, 2022) SHIVAKUMARA, R.; SHRIKRISHNA ISLOOR
    The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the occurrence of AMR E. coli in pork production chain in and around Bengaluru. Initial survey indicated that majority of the pig farmers were small and marginal farmers (66%) and kitchen / hotel waste was the major source of feed. The major antibiotics used were tetracycline followed by enrofloxacin and sulphonamides (Co-trimazole) and antibiotics were administered by themselves (80%). A total of 230 samples (40 each from piglets, weaners and adults, 30 each of feed, water, hand swabs and 20 boot socks) from 10 pig farms were screened and 366 E. coli isolates were used for further characterization. The average E. coli count ranged from 5.811 to 6.282 log10 cfu / g. The highest per cent of AMR E. coli counts as proportion of total E. coli was observed in kitchen waste (66.16%) followed by water trough (55.55%), human hand swabs (52.94%), outside boot socks (50.87%) and piglet (45.37%) samples as compared to other samples in this study. The overall occurrence of E. coli, tetracycline, fluoroquinolone and ESBL resistant E. coli in the entire pork production chain was 75.65, 63.48, 46.52 and 20.87 per cent, respectively. Of the 366 isolates, 355 isolates (96.99%) carried either one or the other gene, whereas, 3.01 per cent of the isolates did not harbor any of the genes screened. Majority of the isolates carried tetA (97.54%), followed by qnrB (89.34%), sul1 (82.791%), blaCTX-M (42.08%), cmlA1 (13.11%) gene and none of the isolates carried colistin resistance gene (mcr1 to mcr5). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing revealed that majority of the isolates showed resistance to tetracycline (93.14-95.19%) followed by fluoroquinolones and complete sensitivity to carbapenem followed by aminoglycosides. It was observed that 84.91 per cent of E. coli isolates were MDR and PFGE analysis revealed a high genetic diversity at 80 per cent similarity indicating that dissemination of AMR genes within the farm premises.