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Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University, Tirupati

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  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    CLINICO-DIAGNOSTIC AND THERAPEUTIC STUDIES ON ANAPLASMOSIS IN BUFFALOES
    (2024-03) LIKITHA .N; SURESH .K (MAJOR); CHAITANYA .Y; HARI KRISHNA .N.V.V
    The present study entitled “Clinico-diagnostic and therapeutic studies on anaplasmosis in buffaloes” was taken up to record the occurrence, clinical signs, haemato biochemical alterations and to evaluate suitable therapeutic regimen in buffaloes affected with anaplasmosis in and around Gannavaram during the period from March 2023 to November 2023. The overall occurrence of anaplasmosis recorded in the present study was 29.17 per cent with respect to the total number of buffaloes screened. Occurrence of anaplasmosis with respect to age, gender and breed revealed highest per cent occurrence in buffaloes of ≥7 years, females and Graded Murrah buffaloes respectively. Diagnosis of anaplasmosis was done based on clinical signs, examination of Leishman’s-stained blood smears and PCR. Clinical signs recorded include inappetence to anorexia, paleness of mucous membrane, icterus, reduced milk yield, fever, lymph node enlargement, emaciation, dyspnoea, diarrhoea, ocular discharges, brown coloured urine and/or abortions. Examination of Leishman’s-stained blood smear revealed Anaplasma marginale organism as dense, uniformly pigmented blue-purple inclusions near the margin of erythrocytes. Molecular detection of Anaplasma marginale was done by PCR which revealed an expected amplicon size of 457 bp. In the present study, PCR was found to be ideal for the diagnosis of anaplasmosis. Clinical examination revealed significant increase in mean temperature, respiratory rate and heart rate in animals affected with anaplasmosis when compared with healthy control group while the ruminal motility was decreased significantly. Haematological examination in buffaloes affected with anaplasmosis revealed significant decrease in mean Hb, PCV and TEC count while TLC showed non-significant decrease. Leucogram revealed neutrophilia, lymphocytopenia and eosinophilia. Serum biochemical examination revealed significant increase in the levels of ALT, AST, ALP, globulin and total bilirubin while glucose and albumin decreased significantly as against healthy control. Therapeutic trial was undertaken in 19 out of 21 buffaloes diagnosed as anaplasmosis, by randomly dividing them into two groups with 10 in Group I and 9 in Group II. Group I animals were treated with oxytetracycline for 5 days while Group II animals were treated with imidocarb twice with an interval of one week. In animals of both the groups, single dose of ivermectin was administered. Supportive therapy was continued with Syrup 3D red, Syrup E care Se and Livotas suspension for a period of 21 days. Both the therapeutic regimens were proven to be efficacious in the treatment of anaplasmosis caused by Anaplasma marginale based on resolution of clinical signs and improvement in the haemato-biochemical parameters. However, imidocarb could be preferred because of less average clinical recovery time when compared to oxytetracycline.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    ASSESSMENT OF IMMUNOGENICITY OF LIVE ATTENUATED GOATPOX VACCINE AGAINST LUMPY SKIN DISEASE IN CATTLE
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY, TIRUPATI - 517 502. (A.P.) INDIA, 2024-03) SAI SINDHU MUMMADISETTY; DEEPTHI .B (MAJOR); SRIVANI .M; SUBHASHINI .N
    Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is a rapidly emerging, transboundary and notifiable disease listed by the World Organization for Animal Health. LSD is being reported regularly with escalated incidence in India ever since its first appearance in 2019. Severe systemic disease is reported in the affected cattle, resulting in devastating economic losses. Mass vaccination of susceptible animals is the foremost approach in tackling infectious diseases. However, several heterologous and homologous vaccines are being used as a prophylactic measure across the globe to control LSD outbreaks. Although the efficacy and immunogenicity of homologous LSD vaccines is known to be excellent, cost of vaccine production along with the Neethling responses observed in the vaccinated animals urged the need for alternative vaccine candidates. Owing to its high degree of co linearity and amino acid identity of LSDV with other Capripoxviruses (CaPVs), heterologous vaccines employing Goatpox vaccines (GPV) and Sheeppox vaccines (SPV) can be safely used to protect against LSDV. The present study deals with an objective to determine the optimum dose of Goatpox vaccine against LSD infections in cattle. A total of 31 samples were collected from clinical cases suspected for LSD, in different areas of Andhra Pradesh during September to December, 2022. Of the 31 samples, 26 were found positive for LSDV by PCR using primers targeting CaPV- specific P32 gene and LSDV- specific RPO30 gene. Clinical samples (n=10) confirmed by PCR were considered for