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Professor Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University, Hyderabad (Telangana State)

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  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    MEASURING THE PRICE CHANGE IN ESSENTIAL FOOD ITEMS USED BY RURAL AND URBAN HOUSEHOLDS DURING THE PANDEMIC IN TELANGANA STATE
    (PROFFESSOR JAYASHANKAR TELANGANA STATE AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY, 2023-02-23) Shivani, S.; Vijaya Lakshmi, V.
    The virus originated in China had sent unprecedented situations to the whole world creating social and economic impacts. The spread of infection urged governments to implement immediate lockdown. This led to a break in the supply chain creating a shortage of food as there was no transport and labour to continue the production. Due to the shutdown of economies, employers faced financial problems and started laying off their employees. Many people faced salary reductions and loss of jobs during the pandemic. Therefore, it became harder to manage the expenses amidst the rising prices. The main reasons for the rise of prices were lack of storage place, lack of transportation and labour. People were forced to consume whatever was available in the market. This situation brought a lot of changes in the consumption behaviour of the people. the present study was The current study aids in understanding the price changes that occurred in essential food items and changes in quantities of essential foods consumed. The study was taken up with following objectives: Exploratory research design was adopted for this study and a total of 200 respondents i.e., 100 rural respondents from Undavelli and Kadukuntla villages and 100 urban respondents from Jogulamba Gadwal town and Wanaparthy town were selected for this study. Multi stage sampling technique was adopted for selection of location. A structured questionnaire was administered to avail the required information from the respondents. The data was analysed using frequencies and percentages. Correlation test, Chi-square test and ANOVA tests were used respectively to test the relation, association and variance between the independent variables and dependent variables. The demographic information revealed that among 200 respondents, less than half (42%) of the respondents belonged to 41-60 years followed by one third belonged to 26-40 years and 17 per cent belonged to below 25 years. More or less an equal percentage of the respondents were graduates (26.5%) and completed up to intermediate (21%). Around 36.5 per cent were earning between Rs. 6000-18000 followed by 29.5 per cent were earning between Rs.18000-31000. Majority of the sample belonged to small families (67%). More or less equal per cent of the respondents belonged to families with adolescents (18%) and school going children (18.5%). Regarding the quantities of essential foods consumed in rural area, majority of the consumption increase in was observed in dry fruits (71.9%), grapes (71.1%), apple (44%) and chicken (35.9%). A similar trend was observed in urban area. It was found that highest increase in expenditure was observed in milk and meat/ vegetables and fruit when compared to the pre-pandemic period. With the highest CPI noticed in milk and meat (174.09) and vegetables and fruits (149.5) in rural area, milk and meat products (172.17) and vegetables and fruits (152.1) in urban area. It was found that fear of selection, lack of transport and restricted movement were major concerns during lockdown in both rural and urban areas. In both rural and urban area, people preferred nearby markets, multi-item grocery stores and brought larger quantities and stored due to restrictions. Due to the impact of Covid-19, people experienced more expenditure after pandemic, decreased junk food consumption, increase consumption of healthy products in both rural and urban areas. About, 76 per cent had reverted to their usual life style after the pandemic. Majority of the people were dependent on their savings and loans borrowed from others. Respondents had stored non-perishable for more than one month and perishable foods for 1-2 weeks in both rural and urban areas. Statistical analysis performed using correlation test revealed that there was a significant relationship between family size, stages of family life cycle and expenditure incurred in 2020. Chi-square analysis had shown a significant association between family size, stages of family life cycle and expenditure incurred in 2019 and a significant association between family size and expenditure incurred in 2020. ANOVA test revealed that there was a significant difference between family size, stages of family life cycle and consumer price index. The study concluded that fresh fruits, vegetables, milk and meat has shown the greatest consumption increase with products like milk and meat, vegetables and fruits showing highest expenditure and CPI when compared to other products. Lockdown has urged people to alter their consumption behaviour which led to a change in shopping behaviour, stocking food items, reducing store visit. Due to financial crisis people had sticked to basic needs. It was also found that people were dependent on savings and loans to survive the pandemic.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    A STUDY ON ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN GROUNDNUT VALUE CHAIN IN WANAPARTHY DISTRICT OF TELANGANA
    (PROFFESSOR JAYASHANKAR TELANGANA STATE AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY, 2023-02-15) Lalitja Kumari, G.; Srinivasa Reddy, D.
