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Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University, Tirupati

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  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    QUANTITATIVE IDENTIFICATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND VALIDATION OF SPECIES SPECIFIC ANIMAL DERIVED GELATIN BY CONVENTIONAL AND MULTIPLE REACTION MONITORING MASS SPECTROMETRY APPROACHES
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY, TIRUPATI - 517 502. (A.P.) INDIA, 2023-12) BIDYUT PRAVA MISHRA; ESWARA RAO .B (MAJOR); NAVEENA .B.M; NAGA MALLIKA .E; SRINIVASA RAO .T; NARENDRA NATH .D
    Comprehensive analysis of gelatin extracted from water buffalo hide, pig, sheep, broiler chicken and spent hen skins using different acid and/alkali pre-treatment followed by thermo-hydrolysis was carried out. Highest (P < 0.05) gelatin yield was obtained from sheep skin (SSG, 9.55%) and water buffalo hide (BHG, 9.47%) relative to chicken (CSG, 6.06%), pig (PSG, 5.98%) and spent hen (SHSG, 5.98%) skins, respectively. The SSG showed highest transmittance (%) among all the gelatin samples. Buffalo hide presented the highest collagen solubility (75.76%), followed by chicken (68.95%), sheep (59.58%), spent hen (11.74%) and pig (5.23%) skin, respectively. The PSG gels showed lower L*, a* and b* values and higher (P < 0.05) viscosity relative to other samples. The SSG had higher (P < 0.05) gel strength, foaming capacity and foaming stability as compared to others. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analysis of gelatin exhibited the presence of amide-I peaks for all samples in the lower frequency range (1629.9-1647.26 cm-1), whereas, only SSG, BHG and PSG revealed amide-II peaks at lower frequency range (1500.67-1523.82 cm-1) indicating NH deformation. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed that BHG gel had a consistent network of thicker strands and medium-sized holes whereas, PSG and SSG gel showed a sheet-like appearance with no voids. The SDS-PAGE fractionation of extracted gelatin powder followed by MALDI-TOF MS analysis has identified the collagen alpha 1 (I) chain as a predominant component responsible for gelatin stability and detected unique species-specific peptides. Current study has demonstrated the potential of using water buffalo hide and sheep skin as an alternative to pig skin/bovine hides or bones for industrial production of gelatin with superior quality attributes. In the second phase of experiment, the binary mixture samples were prepared by spiking chicken meat patties (CMP) with 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.5% (w/w) of in-house derived pig skin gelatin (PSG)/water buffalo hide gelatin (BHG). Gelatin was extracted from these binary mixture samples by using cold acetone and were subjected to LC-MS/MS multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mass spectrometry for authentication of presence of bovine and or porcine gelatin in processed meat products. The current study has identified 2 unique bovine gelatin peptides of m/z 781.3364 (GETGPAGPAGPIGPVGAR) and m/z 852.7189 and 3 unique porcine gelatin peptides of m/z 774.570 (GETGPAGPAGPVGPVGAR), m/z 971.776 (VPAGECCPVCPEGEVSPTDQETTGVEGPK) and m/z 727.436 and the optimized MRM-MS method was successful in detecting BHG/PSG in chicken meat patties up to a 0.5% (w/w) of the total weight and these levels can be considered as the minimum level of detection (LOD) of BHG / PSG in gelatin containing processed products. By using calibration curves for bovine gelatin (certified reference material) peptide of m/z 781.3 (transition 781.3  127.1466) and porcine gelatin specific peptide of m/z 774. 570 (transition 774.570  70.1561), gelatin content of 10.03 nmol/ml and 45.88 nmol/ml were detected in gelatin samples extracted from cooked CMP spiked with 0.5% (w/w) of BHG and PSG, respectively. To screen the undeclared source of gelatin in commercial samples available in the market, 25 commercial food samples (marshmallows, commercial gelatin powder, jelly candies, chicken sausages, chicken meat balls, chewing gums and chocolate cookies) were procured from the local market of Hyderabad. The gelatin (if any) extracted using cold acetone and subjected to MRM mass spectrometry to authenticate the animal origin of gelatin in commercial samples. The findings revealed that 2 bovine gelatin peptides and 3 porcine gelatin peptides identified in the current study are highly unique and specific in detecting the species of gelatin and gelatin-containing foods and are able to identify the adulteration of processed foods with BHG and PSG. In the present study, out of 25 tested samples, 4 samples showed the presence of bovine gelatin and 6 samples showed the presence of porcine gelatin. The LC-MS/MS MRM method optimized in the present study was suitable in detecting the presence of animal derived gelatin in commercial samples.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    RADIOLOGICAL AND ULTRASONOGRAPHIC EVALUATION OF LIVER AND SPLEEN IN GERIATRIC DOGS
