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Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University, Tirupati

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  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    EXTRACTION AND UTILIZATION OF PROTEIN FROM SHRIMP HEAD WASTE IN THE PREPARATION OF NOODLES AND WAFERS
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY TIRUPATI - 517 502. (A.P.) INDIA, 2019-08) VENGALA RAYUDU, Y; DHANAPAL, K (MAJOR); SRAVANI, K; MADHAVAN, N
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Effect of Lemon and Garlic peel extracts on the quality and shelf life of Litopenaeus vannamei during frozen storage
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY TIRUPATI - 517 502. (A.P.) INDIA, 2021-02) JAYADEEPTHI, P; DHANAPAL, K (MAJOR); SRAVANI, K; NEERAJA, T
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    STUDIES ON GROWTH AND SURVIVAL IN NURSERY REARING PHASE OF FINFISH SPECIES IN FLOATING NET CAGES FOR MARICULTURE
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY TIRUPATI - 517 502. (A.P.) INDIA, 2016-11) SURESH, GALIDEVAERA; CHAMUNDESWARI DEVI, B (MAJOR); RAVINDRA KUMAR REDDY, D; MADHAVAN, N
    The present studies were conducted at the closed bay near Suryalanka, Bapatla, Guntur district on “Studies on growth and survival in nursery rearing phase of finfish species in floating net cages for mariculture”. Total three (3) studies were conducted. The first study was on the effect of stocking density on growth and survival of milkfish, Chanos chanos in floating net cages in closed bay, Bapatla. Triplicate groups of milkfish with an average initial weight of 2.90±0.32 g were randomly stocked in floating net cages (1m×1m×2m) at 20, 40, 60 and 80 fish/m3 designated as D20, D40, D60 and D80 respectively. Milkfish in the cages were fed with 35% CP formulated diet at 10% of body weight twice daily. Sampling was done weekly. At the end of the stocking trail, growth in terms of body weight, weight gain, specific growth rate of fish were high in D40 than those in D20, D60 or D80. There was no significant difference in the survival rates of milkfish at different stocking densities. Total Feed Conversion Ratio was lower in D40 followed by D20, D60 and D80. The cages stocked with 40 fish/m3 have highest growth performance and 80 fish/m3 showed highest biomass performance. Water quality parameters were at optimum level during study period. Results suggest that 40 fish/m3 could be recommended for producing better quality milkfish fingerlings and 80 fish/m3 for highest number of seed production. Second study was conducted to study the effect of stocking density on growth and survival of seabass, Lates calcarifer in floating net cages in closed bay, Bapatla. Triplicate groups of seabass with an average initial weight of 1.29±0.12 g were randomly stocked in floating net cages (1m×1m×2m) at 20, 40, 60 and 80 fish/m3 designated as SD20, SD40, SD60 and SD80 respectively. Seabass in the cages were fed with 45% CP formulated diet at 10% of body weight twice daily. Sampling was done weekly. At the end of the stocking trail, growth in terms of body weight, weight gain, specific growth rate and survival rate of fish was high in SD20 than those in SD40, SD60 and SD80. Total Feed conversion ratio was lower in SD20 followed by SD40, SD60 and SD80. The cages stocked with 20 fish/m3 have highest growth performance and survival. 20 fish/m3 showed better survival percentage than SD40, SD60 and SD80. Water quality parameters were at optimum level during study period. Results suggest that 20 fish/m3 could be recommended for producing better quality seabass fingerlings and 80 fish/m3 for highest number of seed production. Another experiment was conducted to study the optimum crude protein for milkfish, Chanos chanos seed in floating net cages. Milkfish fry were obtained through natural seed collection. Rectangular floating net cages made of bamboo poles was provided inside with 1×1×2m hapas. Predatory net and bird net were provided. PVC drums filled with air were fixed to the net cage for floating. Milk fish with mean body weight of 2.81±0.07 g were stocked at the rate of 40 fish/m3 in each hapa in the rectangular cages. Triplicates were maintained for each treatment. Fish fry were fed with 5 artificial dry diets containing 12.5% (Control - C), 15% (T1), 25% (T2), 35% (T3) or 45% (T4) crude protein. The diets were fed at the rate of 10% of the biomass for a period of 63 days (9 weeks). Water quality parameters like D.O, pH, salinity, NH3, NO-2, NO-3 and temperature were estimated at weekly intervals and were within the optimum range for culture of milk fish. At the end of 63 days growth experiment, fishes fed on 35% (T3) crude protein feed exhibited highest growth and survival performance at 1% and 5% level of significance. The present study showed that milkfish seed reared in floating net cages in the closed bay performed best at 35% crude protein.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Studies on the effects of different dietary protein sources on the growth and survival of Channa striatus from fry to fingerling stage