isolation of LSDV in Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK) cell line. LSDV (LSDV/Cattle/VJA PNGR/SVVU/2022) could be isolated from two samples (nasal swab and skin scab, both collected from a single clinical case) in the fifth passage showing characteristic cytopathic changes. MDBK amplified virus was adapted to Vero cell line and obtained infectivity titer of 10-7.595 per 100 μL is further employed for use in serum neutralization test. Phylogenetic analysis of the LSDV isolate based on full length ORF036 gene (RPO30) showed 100 % identity and formed a distinct clade with Middle-east Asia and African isolates. Amino acid specific signatures to differentiate CaPVs were noticed and estimates of evolutionary divergence over sequence pairs between clusters was determined that showed a distance of 9.52 % between vaccine strains and the field isolate in the present study. Vaccination trial was conducted in randomly selected heifers placed into four groups (A, B, C and D) of eight animals each. Group A served as control group, while groups B, C and D were vaccinated with 1mL, 2mL and 3mL of 1 X 103.0 TCID50/dose of Goatpox vaccine respectively. Group D vaccinated with 3 times the dose used in goats produced the best humoral immunity that was persistent till the end of the trial i.e., 35 days post vaccination(p<0.05). Thus, this study shows thrice the dose of Goatpox vaccine used in goats is considered as the optimum dose in cattle against LSD.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    PATHOLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR DIAGNOSIS OF CHICKEN INFECTIOUS ANEMIA IN COMMERCIAL CHICKEN
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY, TIRUPATI - 517 502. (A.P.) INDIA, 2024-02) MOUNIKA PENUBAKULA; SAMATHA .V (MAJOR); SUDHA RANI CHOWDARY .CH; SRIVIDYA .G
    In the present study, a total of 217 commercial chicken among 50 chicken flocks were suspected for CIA based on history and clinical signs. CIA was diagnosed in 135 birds including 116 layers (71.6%) and 19 broilers (34.5%) with an overall prevalence of 62.2% based on hematology, gross lesions, histopathology, electron microscopy and molecular studies. Out of 116 CIA cases in layers the highest prevalence was recorded in East Godavari (90.47%), followed by Chittoor (81.81%), Kakinada (80%) and lowest in Eluru (52.38%). The prevalence of CIA in broilers was found highest in East Godavari (39.1%) followed by Chittoor (38.88%) with lowest prevalence in Visakhapatnam (21.42%). In the present study, age wise prevalence of CIA in commercial chicken showed highest prevalence in layer growers of 5-16 weeks of age (79.8%) and the lowest prevalence in layer chicks aged ≤4 weeks age (27.2%). Concurrent infections with other bacterial (36.3%), viral (24.2%), protozoal (28.7%) infections were noticed with overall occurrence of 48.88%. Concurrent infections were confirmed in layer growers (55.17%), layer adults (42.30%) followed by broiler chicken (42.1%) and layer chick (33.33%). The commercial chicken affected with chicken infectious anemia exhibited pale comb and wattles, anorexia, generalised weakness, decline in egg production and ruffled feathers. Blood samples collected randomly from the birds suspected for CIA grossly appeared as watery contents and there was a significant decline in the Hemoglobin concentration (5.56 ± 0.29 g/dl), PCV (17 ± 0.79 %) and TEC (1.46 ± 0.09 x 106/µL) in CIA affected flock when compared to that of healthy flocks. Grossly, CIA affected chicken exhibited small, shrunken thymus and bursa. Pale pink to yellow discoloration of bone marrow of femur along with oily jelly to watery like consistency was observed. Atrophy of spleen was noticed in many cases whereas enlarged pale livers and swollen pale kidneys were observed in few cases. Petechiae to patchy hemorrhages on thigh muscle, breast muscles and in the oral cavity were also noticed. Cytologically, bone marrow collected from affected chicken revealed presence of vacuolar spaces due to replacement of hematopoietic tissue by adipose tissue. Thymus sections revealed multiple hemorrhages along with moderate to severe depletion of lymphocytes in cortex and medullary areas and apoptotic changes in nucleus like pyknosis and karyorrhexis in thymic lymphocytes whereas few lymphocytes exhibited the presence of eosinophilic, intranuclear inclusion bodies. All the sections from bone marrow of femur revealed aplasia of all cell types including granulocytic, agranulocytic and hemopoietic precursors along with complete replacement of bone marrow by adipose tissue in the form of vacuolar spaces. Hemocytoblast cells with more cytoplasm and large nuclei revealed eosinophilic, intranuclear inclusions. Bursa of Fabricius showed moderate atrophy of lymphoid follicles, cystic changes in bursal follicles. Spleen revealed moderate to severe lymphoid depletion in white pulp along with proliferation of macrophages, reticular cells and hemosiderosis. Severe congestion of blood vessels, multiple hemorrhagic foci and degenerative changes were noticed in tissue sections of liver and kidneys. In the present study, different concurrent infections were noticed