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY, TIRUPATI - 517 502. (A.P.) INDIA, 2023-11) AJAY KUMAR .V.V; HARI KRISHNA .N.V.V (MAJOR); SREENU MAKKENA; MUTHA RAO .M
    The present study entitled “Radiological and ultrasonographic evaluation of liver and spleen in geriatric dogs” was conducted on dogs aged 7 years and above presented to Department of Veterinary Surgery and Radiology, NTR College of Veterinary Science, Gannavaram. 1246 geriatric dogs were presented and 512 cases (41.0 %) had symptoms suggestive of gastrointestinal, hepatic and splenic disorders. and 41 cases (8.0 %) (3.2 % of total cases) had liver and spleen involvement. Spitz was the most affected breed. Dogs aged between 7 to 10 years had higher incidence (78.1 %). Male dogs (51.2 %) showed slightly more incidence. Geriatric dogs having liver affections showed clinical signs such as lethargy, anorexia, dyspepsia, icterus, dysuria, polydipsia, polyurea and haematemesis and dogs with splenic affections showed anorexia, emaciation, anaemia and slight abdominal distension. Radiographic signs observed in the present study includes hepatomegaly, rounding of liver lobes, hepatomegaly displacing the stomach and intestines dorsally and caudally, irregular margins, shrunken liver (cirrhosis), dorsal displacement of liver, hepatic tumour displacing the abdominal contents dorsally and caudally. Ultrasonographic lesions observed in liver were rounding of liver lobe with diffuse hyperechoic hepatic parenchyma, altered echotexture, mixed echogenicity, rounding of liver lobes with free fluid in abdomen, focal hyperechoic lesion, solitary or multiple hepatic abscess with irregular margin and hypoechoic centre, increased diffuse echogenicity with enlarged portal veins suggestive of cirrhosis, solitary or multiple hyperplastic nodules suggestive of hepatic tumour. Hyperechoic biliary sludge with thickened gall bladder wall was seen in few cases. Dogs with splenic affections showed splenomegaly and loss of serosal details in radiography and sonography showed splenic mass with irregular margin and hyperechoic centre, hyperechoic splenic parenchyma in splenomegaly and multiple masses with altered echotexture in splenic tumour. Mean values of Hb, PCV, TEC, in the liver and spleen affected dogs was lower normal range. TLC was higher in liver affected and liver and spleen affected dogs. In all the dogs mean values of AST and ALP were elevated whereas ALT in liver affected and spleen affected dogs was elevated. Increased levels of creatinine were observed in liver and spleen affected dogs. Total protein and albumin were within normal range whereas mean values of serum globulin in liver and spleen affected dogs were higher. To conclude, radiography and ultrasonography were useful in identifying liver and splenic disorders, even before the onset of clinical signs, and helps in correct diagnosis and to predict prognosis.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    GENE EXPRESSION PATTERNS OF SELECTIVE MONOCARBOXYLATE TRANSPORTERS IN BUBALINE SPERMATOZOA
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY, TIRUPATI - 517 502. (A.P.) INDIA, 2023-10) NIRUPAMA .M.U.L; SRINIVASA PRASAD .CH (MAJOR); IQBAL HYDER; ASWANI KUMAR .K; MUTHA RAO .M
    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the gene expression of certain monocarboxylate transporters in bubaline spermatozoa. Eight adult healthy buffalo bulls between three to six years of age were randomly selected from ABC Semen Station, Veeravalli, Krishna District, Andhra Pradesh. The fresh semen samples were collected from eight buffalo bulls once in a week for four weeks by AV method. As a preliminary quality check, fresh semen samples (4 samples from each bull, n=32) were evaluated at the semen station for volume, concentration, mass motility, individual progressive motility, viability, HOST, acrosomal integrity and the mean±SE values were found to be 4.09±0.26mL, 1243.875±65.621 million/mL, 3.86±0.34 and 70.04±9.92%, 73.42±0.49%, 73.98±0.56% and 87.75±0.52% respectively. With respect to evaluation of gene expression of monocarboxylate transporters, the fresh semen samples were transported at 37°C. The samples were divided in to two groups. Fresh uncapacitated as control (4 samples from each bull n=32) and fresh capacitated (n=32). It was taken care that fresh semen samples had sperm concentration of 50-60 million spermatozoa. In vitro capacitation of fresh semen samples was performed in BO media supplemented with heparin for 2 hrs. Genes such as SLC16A1 and SLC16A7 