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY TIRUPATI - 517 502. (A.P.) INDIA, 2017-05) YESHDAS, B; RAVINDRA KUMAR REDDY, D(MAJOR); CHANDRASEKHARA RAO, A; MADHAVI, K
    The present study “Studies on the effects of different dietary protein sources on the growth and survival of Channa striatus from fry to fingerling stage” was conducted in the Wet Laboratory of the Department of Aquaculture, College of Fishery Science, Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University, Muthukur, Nellore Dist. Two experiments were conducted- one for the effects of different dietary protein percentages and other for the effects of different dietary protein sources on the growth and survival of Channa striatus. Fish Meal is used as the protein source for the protein percentages (Crude Protein 40, 45 and 50%) in first experiment and Trash Fish, Goat Intestine and Chicken Waste are used as protein sources for the other experiment. The experiments were conducted for 60 days in Fiber tanks. Triplicates were maintained for each of the treatment. Feed was given twice a day. Weekly sampling was done for water quality parameters viz., pH, Temperature, Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Total Alkalinity and Total Hardness. The growth, survival, SGR and feed conversion ratio were estimated by sampling the fish once in a week. The temperature values recorded during 60 day period of the experiment were 26.1-29.4 in all the treatments. The pH values recorded during the 60 day of period of experiment were 7.41-7.69. The DO was found to be in the range of 5.9 ppm and 6.6 ppm. The range of Total Alkalinity varied between 160 mg/l to 166 mg/l in all the treatments. Total hardness of water ranged between 210 mg/l to 216 mg/l. Weight of Channa striatus fry (in grams) and weight increment data was observed weekly for different treatments at different protein percentages and protein sources. After 60 days, the highest average body weight of 6.61 g (Crude Protein 45%) and the lowest average body weight of 5.24 g (Crude Protein 40%) for different protein percentages; The highest and lowest average body weight of 4.87 g (Trash Fish) and 3.97 g (Chicken Waste) were observed. The Specific Growth Rate (SGR) for Channa striatus at different protein percentages and protein sources were calculated. The highest (1.86%) and lowest (1.70%) SGR recorded in Crude Protein 45% and Crude Protein 40% respectively for different protein percentages. The highest (1.64%) and lowest (1.49%) was observed in Trash Fish and Chicken Waste respectively for different protein sources. The Feed Conversion Ratio at different protein percentages and protein sources were calculated. The better (lowest) FCR of 1.52 and 2.18 was found in Crude Protein 45% and Trash Fish respectively. Survival rates at different protein percentages and protein sources were recorded. The highest (75.5%) and lowest (62.2%) survivals were observed in crude Protein 45% and Crude Protein 40% respectively for different protein percentages; the highest (68.9%) and lowest (60%) were observed in Trash fish and Chicken Waste respectively for different protein sources. Overall performance of Channa striatus fry at different dietary protein percentages and protein sources shows that highest Growth, Weight gain, SGR, Survival and lowest FCR is obtained in Crude Protein 45% at different dietary protein percentages; and highest Growth, Weight gain, SGR, Survival and lowest FCR is obtained Trash Fish at different dietary protein sources.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Studies on Physico-chemical characteristics of Nellore and Kanigiri reservoirs of Andhra Pradesh
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY TIRUPATI - 517 502. (A.P.) INDIA, 2017-03) VENKATESH, D; MADHAVI, K (MAJOR); PRABHANJAN KUMAR REDDY, C; DHANAPAL, K