    Groundnut (Arachis hypogea) known as the “King of oilseed crops” belongs to the family Leguminosae and has unique characteristics of being both food and commercial crop. Groundnut contains on an average 40 percent oil and 25 percent protein and is a rich source of calcium, iron and vitamin B complex like thiamine, riboflavin, niacin and vitamin A. Groundnut is one of the most important oilseed crops in the world and in India. In india, the groundnut was cultivated in the area of 55,72,000 ha with the production of 1,02,10,000 tonnes and the productivity of 1,831 kg/ha during the year 2020-21. The major groundnut-producing states are Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Telangana. Gujarat is leading in the area under groundnut crop with 20,65,000 hectares, followed by Andhra Pradesh with 8,70,000 hectares. Telangana ranks eighth in groundnut production in India with 2,44,000 tonnes during the year 2020-21. The present study was conducted to map the existing value chain of groundnut in Wanaparthy district of Telangana state, to study the extent of value addition, costs incurred and returns secured by groundnut processing, to study and analyze the current status of FPOs working in the study area, to evolve a viable business plan for startups for enhanced value-added produce of groundnut. The data was collected from 120 farmers and 30 intermediaries like 17 retailers, 10 wholesalers and 3 processors of Wanaparthy district. The analytical tools employed include Descriptive statistics and Gross margin analysis. The study found that the major actors involved in the value chain of groundnut in Wanaparthy district are farmers, traders, wholesalers, retailers, processors and consumers. The value added by farmer is Rs. 34,398/acre when sold in APMC and the value added by farmers is Rs. 38,250/acre when sold to traders, the value added by traders is around Rs. 2,300/qtl of groundnuts, the value added by processors is Rs.10/ltr oil, the value added by wholesalers is around Rs. 1,000/qtl of groundnuts, the value added by retailers is around Rs. 1,500/qtl of groundnuts. The study analyzed the costs and returns of a groundnut oil mill in the study area and found that the processing of groundnut into oil is profitable in the study area and proves that there is a scope for the establishment of startups focusing on groundnut processing in the study area (Wanaparthy district). The study has shown that there are 4 active FPOs in Wanaparthy district of Telangana state. These FPO were formed under the Central Sector Scheme “Formation and Promotion of 10,000 new Farmer Producer Organizations” with funding from Government of India, formation and promotion of FPOs was done through the Implementing Agency (IA), National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD) with the support of Youth For Action and Resource Support Agency NGOs. These FPOs are mainly concentrated on Seed production and Input marketing. The FPOs in the study area are still in the initial stages and need to be developed more and there is a huge scope for groundnut processing FPO in the study area. The study revealed that there is a huge scope for a start-up based on value added products of groundnut in the study area. This is supported by the analysis of certain areas like market for groundnut oil, selection of location, raw material, basic machinery required for groundnut oil extraction, finance, man power requirement and groundnut oil extraction process and SWOT Analysis for a new groundnut oil mill in the study area.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    EFFECT OF INTERVENTION ON SELF MANAGEMENT SKILLS AMONG FARM WOMEN DURING COVID-19 IN TELANGANA STATE
    (PROFFESSOR JAYASHANKAR TELANGANA STATE AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY, 2021-12-08) Sandhya, P.; Sreedevi, P.
    Agriculture is the back bone of India and is considered as the largest sector of the country’s economic activity. Covid-19 pandemic caused social and economic disruptions globally by creating profound and potentially long term impact on psychological health, economic, social life of people at all stages specially women. Studies also revealed that most of the women in agriculture were penalized with extra burdens, facing difficulties in making arrangements in both family and work life during pandemic. They were also not able to take care of their health and personal needs, control their own emotions and behaviours and often experienced stress, tensions and anxieties during pandemic. Self-management skills are the abilities that allow people to control their emotions, thoughts and actions. Person who have strong self-management skills are able to cope up with stressful situations, organize and function well in their daily life there by maintaining better health status and perceived psychological wellbeing. Several studies revealed that self-management skills like self-regulation, self-monitoring, positive thinking, problem solving, time management and stress management etc were poor in women especially from marginalized communities due to lack of proper training. So, it is imperative to provide intervention to farm women in enhancing their knowledge on better self-management skills to deal with crisis situations effectively. Hence, the present study was taken up to examine the effect of intervention in enhancing self-management skills among farm women during pandemic. An Experimental research design was adopted for the study to know the effect of intervention on self-management skills before and after exposure to intervention programme. A total of 60 rural farm women were randomly selected from four villages of Nalgonda district of Telangana State. An interview schedule was developed to study the existing levels of self-management skills among farm women. Based on the pre-test results, knowledge gaps were identified in ten components of self-management skills xv and developed intervention modules by incorporating Power point presentations, lecture com focused group discussions, brain storming sessions, role plays, case studies, video presentation and informal games etc. for better involvement of the respondents. A pilot study was conducted on 20 samples to check its feasibility and required modifications were done. Intervention was carried for 15 respondents in each village