were selected for the study. The mRNA isolated from respective samples were converted to cDNA and subjected to q-PCR analysis. The target genes were normalized to endogenous control GLUT5. The mRNA expression of genes in fresh capacitated was analyzed relative to fresh uncapacitated as control. Fold change in gene expression was calculated using ∆∆Cq method. Significant difference between groups for fold change was analyzed using t test and multiple comparison was performed by Duncan multiple range test. No significant difference (p<0.05) was observed in the mRNA expression of MCT1and MCT2 between fresh capacitated and fresh uncapacitated (control) semen samples. It was concluded that, in vitro capacitation induces no significant change in the mRNA expression of both SLC16A1 and SLC16A7 genes which encode for MCT1 and MCT2 respectively and MCTs exert minimal role in capacitation related biochemical changes in bubaline spermatozoa.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    EFFECT OF EXOGENOUS MELATONIN ADMINISTRATION ON EXPRESSION PATTERNS OF SELECTIVE AQUAPORIN GENES IN HEAT STRESSED BUBALINE PERIPHERAL BLOOD MONONUCLEAR CELLS
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY, TIRUPATI - 517 502. (A.P.) INDIA, 2023-08) CHAITANYA .G; IQBAL HYDER (MAJOR); SRINIVASA PRASAD .CH; ASWANI KUMAR .K
    The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of exogenous melatonin administration on heat stress (HS) amelioration in buffaloes during summer season. Fifteen adult Murrah buffaloes were randomly selected from Livestock Farm Complex (LFC), NTR College of Veterinary Science, Gannavaram, Andhra Pradesh. The study was conducted during the months of May - July 2022. The animals were divided into three groups, Group-1: (GI, Control n=5), Group-2: (GII, n=5 Melatonin @18mg/50 kg bwt. Subcutaneously single administration) and Group-3: (GIII, n=5 Melatonin@18mg/50 kg b wt. subcutaneously twice at fortnight interval. The AT and RH were recorded throughout the study period and THI was calculated. Physiological parameters like RT, RR and PR were recorded daily at 1:00 PM throughout the study period. Two aliquots of blood sample (whole blood with anticoagulants and blood with clot activators for serum isolation) were collected from all the 15 animals in weekly interval for seven weeks. An aliquot of whole blood was directly used for analysis of haematological parameters (TEC, TLC, Hb and PCV) and blood glucose, while the remaining aliquot was used for separation of PBMC and subsequent RNA isolation for gene expression studies of HSP90 and selective aquaporins (AQP1, AQP8 and AQP11). Blood with clot activators was processed to separate serum, for estimation of biochemical parameters (total protein, albumin, cholesterol, ALT and AST). The THI value above 78 was observed throughout the study period indicating that the animals were under HS. The mean±SE values of RT, RR and PR didn’t vary significantly (p>0.05) between control and melatonin treated buffaloes The mean±SE values of haematological parameters didn’t vary significantly (p>0.05) between control and melatonin treated buffaloes and no significant difference (p>0.05) was observed among all the weeks of our study period. The mean±SE values of total protein and albumin did not vary significantly (p>0.05) between control and melatonin treated buffaloes and no significant (p>0.05) difference was observed among all the weeks. The blood glucose levels were significantly (p<0.05) higher in GIII compared to control in week 6 and in overall mean. The mean cholesterol concentration was significantly (p<0.05) higher in GIII compared to control during week 5, 6 and in overall mean. The AST levels were significantly (p<0.05) lowered in GIII compared to control in all the weeks and also in overall mean. The ALT levels were significantly (p<0.05) lowered in GIII during week 5, week 6 and in overall mean compared to control. The mean cortisol levels were significantly (p<0.05) lowered in GIII compared control during week 4, 5, 6 and also in overall mean. The relative mRNA expression of HSP90 and AQP8 were significantly (p<0.05) upregulated on week 2 and 3 in GII and on week 2, 3, 4 and 5 in GIII compared to control. Further, the overall expression of HSP90 was significantly (p<0.05) upregulated in melatonin treated animals compared to control. Whereas for AQP8 overall expression was significantly (p<0.05) upregulated in GIII compared GII to control. There was no significant (p>0.05) difference in the mRNA expression of AQP1 and AQP11 between control and melatonin treated groups (GII and GIII) during all the weeks of the study and also in overall. Increased expression of HSP90 in melatonin treated group compared to control in our study suggests the role of melatonin in prevention of abnormal protein aggregation and misfolding of proteins caused due to oxidative stress. The increase in expression of AQP8, a peroxyporin in melatonin treated group establishes the role of melatonin in facilitating H2O2 diffusion and efflux of other free radicals generated due to oxidative stress induced by heat stress. A THI of above 78 throughout the study period is indicative of heat stress in animals. It can be concluded from our study that Melatonin administration can substantially ameliorate the effects of heat stress in buffaloes as by altering biochemical parameters (glucose, cholesterol, AST, ALT and cortisol) and further dynamically altering expression of HSP90 and AQP8 genes.