    The present investigation was carried out in Kanigiri and Nellore reservoirs of SPSR Nellore district, Andhra Pradesh, for a period of 8 months from December, 2015 to July, 2016. Surface water samples were collected from the chosen sampling stations at fortnightly intervals and analyzed as per APHA standard methods to provide base line information on the physico-chemical characteristics of these reservoirs. The results obtained (for which guidelines have already been issued by the standard recommending bodies i.e., WHO, BIS) were found to be within the prescribed limits, except BOD as per WHO (2004) and total hardness, when compared with the standards (WHO, 1984; WHO, 2004; BIS, 1991; BIS 2012). Total hardness values were much higher than the permissible limit as prescribed by WHO (1984) but well within the permissible limits as prescribed by BIS (1991) standards. The observed values were tested from fisheries point of view also with the standards proposed by renowned scientists of the field and found to be well within the desired limits. Though the values obtained were within the prescribed standard values, it was found that turbidity, TSS, TDS, TS, pH, BOD, NH3, total alkalinity and total hardness values were found to be slightly higher in the water samples analyzed from Nellore reservoir, while transparency, DO, CO2 levels seemed to be little higher in water samples collected from Kanigiri reservoir. Mean chloride content and salinity values showed negligible difference between the waters of both the reservoirs. With respect to the parameters analyzed in the present study, water quality of Kanigiri reservoir is comparatively better than the Nellore reservoir. Correlation among various parameters showed significant positive and negative trends. Water from both the reservoirs can be considered as ‘alkaliphilous’ based on pH values observed, ‘nutrient rich’ based on the total alkalinity values estimated, ‘hard’ with respect to observed total hardness values. Though both the reservoirs exhibited moderate domestic pollution based on the analyzed chloride content of water, these concentrations are found to be within in the limits as per standards recommended for drinking water supply. Hence, it can be said that, water from both the reservoirs is fit for irrigation, agriculture, pisciculture, industrial and domestic purposes. 1
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Effect of Salinity and Ammonia on the Growth and Haematology of Catla catla (Hamilton, 1822)
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY TIRUPATI - 517 502. (A.P.) INDIA, 2020-12) MOHANA SWAPNA, NARRA; Ramana, T.V. (MAJOR); Balasubramanian, A; Neeraja, T
    The present study was carried out to study the effect of salinity and ammonia (TAN - Total Ammonia Nitrogen) on the growth and haematology of Catla catla juveniles. Before start of study, lethal studies were conducted to determine the treatment level of Salinity and TAN. These studies revealed that 100 percent survival could be obtained in the salinity of 10 ppt and 20 ppm TAN. Accordingly, the study was designed to conduct in two phases for a period of 30 days each at different salinities [control (0 ppt), 3 ppt, 6 ppt and 9 ppt] and TAN levels [control (0 ppm), 10 ppm, 15 ppm and 20 ppm] in triplicates stocking with 10 fishes in each tank. Water quality parameters of the experimental tanks were estimated every day; while growth and haematological parameters were estimated on weekly basis. In salinity experiment, all growth parameters like length-weight, Specific Growth Rate (SGR), Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER) were in decreasing trend from 0 Author : MOHANA SWAPNA NARRA Title of the thesis : “Effect of Salinity and Ammonia on the Growth and Haematology of Catla catla (Hamilton, 1822)” Submitted for the Award of degree : Master of Fisheries Science in Fisheries Resource Management Faculty : Faculty of Fisheries Science Department : Department of Fisheries Resource Management Major advisor : Dr. T. V. RAMANA University : Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University, Tirupati Year of Submission : 2020 ppt to 9 ppt. However, Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) values were found high at 0 ppt followed by 3 ppt, 6 ppt and 9 ppt. Similarly decreasing trend in haematological parameters viz., Total Erythrocyte count (TEC), Haemoglobin (Hb), Haematocrit (Ht) and Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin Concentration (MCHC) was found from 0 ppt to 9 ppt though Total Leukocyte Count (TLC) showed an increasing trend. The maximum value of Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV) was recorded at 3 ppt followed by 0 ppt, 6 ppt and 9 ppt. The alterations in growth parameters were attributed to the stress and reduced feed intake by fishes which were caused due to the hypertonic environment. The changes in the composition of blood were caused due to immunological activity, lymphopoiesis, reduction in erythrocyte counts and haemoglobin percentages. In second phase of ammonia study, growth factors like length and weight, SGR, PER were decreased with increase of TAN levels despite the FCR increased with TAN. These changes might be due to the low feed intake and utilization of high energy to overcome unfavourable conditions. In haematological parameters TEC, Hb, Ht and MCHC were low in 20 ppm compared to other two treatments 15 ppm, 10 ppm as well as control but TLC increased in 20 ppm which indicates the fish was in high stress level. MCV values were altered with peak at 10 ppm followed by 0 ppm, 20 ppm and 15 ppm and these alterations were due to the reduction in the Hb and Ht values.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE OF AEROMONAS SPECIES ISOLATED FROM CULTURED FRESHWATER FISHES