for a period of one month. Each day intervention was carried in two villages. Thus, total intervention programme was spread over 60 days for all the 60 respondents. With the gap of two weeks, post-test was conducted by using the same interview schedule. Data was analysed by using frequencies, percentage, mean, SD and Paired-‘t’ test. The general profile of the farm women revealed that, majority of farm women were in the age group of 31-35 years, belonged to nuclear families, had 2-3 children and studied up to primary education. More than half of them were daily wage workers followed by agricultural labours and earned about Rs.5,000 -10,000 per month. Majority of the farm women were belonged to lower middle SES category and few were in upper lower SES category. Most of the farm women had moderate level of support systems. More than half of them had low followed by moderate level of self efficacy and were using avoidance coping strategies rather than approach coping methods to deal with stressful situations. The pre-test results revealed that, the overall self-management skills were low among two thirds of the farm women followed by medium and high among only meagre per cent prior to intervention. Self-motivation, self-confidence, Problem solving skills, Stress management skills, Self-care and Self-awareness were poor among more than sixty per cent and Self-monitoring, Self-control, Positive thinking and Time management skills were poor among more than half of the respondents prior to intervention. After intervention there was a significant increase in the knowledge scores of farm women related to overall self-management skills at 0.01 level. Majority of farm women had moderate level followed by high level of self-management skills after being exposed to intervention. Farm women with poor self-awareness, poor self-care, low self-monitoring skills and poor time management skills were upgraded to high level followed by moderate level after receiving the intervention. Farm women who had low self-motivation, poor self-control, low self-confidence, low positive thinking skills, poor problem solving skills and low stress management skills were upgraded to moderate level followed by high level after being exposed to intervention. In all the ten components of self-management skills the mean differences between pre-test and post test scores were significant at 0.01 level. Based on the above results, the present study concludes that, the intervention planned under study had significant positive effect in enhancing the knowledge on self management skills of farm women. It helped the farm women in adapting better self management skills during Covid-19. Thus, the present study supports intervention theories and self-management theories as it proved that education and training creates awareness on better self-management skills among the respondents. The current intervention package can also be used as a resource material for the professionals working for the psychological empowerment of women
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    GENETIC ANALYSIS AND IDENTIFICATION OF GENOTYPES WITH NOVEL SOURCES OF RESISTANCE FOR GALL MIDGE (Biotype 3) IN RICE (Oryza sativa L.)
    (PROFFESSOR JAYASHANKAR TELANGANA STATE AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY, 2023-03-25) Anil Kumar; Suresh, J.
    In the present study, 42 rice entries comprised of land races, released varieties and advanced breeding lines including susceptible check (TN 1) and resistant check (Aganni) were evaluated in a replicated trial against gall midge biotype, GMB3 at Regional Agricultural Research Station (RARS), Jagtial under field conditions during kharif 2021. Based on field screening, selected entries were genotypically characterized by using Gm3, Gm4 and Gm8 based functional SSR markers for presence/absence of resistant gene(s). Further these 42 entries were subjected to genetic divergence, correlation and path analysis during rabi, 2021-22 at RARS, Jagtial. Among 42 entries, four entries viz., Kakai, WGL-1145, WGL-1147 and WGL-1127 had nil damage and they had shown high resistant against GMB3 in field condition. Two entries viz., IR72476-B-P-9-3-1-1 and RP-5332-54-11-8-2-13 were found resistant against GMB3. Promising test lines when genotypically characterized by using Gm3, Gm4 and Gm8 gene linked molecular markers for presence/absence of resistant gene(s), revealed in presence of Gm1 gene in two genotypes like IR72476-B-P-9-3-1-1 and WGL-1145; Gm4 gene in four genotypes like Kakai, WGL-1145, WGL-1147 and WGL-1127 and Gm8 gene in in five genotypes like RP-5332-54-11-8-2-13, Kakai, WGL-1145, WGL 1147 and WGL-1127. Analysis of variance revealed significant variability among the genotypes for all the traits studied indicating presence of high variability among the rice genotype. The genotypic coefficients of variation for all the characters studied were lesser than the phenotypic coefficients of variation indicating the modifying effect of the environment in association with the characters at genotypic level. High PCV coupled with high GCV observed for number of grains per panicle, 1000 grains weight, grain yield per plant, head rice recovery and kernel L/B ratio suggesting the presence of wide variability among the genotypes with regard to these characters. High heritability coupled with high genetic advance as per cent of mean was observed for the characters like plant height, number of Name of the author : ANIL KUMAR Title of the thesis : “GENETIC ANALYSIS AND IDENTIFICATION OF GENOTYPES WITH NOVEL SOURCES OF RESISTANCE FOR GALL MIDGE (BIOTYPE 3) IN RICE (Oryza sativa L.)” Degree : MASTER OF SCIENCE IN AGRICULTURE Faculty : AGRICULTURE Discipline : GENETICS AND PLANT BREEDING Major Advisor : Dr. J. SURESH University : PROFESSOR JAYASHANKAR TELANGANA STATE AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY Year of submission : 2023 grains per panicle, 1000-grains weight, grain yield per plant, head rice recovery, kernel length, kernel breadth and kernel L/B indicated that these traits were controlled by additive genes and can be further improved by following simple selection procedure The genetic divergence was high among the 42 rice genotypes and was grouped into seven different clusters. Kernel breadth, plant height and kernel length showed maximum contribution