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    EFFECT OF EXOGENOUS MELATONIN ADMINISTRATION ON EXPRESSION PATTERN OF CERTAIN MONOCARBOXYLATE TRANSPORTER GENES IN HEAT STRESSED BUBALINE PERIPHERAL BLOOD MONONUCLEAR CELLS
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY, TIRUPATI - 517 502. (A.P.) INDIA, 2023-08) SUJANA GONTLA; SRINIVASA PRASAD .CH (MAJOR); VASANTHA SESHU KUMARI .I; ASWANI KUMAR .K
    The objective of the present study was to know the effect of exogenous melatonin administration on physiological, oxidant, antioxidant and cortisol profiles along with expression pattern of MCTs and HSP70 in heat stressed Murrah buffaloes. Fifteen non pregnant adult Murrah buffaloes of 5-8 years of age were selected randomly and divided into three groups Control (n=5), T1 (n=5) melatonin@18mg/50 kg b.wt single administration and T2 (n=5) melatonin@18mg/50 kg b.wt twice at fortnight interval. The blood samples were collected by jugular vein puncture into EDTA and serum vials at weekly intervals for a period of seven weeks during study period. Oxidant, antioxidant, cortisol profiles were estimated. The physiological parameters and THI were also recorded during the period of study. THI of the present study recorded was >80 except during 5th week (THI-78). RT, RR and PR were significantly (p<0.05) lower in melatonin treated buffaloes compared to control. Significant decrease (p<0.05) was observed in RT of T2 compared to T1 while no significant (p>0.05) difference was found in RR and PR in between these groups. MDA and cortisol levels were significantly (p<0.05) decreased in T1 and T2 compared to control, while significant (p>0.05) decrease was observed T2 compared to T1. Variation in both parameters was observed in all three groups with respect to THI. The mean values of SOD, CAT and GPx were significantly higher (p<0.05) in both treatment groups compared to control, with highest values obtained (p<0.05) in T2 among all three groups. The mRNA expression of MCT 1, 2 and 8 were significantly (p<0.05) downregulated in melatonin treated groups compared to control. HSP70 expression was upregulated in treatment groups compared to control. No significant (p>0.05) difference in expression of MCT1 and HSP70 was observed between T1 and T2. The expression of MCT2 and MCT8 was significantly (p<0.05) higher in T1 than T2. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated the effective role of melatonin in ameliorating heat stress which is evident through the study on various heat stress markers like physiological parameters, estimation of oxidant and antioxidant enzyme activity, estimation of stress hormone cortisol and gene expression studies on monocarboxylate transporters MCT 1, 2 and 8 along with HSP 70. Hence, we can conclude that melatonin could be effective in ameliorating heat stress in buffaloes.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    GENE EXPRESSION PATTERN OF INFLAMMATORY CYTOKINES IN PERIPHERAL BLOOD MONONUCLEAR CELLS OF BUFFALOES AFFECTED WITH UTERINE TORSION
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY, TIRUPATI - 517 502. (A.P.) INDIA, 2023-08) SREEHARI REDDY .R; SUNNY PRAVEEN .K (MAJOR); SRINIVAS MANDA; HARI KRISHNA .N.V.V; SRINIVASA PRASAD .CH
    The objective of this study was to investigate the gene expression pattern of inflammatory cytokines in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of buffaloes affected with uterine torsion. Graded Murrah buffaloes (n=104) with various forms of dystocia were examined and the occurrence of dystocia due to maternal and foetal causes in the present study was recorded to be 80.76 and 19.23%, respectively. Uterine torsion was the most common and prevalent cause of maternal dystocia, accounting for 94.04% of cases of maternal dystocia and 75.96% of all dystocia’s reported. The occurrence of uterine torsion was more in pluriparous buffaloes (70.89%) and at term (60.76%). Occurrence of uterine torsion was predominant towards right-side (92.40%) and post cervical (82.27%). Successful detorsion was achieved by Modified Schaffer’s method in 82.27% of affected cases (65/79). Regarding the survival rate, 