in 66 CIA affected commercial chicken. Marek’s disease was confirmed in a total of 16 cases revealing neoplastic nodules on liver and heart. Tissue imprints revealed numerous pleomorphic cells and histologically, infiltration of neoplastic lymphoid cells in hepatic parenchyma and myocardium was noticed. Different bacterial diseases included fibrinopurulent serositis (12), gangrenous dermatitis (7) and Fowl Cholera (5). Protozoal infections like intestinal and caecal coccidiosis (19) were also recorded. Fibrinous pericarditis revealed fibrinous exudation along with inflammatory cell infiltration in pericardium and samples collected from these lesions yielded characteristic green metallic sheen colonies on EMB agar confirming E.coli. Gangrenous dermatitis appeared as dark, moist lesions at the base of the wing indicating blue wing. Necrotic and inflammatory changes were evident in subcutaneous tissue and lesions yielded Gram positive cocci suggestive of Staphylococcal infection. Multiple hemorrhagic foci on epicardium and numerous necrotic foci on liver were noticed in Fowl cholera. Microscopically, hemorrhages and necrotic changes were observed in heart and liver. Tissue imprints of heart revealed presence of bipolar organisms and swabs collected revealed non hemolytic colonies on blood agar suggestive of Pasteurellosis. Distended intestinal segments and caeca along with hemorrhagic and necrotic contents were suspected for coccidiosis. Intestinal and caecal mucosal scrapings revealed presence of different stages of coccidia suggestive of Eimeria Spp. Severe hemorrhages and necrosis in mucosa and submucosa along with presence of different stages of coccidia was evident. Five thymus and three bone marrow samples collected from CIA affected birds were subjected to TEM and revealed severe scarcity of cells and presence of apoptotic changes in the nuclei and intranuclear viral inclusions. Apoptotic thymocytes revealed chromatin aggregation as large, dark condensed masses that abut the nuclear membrane. Bone marrow samples revealed large adipose cells replacing the bone marrow whereas few electron dense viral aggregates in the nucleus of hemocytoblast are also observed. In the present study, molecular diagnosis of CIA disease in commercial chicken was carried out using thymus, bone marrow, spleen and liver tissue samples for amplification of VP1, VP2 and VP3 genes of Chicken infectious anemia virus by specific primers and yielded amplicons of size 1390 bp for VP1 gene, 713 bp and 367 bp for VP2 and VP3 genes respectively confirming the presence of CIA viral DNA in the samples. In conclusion, the present study has defined characteristic gross and microscopic features of CIA in commercial chicken and diagnosis was done based on PCR by amplification of VP1, VP2 and VP3 genes of CIAV.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    EVALUATION OF ESTRUS PARAMETERS, CERTAIN BIOCHEMICAL AND HORMONAL PROFILES IN REPEAT BREEDING ONGOLE COWS
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY, TIRUPATI - 517 502. (A.P.) INDIA, 2024-02) UDAYA KIRAN ALLADA; CHANDRA PRASAD .B (MAJOR); SUNNY PRAVEEN .K; KAMALAKAR .G
    The present study was conducted in follicular cyst affected Ongole cows, which were presented to the Gynaecological unit, Department of Veterinary Gynaecology and Obstetrics, NTR College of Veterinary Science, Gannavaram, Andhra Pradesh during the study period from November 2022 to October 2023. A thorough analysis was conducted on both day 0 and day 10 in normal cyclic (n=10) and follicular cyst affected Ongole cows (n=10). Various parameters including estrus characteristics, haemato-biochemical values, and hormonal profiles were meticulously examined, recorded and subsequently compared between the groups. The prevalence of cystic ovaries in Ongole cattle experiencing repeated breeding was recorded as 21.3 per cent, with follicular cysts comprising 13.3 per cent of the cases. In the current study, the occurrence of follicular cysts in Ongole cows was 20 per cent in second parity, 30 per cent in third parity and 50 per cent in four and above parities, respectively. Results revealed that duration of estrus (51.9 hrs) was significantly (P<0.01) longer and estrous cycle length (15.9 days) was significantly (P<0.01) shorter in follicular cystic compared to normal cyclic cows. Further, most of the follicular cystic cows exhibited an intense estrus compared to intermediate estrus in normal cyclic cows. The majority of follicular cystic cows exhibited a pH ranging between 7-8 with a non-significantly (P>0.05) lower spinbarkeit value and typical fern pattern in their cervico-vaginal mucus. Further, they displayed clinical signs like nymphomania (40%), sterility hump (60%), mucometra (30%), copious vaginal discharges (70%), pneumovagina (40%) and estrual prolapse (20%). On day 0, the average diameter (cm) of dominant and cystic follicles in normal cyclic and follicular cystic cows was 1.06±0.06 and 1.86±0.07 cm, respectively. Meanwhile, the mean diameter of cystic follicles on day 10 was 1.93±0.07. Significantly (P<0.05) lower levels of haemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV) and