towards genetic divergence. Divergence studies through D2 statistics indicated the presence of substantial diversity by forming large number of clusters with wide range of inter-cluster distances. The highest inter cluster distance was observed between cluster II and VII (418.05) followed by cluster IV and VII (350.95), cluster II and III (298.15) and cluster II and V (281.16). The lowest inter cluster distance was observed between cluster V and VI (54.44). The greater the distance between two clusters, the greater the genetic diversity between the genotypes belonging those clusters. The genotypes belonging to most divergent clusters may exploit the maximum amount of heterosis. High intra cluster distance was observed in cluster III (85.85) followed by cluster II (56.94) and cluster I (55.10) revealing that some genetic divergence still existed among the genotypes of these cluster. Keeping in view, it is concluded that crossing between the genotypes of cluster II and VII, cluster VI and VII, cluster II and III and cluster II and V could results in evolution of desirable transgressive segregants. Based on cluster mean analysis it can be concluded that the genotypes of cluster II can be used in breeding program for generating gall midge resistant lines with less plant height and fine grain nature. Similarly, crosses between genotypes of cluster II and VII could results in development of coarse grain varieties with gall midge resistance. Didianga (Cluster V) with good yield potential can be crossed with lines from diverse groups for generating high yielding lines. The genotypes namely, Didianga (Cluster V), Kakirekkalu (Cluster VI) and Geetanjali (Cluster IV) were found to be good sources for development of lines with good head rice recovery. The percent contribution towards total genetic divergence was greater for kernel breadth (37.39%) followed by plant height (14.52 %) and kernel length (11.03 %). Therefore, these characters should be given importance during hybridization and selection. Character association studies revealed that grain yield per plant exhibited significant and positive association with panicle length, number of grains per panicle, 1000-grains weight, plant height and kernel breadth indicating that the simultaneous selection for these characters could improve the yield. Path coefficient analysis revealed that 1000 grains weight has exhibited the highest positive direct effect on grain yield per plant followed by number of grains per panicle and milling percentage indicating that the selection for these characters was likely to bring about an overall improvement in grain yield per plant directly. Therefore, it is suggested that preference should be given to these characters in the selection programme to isolate superior lines with genetic potentiality for higher yield.
  • ThesisItemUnknown
    DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF PROMISING BACTERIAL CONSORTIA FOR IMPROVING GROWTH AND YIELD OF RICE
    (PROFFESSOR JAYASHANKAR TELANGANA STATE AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY, 2023-02-09) Srija, A.; Latha, P. C.
    Rice (Oryza sativa) is the most important cereal crop in the world, feeding more than 50% of the world's population. To meet the world's demand for rice, it is imperative to find environmentally sound ways that supplement the need for fertilizers. The use of microbial inoculants is a desirable option since they can complement the fertilizer use. Microbial formulations developed using two or more beneficial plant growth promoting rhizobacteria, colonize the rhizosphere, plant roots and aids in plant development. Therefore, inoculating the plants with microbial consortia produces positive results because microbial consortia can generally accomplish tasks by mutual synergism thus performing better than individual strains. The present study “Development and evaluation of promising bacterial consortia for improving growth and yield of rice” was carried out to identify a potential consortia for rice. A total of 32 (IIRRSS22-1 to 27, P1, R1, M1, O1 and P2) bacteria isolated from the rhizosphere of rice were screened and scored for plant growth-promoting traits (phosphate, potassium, zinc solubilization, siderophore production, indole acetic acid production and HCN production) under in vitro conditions. Three potential (P1, IIRRSS22-1 and IIRRSS22-6) isolates having highest score with regard to plant growth promoting traits were selected and the bacterial performance was evaluated further by conducting germination test. All the isolates were then screened for abiotic stress tolerance such as salinity, temperature and drought tolerance. Scores were assigned to the isolates based on their ability to grow at different NaCl concentrations, temperature of 45℃ and water potential of -0.73MPa and three isolates (IIRRSS22-3, R1 and IIRRSS22-7) with highest score for abiotic stress tolerance traits were selected for in vitro germination studies. Agrichemical compatibility of bacterial isolates with fertilizers (Urea, Single super phosphate and Muriate of potash), insecticides (Cartap, Ferterra, Thiamethaxom), herbicides (Pretilachlor, Bispyribac sodium) and fungicides (Carbendazim, Mancozeb) used for rice cultivation was assessed by disc diffusion method. Based on the tolerance xv exhibited by the bacterial isolates, IIRRSS22-5, IIRRSS22-2 and IIRRSS22-4 with the highest tolerance score were selected for further experimentation. Nine isolates, 3 from each category (plant growth promoting traits, abiotic stress tolerance and compatibility with agrichemicals) were grouped into consortia (Consortium-1, 2 and 3) containing 3 bacterial isolates in each. These bacterial combinations were evaluated for compatibility among each other by cross streak method. All the isolates were compatible with each other and these consortia combinations and individual bacteria were evaluated for germination under in vitro conditions with Telangana sona (RNR-15048) as test variety. Consortium-1 exhibited highest germination percentage, seedling length, vigour index I and II when compared with control, individual inoculations and other consortia (C-2 and C-3). Based on the in vitro germination assay, consortium-1 was selected for further evaluation under pot culture conditions with different treatments tested at 100% RDF