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY TIRUPATI - 517 502. (A.P.) INDIA, 2020-12) SRUTHI, PERLA; Neeraja, T (MAJOR); Haribabu, P; Balasubramanian, A
    Pathogenic Aeromonas species are causing significantly high mortalities and economic losses among the cultured freshwater fish in India and Andhra Pradesh. The aim of the present study was to identify the Aeromonas species isolated from cultured freshwater fishes majorly exhibiting bacterial haemorrhagic septicaemia, abdominal dropsy, tail rot and fin rot in two districts viz., West Godavari and SPSR Nellore districts of Andhra Pradesh, India. The diseased fish species collected from farms were Catla catla (catla), Labeo rohita (rohu), Piaractus brachypomus (pacu) and Pangasius hypophthalmus (pangas). Further, the resistance of the isolated Aeromonas spp. to the currently available antimicrobial therapeutics was determined. In the present study, 15 species of Aeromonas were isolated viz., Aeromonas allosacharrophila (n=3), A. aquariorum (n=2), A. caviae (n=1), A. enchelia (n=1), A. jandaei (n=3), A. media (n=2), A. molluscorum (n=3), A. piscicola (n=1), A. popoffii (n=3), A. sobria (n=3), A. schubertii (n=6), A. tecta (n=9), A. trota (n=3), A. veronii biovar sobria (n=5) and A. veronii biovar veronii (n=13). The Aeromonas species isolated on RS medium and GSPA medium were identified and characterized by conventional biochemical tests. The study on prevalence of Aeromonas spp. was carried out for a period of 7 months from September 2019 to March 2020 in the above two districts revealed that the highest prevalence was recorded in A. veronii bv. veronii. Significantly higher prevalence (P 0.05) with the latter species. Further, prevalence of Aeromonas spp. were significantly different (p <0.05) with respect to fish species and geographic location. In vitro antibiotic resistance study revealed that all the isolates of 15 Aeromonas spp. were highly resistant to ampicillin, amoxyclav and oxytetracycline. Further, all the Aeromonas spp. were found multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR). The MAR index of more than 0.2 was observed in all the isolates of Aeromonas spp. except A. piscicola. It indicates that these Aeromonas spp. might have originated from high risk sources of contamination. Haemolytic activity assay revealed that A. veronii bv. sobria (60%), A. aquariorum (50%), A. jandaei (33.3%), A. sobria (33.3%) and A. tecta (22.22%) were found to be β-haemolytic. However, majority of the Aeromonas spp. isolates were found α- haemolytic.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    SURVEILLANCE ON BACTERIAL DISEASES OF CULTURED INDIAN MAJOR CARPS IN ANDHRA PRADESH, INDIA
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY TIRUPATI - 517 502. (A.P.) INDIA, 2020-06) SRIVIDYA, R; Neeraja, T(MAJOR); Haribabu, P; Dhanapal, K
    Bacterial fish diseases were considered to be the main cause of high mortalities and economic losses among the cultured freshwater fish in Andhra Pradesh. The aim of the present study was to identify the bacterial strains isolated from farm raised Indian major carps majorly exhibiting bacterial haemorrhagic septicaemia, abdominal dropsy, tail rot and fin rot in two districts viz., SPSR Nellore and West Godavari districts of Andhra Pradesh, India. Further, the susceptibility of the isolated bacterial strains to the currently available antimicrobial therapeutics was determined. In the present study, the pathogenic bacteria isolated were species of Aeromonas, Pseudomonas and Enterobacteriacea family. 7 species of Aeromonas viz., Aeromonas hydrophila, A. tecta, A. caviea, A. sobria, A. veronii A. schubertii and A. encheleia; 4 species of Pseudomonas viz., Pseudomonas sp., Pseudomonas stutzeri, P. diminuta and P. fluoroscenes; 5 species of Enterobacteriacea family viz., Citrobacter freundi, Serratia rubidaea, S. fonticola, Klebsiella pneumoniae ssp pneumniae and Enterobacteriacea group were identified and characterized by conventional biochemical tests. The prevalence study carried out for a period of one year from July 2018 to June 2019 in the above two districts revealed the dominance of aeromoniasis caused by Aeromonas spp. Significantly higher prevalence (P 0.05) with that of aeromoniasis. Further, prevalence of bacterial diseases did not vary significantly (P > 0.05) with respect to fish species, geographic