slight leukocytopenia with neutrophilia, lymphopenia, mild monocytopenia and a non-significant variation in basophil count were recorded in follicular cystic compared to normal cyclic cows on both days. Significantly (P<0.05) higher serum glucose, total protein and a non significantly (P>0.05) higher serum cholesterol concentration was recorded in cows afflicted with follicular cysts compared to normal cyclicity on both days. A significantly (P<0.05) higher and lower levels of serum progesterone on day 0 and day 10, respectively was observed in follicular cystic compared to normal cyclic cows. Whereas, significantly (P<0.05) higher serum cortisol level was recorded in follicular cystic compared to normal cyclic cows on both days. A significant (P<0.01) rise in serum progesterone level was noted in normal cyclic cows on day 10 in contrast to day 0 with no significant difference in follicular cystic cows. While, a non-significant decrease (P>0.05) in serum cortisol was noted in normal cyclic cows on day 10 compared to day 0, with no significant variation observed in follicular cystic cows.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE IN POULTRY PRODUCTION: A MULTI-STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY, TIRUPATI - 517 502. (A.P.) INDIA, 2024-02) RAJYA LAKSHMI BETHAPUDI; SUBRAHMANYESWARI .B (MAJOR); SIREESHA .P; NAGARAJA KUMARI .K
    The present research work “Antimicrobial resistance in poultry production: A multi-stakeholder analysis” aimed to find out the role of stakeholders in contributing to antimicrobial resistance in the poultry sector. The study is focused on analyzing the factors influencing antimicrobial drug (AMD) prescribing behaviour of poultry practitioners and the perception of poultry practitioners about antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in poultry production, documenting the knowledge, adoption of biosecurity measures and antimicrobial drug usage pattern among poultry farmers. Consumers’ awareness of antimicrobial drug usage (AMD) and antimicrobial drug resistance (AMR) were also studied. An ex-post-facto and exploratory research designs were adopted for the present study conducted in the states of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana. A total of 40 commercial poultry farmers and 60 consumers were selected from both states through simple random sampling. The data from 31 poultry practitioners was collected through a questionnaire (google form) and the responses from poultry farmers and consumers were through a structured interview schedule. The findings were processed, analyzed and interpreted with appropriate statistical procedures. Nearly three-fourth (74.20%) of the poultry practitioners were young and cent per cent were male. More than half of the poultry practitioners were with M.V.Sc (54.84%) and had low level of work experience (51.61%) in the poultry sector. More than three-fourth (80.64%) of the poultry practitioners have undergone training in poultry farming whereas, the same number of the (80.64%) poultry practitioners haven’t undergone any trainings related to AMR. Majority of the poultry practitioners make use of information sources concerning the usage of antibiotics from colleagues or peers, a summary of product characteristics (SPC)/Package information leaflets (PIL), textbooks/drug handbooks and national/state guidelines/protocols. More than three-fourth of the poultry practitioners had medium level of knowledge and perception of antimicrobial resistance. Among the various factors influencing the prescribing decision of poultry practitioners, clinical or disease symptoms, efficacy of the drug, withdrawal period, ease of administration of drug and spectrum activity of drug were the most considered clinical factors. Also, prior experience in managing similar problems, guidelines or protocols on the rational use of drugs, economic status of the owner, not making a mistake, opinion of a colleague, farmers demand for antimicrobials, with the assumption that he may be called again if there is no improvement in the health status of the birds were the most considered non-clinical factors by poultry practitioners for prescribing antimicrobials. Majority of poultry practitioners expressed that hygienic management and regular disinfection of farms, practice of proper biosecurity measures, screening of flock for serological titers, Phyto biotics, prebiotics, probiotics and synbiotics, immunostimulants, essential oils, special market outlets (premium price) for AMR free poultry products, creating wider awareness about the effects of antimicrobial resistance among poultry farmers, rotation of deworming drugs, certifying poultry farms using less or no antibiotics, judicious use of antibiotics and homeopathy can reduce the reliance on antimicrobials. Nearly two-third (60%) of poultry farmers from layer farms were old aged, male (100%), highly educated (75%), with poultry farming as the major livelihood, had membership in poultry associations (75%) and with medium level (60%) of experience. Whereas, majority of the farmers from broiler farms were middle aged (55%), male (100%), highly educated (55%), poultry