except the control treatment. The pot culture experiments were taken up during rabi 2021- 22, the plant morphological traits and yield traits of rice were recorded. The root length, shoot length, leaf area and plant biomass at active tillering and at the harvest stage were found to be highest with treatment T14 (100% RDF + Bacterial consortia (Seed treatment + Seedling root dip). The yield parameters of rice such as tiller number, panicle length, filled grains per panicle, test weight and grain yield as affected by different treatments were found to be highest in treatment T14 (100% RDF + Bacterial consortia (Seed treatment + Seedling root dip). The soil available nutrients and the nutrient uptake by the plants were also highest in the treatment T14 (100% RDF + Bacterial consortia (Seed treatment + Seedling root dip). The molecular characterization of bacterial partners in C-1 by 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that the bacterial isolates were Pseudomonas stutzeri (P1), Stenotrophomonas sp. (IIRRSS22-3), Achromobacter sp (IIRRSS22-5). The isolates in consortium-2 and 3 were identified as Achromobacter insuavis (IIRRSS22-6), Rhizobium sp, (IIRRSS22-1), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (IIRRSS22-2), Ochrobacter anthropi (IIRRSS22-4). Achromobacter xylosoxidans IIRRSS22-7. Based on the results obtained, the present study showed that the consortia (C-1) which consisted of rhizobacterial isolates (Pseudomonas stutzeri, Stenotrophomonas sp, Achromobacter sp) with multiple plant beneficial traits along with tolerance to eco physiological stresses has enhanced rice plant growth and yield parameters under pot culture conditions. This study also suggests that the use of plant-beneficial bacteria as a consortium results in better plant performance rather than as a single strain.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    A STUDY ON PATHWAYS FOR SPREAD OF CLIMATE RESILIENT TECHNOLOGIES
    (PROFFESSOR JAYASHANKAR TELANGANA STATE AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY, 2023-03-13) Priyanka, K.; Nagasree, K.
    The present study entitled “A study on pathways for spread of climate resilient technologies” was undertaken to study the pathways of various extension systems used for spread of climate resilient technologies, to delineate the factors affecting the spread of climate resilient technologies and to find out relationship between factors affecting farmer to farmer spread of climate resilient technologies. An attempt is made to analyze the constraints affecting spread of climate resilient technologies among the farming communities. Climate resilient agriculture is fairly flexible if farmers are provided with right information, right tools, they can make necessary adaptations of their own. But some farmers will find it difficult because of unavailability of technology, poor soil quality, lack of irrigation, lack of funds in addition to institutional or cultural barriers. To achieve climate resilient agriculture, the collaboration of farmers, extension system and research system is prerequisite. For technology spread agricultural extension system needs various players like public, private, CBO, farmers. At each stage of dissemination, factors affecting the spread of technology varies with type of organization. Management of all these factors and understanding elements of technology pathway leads to successful spread of technology among farmers. Documentation using case study approach and Ex-post facto research design was adopted for the investigation. Telangana state was chosen for the study. Public extension system and private extension system were selected for the documentation. For ex-post facto design Khammam district was selected purposively keeping in the view of more spread of climate resilient technologies in the district. Enkoor mandal was selected purposively as the spread of climate resilient technologies is observed in the mandal. Two NICRA villages and two NON-NICRA villages were selected from the mandal. Thus, total of four villages were selected for the study. 30 farmers were selected at random from each village to create a sample of 60 respondents from NICRA-adopted villages and 60 respondents from non-NICRA villages for the study. Thus, total of 120 farmers were selected. The technology selected from DAATTC Rangareddy to study the documentation of technology spread is millets intercropping with red gram. Pigeon pea and sorghum intercropping is a common practice in many sorghum-growing regions. The adaptation of millets like sorghum to higher temperature, a lack of rainfall, depleted soil fertility, etc., are factors that influence climate change impact. Even in the midst of the drought, the farmers in red gram who grew high-yielding sorghum and pearl millets as intercrops were able to produce good yields in the event of failure of main crop. The technology selected from KVK Rangareddy to study the documentation of technology spread is perennial fodder system. The majority of cattle rely on crop residues such as cotton stalks, maize stovers, sorghum stalks, paddy straw, and other crop residues during the summer which have low nutritional content. Due to small fragmented land holdings very, few farmers were engaged in fodder cultivation. The KVK- Rangareddy (CRIDA-ICAR) initiated perennial fodder technology demonstrations in the form of front-line demonstrations fodder jowar (Var. MP Chari). The perennial fodder varieties were high yielding and drought tolerant even in the summer under water scarcity conditions. The technology selected from DoA to study the documentation of technology spread is resilient households. The Telangana state's farming communities lack the technical expertise and financial resources necessary to adopt climate resilient practices. By providing a variety of climate-resilient farming system interventions, the DoA aims to improve the smallholder farmers in Telangana the ability to adapt to climate change scenarios through these resilient households. The technology selected from Syngenta under private extension system to study the documentation of technology spread is solar powered lift irrigation. Farmers were relying on an irrigation system that worked and used a diesel pump. Solar-powered irrigation systems (SPIS) are a clean technology option for