location and seasonality. In vitro antibiotic sensitivity study revealed that gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, amikacin and trimethoprim were found to be more effective against Aeromonas sp., Pseudomonas sp. and Enterobacteriaceae family. Multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) study showed that all the species of Pseudomonas and Enterobacteriaceae family were MAR. Among Aeromonas sp., A. tecta and A. caviea were 100% MAR, however 80% of A. sobria, A. veronii and A. schubertii showed MAR and 50% of A. hydrophila strains only showed MAR. The MAR index of more than 0.2 was observed in all the bacterial strains of Aeromonas, Pseudomonas and Enterobacteriaceae family indicated that these bacterial strains might have originated from high risk sources of contamination. Haemolytic activity assay revealed that A. veronii (80%), A. schubertii, (60%), A. sobria (40%) and A. tecta (33.3%) were found to be β-haemolytic.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Effect of Salinity and pH on the Growth and Haematology of Pangasianodon hypophthalmus (Sauvage, 1878)
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY TIRUPATI - 517 502. (A.P.) INDIA, 2020-12) SRINIVASULU SRAVANI, RAMADASU; Balasubramanian, A (MAJOR); Suguna, T; Anupama, R.R
    The present study was carried out to investigate the growth and haematology of Pangasianodon hypophthalmus exposing to various salinities of 0 (Control), 4, 9 and 14 ppt and pH of 6, 7.5 (Control), 9 and 9.5. The experiment was carried out in two components i.e., salinity and pH for a period of 30 days each and 10 Nos. of randomly selected fish were stocked in every experimental tank. The physico-chemical parameters were estimated everyday; whereas, growth and haematological parameters were estimated weekly. In first component, effect of different levels of salinity (0 (C), 4, 9 and 14 ppt) on survival, growth and haematology were studied. The results indicated that P. hypophthalmus could tolerate salinities up to 14 ppt with 100% survival rate throughout the experimental period. However, the growth in terms of length and weight, Specific Growth Rate (SGR) and Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER) decreased with increase in salinity from 0 ppt to 14 ppt owing to utilization of high energy Author : RAMADASU SRINIVASULU SRAVANI Title of the thesis : “Effect of Salinity and pH on the Growth and Haematology of Pangasianodon hypophthalmus (Sauvage, 1878)” Submitted for the Award of degree : Master of Fisheries Science in Fisheries Resource Management Faculty : Faculty of Fisheries Science Department : Department of Fisheries Resource Management Major advisor : Dr. A.BALASUBRAMANIAN University : Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University, Tirupati Year of Submission : 2020 which directly affects the growth of fish in unfavourable environments. In contrary, Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) raised with increase in salinity and low feed intake was noticed in 14 ppt. Similarly, haematological parameters viz.,Total Erythrocyte Count (TEC), Haemoglobin (Hb) and Haematocrit (Ht) were low in 14 ppt when compared with other salinities of 9 ppt and 4 ppt but Total Leukocyte Count (TLC) was found high in 14 ppt which indicated that the experimental fish were in high stress condition. Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV) and Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin Concentration (MCHC) were also varied with changes in the Hb and Ht. After observing the significant (p < 0.05) elevation in haematological parameters of the fish studied in higher salinities, it is concluded that the salinity of 9 ppt is optimum for good growth in P. hypophthalmus. Prior to the actual experiment on effect of pH, lethal studies (LC50) were conducted which resulted in 100% survival of the juveniles up to pH of 9.5. Therefore, the pH levels of 6, 9 and 9.5 were opted with pH 7.5 as control. The experimental results showed decreasing trend in length and weight, SGR and PER from pH 6 to 9.5 compared with control (7.5). However, FCR values were found peak at pH 9.5 followed by 9 and 6 when compared with control. The alterations in growth parameters were due to low feed intake, loss of energy and stress. The mean values of haematological parameters like TEC, Hb, Ht and MCHC showed decreasing trend from pH 6 to 9.5 when compared to control. But TLC values were found maximum at pH 9.5 followed by 9, 6 and 7.5 (C), whereas, the MCV values were found high at pH 9 and least at pH 9.5. Changes in haematological parameters significantly (p<0.05) varied between different pH. The changes in the haematological parameters were due to immunological response, failure of the erythropoeisis and haemopoietic potential.