farming was the only occupation (65%), do not possess membership in any poultry association (90%) and had medium level of experience (75%). The majority of farmers with layer farms (85%) and none (100%) of the farmers with broiler farms have undergone any training related to poultry farming. More than three-fourth of farmers from both the layer and broiler farms actively seek information from veterinarians. More than half of the layer (55%) and broiler (55%) farms had neighbouring farms and majority of layer farms possessed medium flock size (90%) with medium level of egg production (90%). Whereas, majority (85%) of broiler farms possess low flock size. Majority of the farmers from the layer (90%) farms and half (50%) of the farmers from broiler farms owned feed processing units. Among the layer farms (40%), most of the marketing was done through wholesale and retail, and for broiler farms (60%), it was done on a wholesale basis. Three-fourth of farmers from both the layer (75%) and broiler (60%) farms were having medium level of knowledge followed by low and high levels of knowledge on biosecurity measures. More than three-fourth of the farmers with layer farms (80%) and nearly two-third of the farmers with broiler farms (65%) were with medium level of adoption followed by low and high levels of adoption of biosecurity measures. Nearly two-third (60%) of layer farm farmers didn’t monitor the flock for serological levels after vaccination. All the layer farm farmers (100%) were consulting veterinarians for treatment of sick birds. Majority (90%) of farmers conduct post mortem examination for dead birds out of these, 83.33 per cent farmers were following the suggestions of veterinarians. Majority (45%) farmers mentioned that the purpose of using antibiotics or medicines in farms was for both treatment and prevention purpose. In majority (90%) farms, antimicrobial drugs were administered by skilled workers. All (100%) the farmers from layer farms have the ability to differentiate antibiotics from other medicines and among those 90 per cent of farmers can differentiate through generic names whereas, 85 per cent of farmers from layer farms check for the expiry dates of antibiotics prior to administration to the flock. More than half (60%) of the farmers didn’t adhere to the recommended duration for the usage of antibiotics. Half (50%) of the layer farm farmers were aware of the drug withdrawal period, but none of the farmers among them followed the drug withdrawal period. Majority (80%) of layer farm farmers were using alternatives to antibiotics like pre and probiotics during various disease outbreaks. Almost all (95%) the broiler farm farmers weren’t in the habit of checking the post-vaccination serological levels and nearly two-third (60%) of the broiler farm farmers were purchasing antimicrobials over-the-counter to treat on their own. Majority (85%) of the farmers were following the practice of conducting post-mortem examination for dead birds and 76.47 per cent farmers of these stated that they were following the suggestions of veterinarians for further control of the disease incidence. Nearly one third (35%) farmers mentioned that the purpose of using antibiotics or medicines in farms was for both treatment and prevention purpose. In majority (90%) broiler farms, antimicrobial drugs were administered by skilled workers. All (100%) the broiler farm farmers can differentiate antibiotics from other medicines and moreover, more than half (55%) of these can differentiate through generic names. Majority (75%) of the broiler farm farmers check for expiry dates on antibiotics before its administration to birds. Majority (70%) of the farmers didn’t adhere to the recommended duration of antibiotics. Majority (60%) of the broiler farm farmers didn’t heard about the withdrawal period and only 23.50 per cent of the aware farmers follow the withdrawal periods. Majority (75%) of the broiler farm farmers were using alternatives to antibiotics. Majority (75%) of the consumers were young, male (63.33%), graduates (88.34%) and with small family (73.33%) and had medium level of income (66.67%). Majority (65%) of consumers prefer chicken meat and prefer eggs (55%) and meat (43.33%) from commercial production system. Half of the respondents consume eggs (50%) daily and meat (55%) twice or thrice in a week. Half (50%) of the consumers purchase meat and eggs by appearance. Majority (60%) of consumers opined that the un-hygiene market was the major restricting factor in consumption of meat and meat products. Majority (83.33%) of the consumers were willing to pay premium price for quality meat products. Among them, 38 per cent of consumers were willing to pay the premium price of 10 per cent above the normal price. Majority (73.34%) consumers had medium level of awareness followed by low (18.33%) and high (8.33%) levels towards antimicrobial drug usage (AMD) and antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Whereas, majority (63.33%) of consumers had low level of perception followed by medium (31.67%) and high (5%) levels of awareness towards antimicrobial drug usage (AMD) and antimicrobial resistance (AMR).