irrigation, allowing the use of solar energy for water pumping, replacing fossil fuels as energy source, and reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from irrigated agriculture which causes harmful effects like global warming. The technology selected from Watershed trust organization (WOTR) under private extension system to study the documentation of technology spread is community micro irrigation. The emphasis was on sharing water resources through drip irrigation, pooling water resources, and assisting farmers with better agricultural methods. The areas experiencing climatic events such as drought and dry spells, to combat these climate stresses, to overcome the crop failure, and use available limited water to cultivate larger areas of land with greater water-use efficiency community micro irrigation is utilized. From the documentation the factors affecting the spread of climate resilient technologies were delineated revealing that the stakeholders involved, end user, source of technology, no of trial, communication channels used, extension strategies followed, time taken, schemes and incentives involved in upscaling and monitoring etc., were the major factors affecting the spread of the climate resilient technologies. The relationship analysis between factors affecting farmer to farmer spread of climate resilient technologies regarding NICRA farmers out of 18 variables 9 variables namely farm size, annual income, irrigation, information seeking behaviour, extension contact, participation in extension activities and relative advantage, trialability and access to technology showed significant correlation at 1 per cent and 5 per cent level of probability with technology spread. And 8 out of 18 variables namely education, family type, farming experience, compatibility, complexity, availability of infrastructure, affordability and need for technology are positively correlated with technology spread but not significant. The variable Age is negatively related to technology spread. Where as in NON NICRA respondents out of 18 variables 2 variables namely irrigation, access to technology were positively correlated at 0.05 level of significance. The 15 out of 18 variables namely education, farm size, family-type, farming experience, annual income, information seeking behaviour, extension contact, participation in extension activities, relative advantage, trialability, compatibility, complexity, affordability, need for technology and availability of infrastructure were positively correlated but not significant. The variable age was negatively correlated but not significant. The major constraints observed in pathways were climate change, market forces convincing farmers for co-investment, collecting farmers contribution, forming a water user group, selection of area, after sale service for solar panels, etc were observed as constraints. In farmer to farmer spread under socio-psychological constraints, resistance to change the conventional practices, under economic constraints inadequate finance and lack of assets like land, under technical constraints small size land holding, lack of awareness and lack of own resources were the constraints observed in the study
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    COMPARISON AND ANALYSIS OF FORECASTING TECHNIQUES FOR ARRIVALS AND PRICES OF ONION IN HYDERABAD REGION
    (PROFFESSOR JAYASHANKAR TELANGANA STATE AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY, 2023-03-20) UDAY KUMAR REDDY, S.; Supriya, K.
    The edible bulb of the onion (Allium cepa), which is a member of the Liliaceae or Amaryllidaceae family, is widely grown around the world. Additionally, it is a biennial herbaceous vegetable crop and is one of the key vegetable crops that are eaten year-round in every home. China, India, and the United States of America collectively generate more than 50% of the world's total onion crop. Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Gujarat, and Rajasthan are the five states that produce the most onions in India. A study of agricultural commodity price patterns has a special significance in developing economies like India. When choosing when and where to sell the produce from their farms, farmers are guided by price levels. Price swings and agriculture are both well-known aspects of each. Considering the importance of onion in the economy and as a vital agricultural commodity, it may be significant to study this crop in detail to know the trend and variations in it. In the present study, the price and arrivals of Onions are examined in three different markets such as Gudimalkapur, Bowenpally, and Hyderabad markets undertaking three years of secondary daily data from 01-01-2019 to 31-12-2021 in Telangana State. The research is encapsulated with the primary objectives of fitting linear and non-linear time series models and comparing them by fitting different linear time series models like ARIMA, ARCH, and GARCH models with the non-linear time series model ANN. The adequacy of the models is checked through minimum RMSE, AIC, and MAPE values. By comparing the models from linear and non-linear time series models, the best model is selected based and forecasted values for January month. Comparing all three markets the average arrivals and price was higher in the Hyderabad market compared to Gudimalkapur and Bowenpally markets. The GARCH model among the linear time series models was found to have the best fit for onion price, and the ARCH model for onion arrival in Gudimalkapur market. Both in Bowenpally and Hyderabad markets for onion price ARIMA (1, 1, 2) model was found to be the best among all linear time series models fitted, and the ARCH model was best among onion arrivals with the least model adequacy values. Comparing the actual and predicted values of the best-fitted linear and non-linear time series models, shows that the ANN model predicted values were more accurate at predicting future prices and arrivals of onions in all the markets than the other models. This suggests that non-linear models performed better than linear models
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    INFLUENCE OF SEED PROCESSING METHODS ON SEED LONGEVITY IN SOYBEAN
    (PROFFESSOR JAYASHANKAR TELANGANA STATE AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY, 2023-03-10) Vinay, T.; Pallavi, M.