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    GROSS, HISTOLOGICAL AND HISTOCHEMICAL STUDIES ON THE OVIDUCT OF ADULT RAJASRI FOWL
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY, TIRUPATI - 517 502. (A.P.) INDIA, 2024-02) VAMSI KRISHNA .P; DhilleswaraRao .S (MAJOR); RAJU .N.K.B; SAMATHA .V
    The present study was conducted on thirty six(36) apparently healthy laying Rajasri fowls. The study was carried out in laying birds of same age group ranging from 26 to 28 weeks. The average lengths and weights of oviduct and its five major divisions like infundibulum, magnum, isthmus, uterus and vagina were individually measured. The histomorphological and histochemical characteristics of the oviduct was studied by using light microscope. The wall of oviduct composed of tunica mucosa, lamina propria sub mucosa, tunica muscularis and tunica serosa from inside to outside. The length of mucosal fold and height of epithelium and lamina propria submucosa and thickness of tunica muscularis of different segments were measured by using ocular and stage micrometer under light microscope. The tunica mucosa of funnel part of infundibulum was projected into mucosal folds which were lower in height when compared to posterior part of infundibulum in laying Rajasri fowl. The luminal epithelium was lined by simple columnar epithelium and consists of non ciliated cells, ciliated cells and goblet cells. The lamina propria sub mucosa was extended into the core of mucosal folds, but the tubular glands were absent. The tunica muscularis was well represented with inner circular and outer longitudinal smooth muscle layers. The tunica serosa which was outermost layer was comprised of loose connective tissue and it was lined by simple columnar epithelium. The mucosal folds in magnum were leaf like in shape and are longer in length when compared to infundibulum. It was lined by pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium along with non ciliated cells. The lamina propria submucosa was packed with long branched tubular glands. These mucosal folds of isthmus were lower in height when compared to magnum. The thickness of tunica muscularis was almost similar to that of magnum and it contained nerve fibres and blood vessels in between the layers of muscle fibres. The lamina propria submucosa of uterus was consisted of highly vascularized loose connective tissue with branched tubular glands. The tubular glands were densely packed and were separated from each other by collagen, reticular and nerve fibres. The tunica muscularis of uterus was thicker than the other parts of oviduct in laying Rajasri fowl. The tunica mucosa of vagina was raised into numerous longitudinal mucosal folds and these are narrow when compared to other parts of oviduct in laying Rajasri fowl. The sperm host glands were observed in uterovaginal junction and the cytoplasm of this sperm hostage glands was vacuolated with lipid inclusions. The inner circular smooth muscle layer of vagina was strongly developed and forms the vaginal sphincter at the opening of cloaca. The apices of lining epithelium of mucosal folds in infundibulum, magnum, isthmus, uterus and vagina of oviduct showed the PAS strong +VE reaction indicating the presence of mucopolysaccharides in laying Rajasri fowl. They also showed the positive for alcian blue and indicated the presence of acid mucopolysaccharides. The glycogen content was observed at the apical regions of the non secretory cells in the lining epithelium of mucosal folds of oviduct in laying Rajasri fowl.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    DEVELOPMENT AND QUALITY EVALUATION OF LOW-FAT CHICKEN NUGGETS INCORPORATED WITH BROWN RICE FLOUR
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY, TIRUPATI - 517 502. (A.P.) INDIA, 2024-02) AJAY KUMAR KAKANI; SAI DILIP GUPTA .R (MAJOR); SURESH K. DEVATHKAL; ESWARA RAO .B; SUBHASHINI .N
    A study was conducted to investigate the effect of brown rice flour on the quality and storage stability of chicken meat nuggets. During first phase six trails were conducted by incorporating brown rice flour at three different levels viz., 2, 4 and 6 per cent. Among different treatments 6 per cent brown rice flour incorporated chicken nuggets showed higher physical (percent moisture, per cent crude protein, per cent crude fiber and total ash), physico-chemical (water holding capacity %, emulsion stability %) and sensory scores than control and other treatments. During second phase chicken nuggets incorporated with 2%, 4% and 6% brown rice flour along with control were selected to evaluate the quality and shelf-life of chicken meat nuggets at refrigeration (4±1°C) storage. Storage studies revealed that Physico chemical properties such as pH, 2- TBARS and free fatty acid value had significantly (P<0.05) higher values in 6% brown rice flour incorporated chicken nuggets when compared to other treatments and control and its values also increased significantly (P<0.05) as the refrigeration (4±1°C) storage period progressed from 0 to 9 days. Sensory evaluation revealed a progressively decreasing trend in all sensory quality parameters in control and treatments during refrigeration storage period. Based on the result obtained in the study it might be concluded that chicken meat nuggets could be prepared satisfactorily on addition of up to 6% level of brown rice flour and can be stored up to 9 days without adversely affecting the quality of the products under refrigeration storage.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    INTERPLAY OF VITAMIN B6, L-TRYPTOPHAN AND NARINGENIN IN DOXORUBICIN INDUCED CORONARY ARTERY DAMAGE
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY, TIRUPATI - 517 502. (A.P.) INDIA, 2024-02) SAI PRATHYUSHA GAJULA; SRIVIDYA .G (MAJOR); SRINIVASA RAO .G; NAVEEN SWAROOP .M
    The doxorubicin induced damage in coronary artery was studied initially in porcine coronary artery as in vitro model. The porcine heart was collected immediately after slaughter in chilled Krebs-Henseleit solution (pH-7.4). The Right coronary artery isolated was used for the in vitro experimentation. The RCA was placed in sterile petri dishes in Krebs-Henseleit solution and the total of four treatments with six replications was done. Group I served as control (Normal). Group II served as Doxorubicin control where the RCA was incubated in 40 µM doxorubicin for 3 h. Group III, IV and Group V, RCA were pre-incubated in 30 µM vitamin B6, tryptophan and naringenin for 1h respectively and received 40 µM doxorubicin for 3 h. After completion of treatment with doxorubicin, the tissue was utilized for biochemical and histomorphological examinations. Biochemical tests viz., GSH, SOD, TP and MDA were used to determine the status of oxidative damage. LDH and NO were estimated to determine the extent of cytotoxicity. There is a fall in total protein levels and antioxidant enzymes levels (GSH & SOD) in doxorubicin pre-treated group. Loss of endothelium and inflammatory changes were evidenced in doxorubicin treated coronary artery. There is raise in MDA, LDH and nitric oxide levels in doxorubicin pre-treated group. Pre-treatment with vitamin B6, tryptophan and naringenin caused a protective effect on doxorubicin treated coronary artery and restored the enzymes levels back to normal. Regeneration of endothelium was observed in all three treatment groups upon histomorphological examination. In the in vivo experimentation with rabbits, 36 rabbits of 1.5-2 kg body weight were randomly assigned to 6 groups of six rabbits in each group. Group I served as healthy normal animals and Group II rabbits were given doxorubicin @10mg/kg B,Wt intraperitoneally on 15th and 16th day of study. Group III animals received vitamin B6 @50 mg/kg B.Wt per orally for 14 days. Group IV and V received tryptophan (100 mg/kg B.Wt) and naringenin (100 mg/kg B.Wt) per orally for 14 days. Group VI served as an interplay group where the rabbits received vitamin B6 (50mg/kg B.Wt), tryptophan (100 mg/kg B.Wt) and naringenin (100 mg/kg B.Wt) for 14 days. On day 15 and 16, all groups of rabbits received doxorubicin @10mg/kg B.Wt intraperitoneally. On day 17 the rabbits were sacrificed using xylazine and ketamine anaesthesia and heart samples were collected in chilled Krebs-Hanseleit solution. Half portion of the heart tissues was used to prepare tissue homogenate to study antioxidant enzymes levels and the remaining half to study histomorphological alterations. Blood was collected during sacrifice to study heamatological parameters and the seperated serum was used to estimate calcium, phosphorous, nitric oxide and lactate dehydrogenase. There is a fall in levels of antioxidant enzymes (GSH and SOD), phosphorous, RBC, WBC, haemoglobin, platelets count where as there is elevation of MDA levels, calcium, nitric oxide and LDH levels in the doxorubicin treated rabbits. Gross morphological changes like pale heart, congestion of blood vessels and fatty change and histomorphological alterations like loss of endothelium, infiltration of inflammatory cells, vacuolation of cardiomyocytes were observed in doxorubicin treated rabbits. Pre-treatment with vitamin B6, tryptophan, naringenin and their combination restored the antioxidant enzymes levels, haematological and cytotoxicity markers. Normal architecture of the artery was preserved in these rabbits and gross changes were mild to moderate congestion. Rabbits of Group VI showed less damage which may be due to synergistic effect of vitamin B6, tryptophan and naringenin over doxorubicin damaged heart and coronary artery. Based on the above results, it is concluded that combination of vitamin B6, tryptophan and naringenin offered better protection on doxorubicin induced coronary artery damage.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    GENOMIC EXPRSSION OF CERTAIN PRO INFLAMMATORY CYTOKINES DURING TRANSITION PERIOD IN ONGOLE CATTLE (Bos indicus)