    The investigation entitled “Influence of seed processing methods on seed longevity in soybean” was carried out to assess the influence of various processing equipment in isolation and combination on the physical and physiological quality of soybean and to identify a suitable and economic packing material for safe storage of soybean seed. The two varieties grown during kharif 2021 at Agricultural Research Station, Adilabad were harvested manually at harvest maturity, dried and cleaned using five post harvest methods viz. P1 threshed by beating with wooden sticks and hand cleaned, P2- threshed with a multi-crop thresher and hand cleaned, P3- threshed with a multi-crop thresher and cleaned in fine cleaner in Fowler Westrup make 4 TPH machine, P4 threshed with a multi-crop thresher, cleaned in Fine cleaner in Fowler Westrup make 4 TPH machine and graded in Spiral Separator through conveyance by rubberized elevators and P5-threshed with a multi-crop thresher, cleaned in Fine cleaner in Fowler Westrup make 4 TPH machine and graded in Spiral Separator through conveyance by normal elevators using sieve of 3.75mm and 4.00 mm. The analysis of variance revealed a significant variation among the post-harvest treatments in both the varieties for mechanical damage (%), seed recovery (%) and physical purity (%). Basara recorded lower mechanical damage when compared to JS 335 indicating better resistance to mechanical post-harvest operations. The seed threshed and cleaned manually recorded lowest mechanical damage and highest seed recovery in both the varieties, while seed threshed with a multi-crop thresher, cleaned in Fine cleaner and graded in Spiral Separator showed highest physical purity. The seed processed as per the treatments were stored in Gunny bags and BOPP Biaxially Oriented Polypropylene) bags under ambient storage conditions at the Department of Seed Science and Technology, Seed Research and Technology Centre, Rajendranagar. The seed quality parameters viz seed moisture (%), germination (%), seedling dry weight (mg), seedling vigour index and field emergence (%) decreased gradually across storage in both the varieties, while electrical conductivity (µS cm-1 g -1 ), amino acids and total soluble sugars in seed leachates (µg/ml) increased under storage. Treatment T1 (Manual threshing and cleaning) recorded the highest germination, seedling vigour index, field emergence and lowest total soluble sugars in seed leachates in both varieties across all the months of storage. The sieve size of 4 mm recorded the highest germination percentage and seedling vigour index in both varieties. The electrical conductivity and amino acids in seed leachates were found to be non-significant in both the varieties for sieve sizes, while lowest amount of total soluble sugars in seed leachates was observed in 3.75 mm sieve in Basara and 4.00 mm sieve in JS 335. The germination percentage, seedling vigour index and field emergence was more in seed stored in gunny bags when compared to BOPP bags, while electrical conductivity and amino acids in seed leachates showed a non-significant variation in both the varieties and total soluble sugars in seed leachates were low in seed stored in BOPP bags in both the varieties. In interaction of post-harvest treatments, sieve sizes and packing materials, seed threshed with a multi-crop thresher, cleaned in fine cleaner using 4.00 mm sieve and stored in gunny bags after 5 months of storage recorded highest germination percentage in both the varieties. After 5 months of storage SVI II showed a non-significant interaction, while in JS 335 superior performance was recorded in seed threshed and cleaned manually with 3.75 mm sieve and stored in gunny bags. The seed threshed and cleaned manually using 4.00 mm sieve and stored in gunny bags recorded highest field emergence (%) in JS 335 and that stored in BOPP bags in Basara. The total soluble sugars in seed leachates after 5 months of storage was lowest in seed threshed and cleaned manually using 4.00 mm sieve and stored in gunny bags in Basara and in seed threshed and cleaned manually using 3.75 mm sieve and stored in gunny bags in JS 335. Among the two varieties, Basara recorded superior seed quality parameters after 5 months of storage. Based on these results it can be concluded that manual threshing and cleaning, a sieve size of 4.00 mm and storage in gunny bags were superior in terms of seed quality. In three-way interaction the seed threshed with a multi-crop thresher, cleaned in fine cleaner using 4.00 mm sieve and stored in gunny bags recorded superior performance for seed quality parameters in both the varieties. Hence can be utilized for processing of soybean with optimal seed quality and minimal mechanical damage as an alternate to manual method which are economically not viable
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    EFFECT OF DIFFERENT FERTILIZER LEVELS ON NATIVE LEAD METAL AVAILABILITY IN SOILS AND ITS ENTRY INTO CROP PRODUCE
    (PROFFESSOR JAYASHANKAR TELANGANA STATE AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY, 2023-02-09) Pooja, B.; Chandini Patnaik, M.