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY, TIRUPATI - 517 502. (A.P.) INDIA, 2024-02) GNAPIKA .G; IQBAL HYDER (MAJOR); SRINIVAS PRASAD .CH; MUTHA RAO .M
    The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of transition stress in ongole cows during transition period. Twelve animals (n=12) were randomly selected from livestock research station (LRS), Lam farm, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh of which 6 are multiparous pregnant animals (transition group) and 6 are clinically healthy heifers (control group). From gravid females, samples were collected during transition period week-3, week-2, week-1, on the day of parturition, week+1, week+2, week+3. Physiological parameters like RT, RR and PR were recorded daily at 9:00 AM throughout the study period. Three aliquots of blood sample (whole blood with anticoagulants in two vacutainers and one vacutainer of blood with clot activators for serum isolation) were collected. One aliquot of whole blood was directly used for analysis of haematological parameters (TEC, TLC, Hb, PCV, Platelets, DLC, Erythrocyte indices) and blood glucose, while another aliquot was used for separation of PBMC and subsequent RNA isolation for gene expression studies of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α), HSP90. Blood with clot activators was processed to separate serum, for estimation of biochemical parameters (total protein, albumin, cholesterol, ALT, AST, Creatinine, BUN, Calcium, Phosphorous). The mean±SE values of RT, RR and PR vary significantly (p<0.05) between control and transition group. The mean±SE values of RT, RR and PR didn’t vary significantly (p>0.05) in between weeks of transition group. The mean±SE values of haematological parameters vary significantly (p<0.05) between control and certain weeks in transition group. The mean±SE values of haematological parameters like platelets, MCHC, granulocytes and monocytes vary significantly (p<0.05) within transition group and also vary significantly between the control and transition group and significant (p<0.05) difference was observed within the weeks of transition group and between control and transition group. The mean±SE values of albumin and creatinine did not vary significantly (p>0.05) between control and transition group and no significant (p>0.05) difference was observed. The blood glucose levels vary significantly (p<0.05) between control and transition group when compared to control group the levels of glucose decreased in transition weeks and the blood glucose also vary significantly (p<0.05) within the weeks of transition group, the blood glucose levels decreased significantly from prepartum to on the day of parturition and then increased significantly from the day of parturition to postpartum and significant (p<0.05) difference was observed between control and transition group and within the weeks of transition group. The mean±SE values of ALT were significantly (p<0.05) higher in postpartum when compared to control. The mean±SE values of AST vary significantly (p<0.05) within the weeks of transition group and significant (p<0.05) difference was noticed within the weeks in transition group. The mean±SE values of AST were significantly (p<0.05) higher in prepartum week-2, week-1, 0day and postpartum weeks in comparison to control. The mean±SE values of total protein and globulin were significantly (p<0.05) higher in week-3, week-2 and week+1 of transition group in comparison to control. The mean±SE values of BUN, calcium, phosphorous were significantly (p<0.05) lower on week-2 in transition group when compared to control. The mean±SE values of BUN vary significantly (p<0.05) within the weeks in transition group and significant (p<0.05) difference was within the weeks of transition group. The mean±SE values of cholesterol were significantly (p<0.05) lower on week-2, week-1, 0day, week+1 in transition group in comparison to control. The relative mRNA expression of IL-1β was significantly upregulated in transition group on prepartum 0 day and postpartum week+1, week+2, week+3 compared to control and the expression of IL-1β was Significantly (p<0.05) downregulated in transition group compared to control group on week-3. The relative mRNA expression of IL-6 was not significantly (p>0.05) different between control group and animals in week 3, week-2, week-1, 0day, week+1, week+2 and week+3. The relative mRNA expression of TNF-α was significantly(p<0.05) upregulated in transition group on prepartum week 2, 0 day and postpartum week+3 compared to control. The relative mRNA expression of TNF-α was significantly (p<0.05) downregulated in transition group on week+1 compared to control. The relative mRNA expression of HSP90 was significantly (p<0.05) downregulated in transition group compared to control group in prepartum week-3, week 1, and postpartum week+1, week+2, week+3. No significant (p>0.05) difference was observed between the control group and week-2, 0 day of transition group.