    Lead is a non essential element and is one of the major chemical pollutants of the environment and is highly toxic to animals and human beings. Since food consumption has been identified as the major path way of exposure to heavy metals like lead, its intake in to plants which in turn is depending on soil type, plant species, quantum of inputs like fertilizersetc. need to be thoroughly understood. As a part of this effort, an investigation entitled “Effect of different fertilizer levels on native lead metal availability in soils and its entryin to crop produce” was carried out and it involved a survey to know base level occurrenceof lead in different soils & crops, its availability in soils as influenced by different fertilizer application and net house experiment to determine the lead entry into crops on red and black soils varying in base line available lead. Soil and crop nutrient survey carried out in remote village areas where vehicular pollution is least expected of Vikarabad, Rangareddy and Yadadri Bhuvanagiri districts of Telangana state indicated that the available DTPA-Pb in paddy growing soils was in the range of 0.60 to 3.67 with a mean of 1.26 mg kg-1 . The total lead of paddy soils varied between 12 and 226 with a mean of 121 mg kg-1 . The collected maize supporting soils recorded the DTPA extractable lead in the range of 0.23 to 1.77 with a mean of 0.82 mg kg-1 . The total Pb under maize cultivation varied between 30 and 346 witha mean of 127 mg kg-1 . Statistical analysis of data was done to classify native available lead status of soils into low, medium and high group / category / classes. Fifteen percent of paddy soils were grouped under low available category (< 0.80 mg kg-1 ). Seventy eight percent of samples were medium with the content ranging between 0.8 and 1.72 mg kg-1 and the high category of lead content (>1.72 mg kg-1 ) was observed in 7 % of paddy soils. The maize supporting soils with < 0.52 mg kg-1 were categorized as low, 0.52 to 1.1 mg kg-1 as medium and > 1.1 mg kg-1 as high categories. Seventeen percent soils were categorized as low, 66 percent medium and the remaining 17 % were categorized as high in available Pb status in maize grown areas. Pooled data indicated that agricultural soils in this surveyed area could be classified for available status of lead into low (< 0. 48 mg/kg) in 4 per cent, 86 % in to medium (0.48 to 1.66 mg kg-1 ) and remaining 10 % samples into high (>1.66 mg/kg) lead available class. The lead content in collected paddy grain samples ranged from 0.54 to 4.65 with amean of 1.87 mg kg-1 and from 1.32 to 8.92 with a mean of 5.14 mg kg-1 in paddy straw samples. Most of the samples (86%) have fallen into medium content class (0.95 to 2.80 mg kg 1) while only 7% grain samples each were in low and high lead content group (< 0.95 lowand > 2.8 mg kg-1 high). The Pb content in paddy straw up to < 2.72 mg kg-1 was grouped aslow, 2.72 to 7.56 mg kg-1 as medium and > 7.56 mg kg-1 as high content. About 30, 52 and 18 per cent of paddy straw samples have fallen into low, medium and high lead content categories, respectively. The lead content in maize grain and stover samples ranged between 0.46 and 1.96 with a mean of 1.09 and 1.45 to 8. 59 with a mean of 4.83 mg kg-1 , respectively. Fourteen percent of analyzed maize grain samples was categorized as low with Pb content up to 0.72 mg kg-1 . Seventy nine percent of samples were medium with the content ranging from 0.72 to 1.47 mg kg-1 . The high category of lead content (> 1.47 mg kg-1 ) was observed in 7 % of maize grain samples. Eleven percent of maize stover samples were grouped as low with the Pb content up to < 3.06 mg kg-1 . Seventy five percent of samples were medium in the category with the content ranging from 3.06 to 6.60 mg kg-1 . The high category of lead content (> 6.60mg kg-1 ) was observed in 14 % of maize stover samples. Under laboratory conditions, application of different levels of RDF (75, 100 and 125% equivalent to RDF of rice and maize crops) to six soils (3 each of red and black soils), the mean decrease in lead extraction was to an extent of 13.37 per cent due to different rates of RDF under upland conditions while it was 13.70 % under waterlogged situation. FYM applied to soils @ 5 t/ha considerably reduced the mean DTPA-Pb extraction by 5.3 and 5.8 percent in soils under low land and upland conditions, respectively. The lead extractability by DTPA (over treatments, FYM and initial lead available status) was higher in black soils by 18 percent over that of red soils under flooded conditions while under upland situations, the extractability was lesser by 17 % in red soils compared to black soils. Lead extractability was reduced by 19 percent under upland conditions and 9 % under low land situations by 30 days after incubation and thereafter, the availability increased to 18 and 12 % in low land and upland conditions. With increase in the lead gradients, the Pb extractability of soils increases irrespective of period of contact, soil type or treatments imposed. Effect of FYM and P was discussed on DTPA-Pb extractability. Under net house conditions, paddy grain yield increased to an extent of 39 per cent, straw yield by 36 % and maize stover by 47.89 % due to 125 percent RDF application over control. FYM also increased the yield of paddy grain (by 8.48 %), straw (by 8.02 %) and maize stover (by 29.47 %). The decrease in mean lead content upon pooling of two soil data in paddy grain in soils varying in available lead content was in the range of 14.38 to 31.51 per cent, 7.33 to 20.41 % in paddy straw and 12.90 to 33.18 % in maize stover when RDF was increased from control to 125 % RDF. FYM application @ 5 t/ha also decreased the mean lead content in paddy grain, straw and maize stover by 10.23,18.4 and 5.96 per cent, respectively. The reduction in lead content in paddy grain and strawwas lesser in black soils (8.52 and 17.92 %) than that of red soils (11.90 and 18.41 %). Thus, a possible extent of mean reduction of lead content in paddy grain was found to be 23.06 per cent and 14.57 % in paddy straw and 23.19 % in maize stover due to different RDF levels over control. Other nutrient contents, their uptake were also studied in the investigation. Application of 125 percent RDF to paddy and fodder maize crops resulted in reduction of lead entry in the produce i.e., 31.51 % in paddy grain, 20.41 % in paddy straw and 33.18 % in fodder maize when compared to RDF in normal agricultural soils.