94.94% dams and 35.38% foetus have survived. Buffaloes with successful detorsion gave birth to 60% male and 40% female calves. Haematological parameters associated with uterine torsion affected buffaloes (n=6) were evaluated and compared with normal calved buffaloes (n=6). Blood picture revealed a significant (P<0.05) increase in total leucocyte count, neutrophil count and significant (P<0.05) reduction in haemoglobin, lymphocyte count and further recorded a non-significant (P>0.05) reduction in packed cell volume in uterine torsion affected buffaloes when compared to normal calved buffaloes. Biochemical analysis revealed a significant (P<0.05) reduction in total protein and albumin levels and showed significant (P<0.05) increase in BUN levels in uterine torsion affected buffaloes when compared to normal calved buffaloes. There was no significant (P>0.05) difference in levels of globulin while significantly (P<0.01) higher levels of creatinine were recorded in uterine torsion affected buffaloes. Blood samples were collected to investigate the mRNA expression patterns of inflammatory cytokine(s). The RT-qPCR results revealed that the expression of the inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-10) were up-regulated in uterine torsion affected buffaloes compared with normal calved buffaloes. The expression of TNF-α and IL-10 showed up-regulation with 1.83 and 2.27 fold changes, respectively in uterine torsion affected buffaloes. Further, the expression of the Heat Shock Proteins (HSP-70 and HSP- 90) were also up-regulated in uterine torsion affected buffaloes compared with normal calved buffaloes. The expression of HSP-70 and HSP-90 showed up-regulation with 2.03 and 2.12 fold changes, respectively in uterine torsion affected buffaloes. In conclusion, uterine torsion had a substantial impact on haemato-biochemical indicators in Graded Murrah buffaloes. Furthermore, it was clearly evident from the results of present study that upregulation of expression occurred in certain genes such as TNF--α, IL-10, HSP-70 and HSP-90 in uterine torsion affected buffaloes compared to eutocia buffaloes that indicated tissue injury and stress, and they could be used as a scale for evaluation of prognosis and initiation of early treatment.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    CLINICAL STUDIES ON ANGULAR LIMB DEFORMITIES OF ANTEBRACHIAM IN DOGS
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY, TIRUPATI - 517 502. (A.P.) INDIA, 2023-07) CHINA MUNIYYA NUTAKKI; PRAKASH KUMAR .B (MAJOR); SREENU MAKKENA; SUNNY PRAVEEN .K
    Thirty dogs of different age groups (2-6 months, 7-12 months and above 1 year) with angular deformities of ante brachium were selected to study incidence, to assess angular limb deformities with Center of Rotation of Angulation (CORA) method radiographically and to classify the angular limb deformities based on radiographic findings. Further these dogs were divided into two groups of 15 each to study the effect of nutraceuticals for the management of angular limb deformities in dogs. Cases with clinical signs suggestive of antebrachial angular limb deformities were considered for the study. The incidence of antebrachial angular limb deformities was recorded as 3.04 % over a period for 1 year. The most represented dogs were German Shepherd (8, 26.66 %) followed by Mongrel (7, 23.33 %). The highest incidence of antebrachial angular limb deformity in dogs was recorded in the age group of 2-6 months (13, 43.33 %). Male dogs (18, 60 %) showed higher incidence of antebrachial angular limb deformities than female (12, 40 %). The highest incidence of these deformities was due to premature closure of distal physis of radius and ulna. The affected antebrachium was subjected to lateral and craniocaudal views to evaluate the etiology and to facilitate CORA planning. CORA planning was performed by using orthogonal radiographs to determine the joint orientation angles, plane, type of deformity and number of deformities in both frontal and sagittal plane. Out of 32 affected limbs of 30 dogs presented were categorized of having 25 uniapical deformities and 7 biapical deformities. Further among biapical deformities, all were of having partially compensated brachial deformities. Overall, irrespective of age group uniapical deformities has higher incidence followed by biapical deformities. Further among biapical deformities, more of partially compensated brachial deformities were recorded. The plane of deformity in group I dogs was frontal in eight and sagittal in four limbs and biplanar in three limbs out of 15 limbs in 13 dogs. The plane of deformity in group II dogs was frontal in two, sagittal in two and biplanar in six dogs. The plane of deformity in group III dogs was frontal in two, sagittal in two and biplanar in three dogs. The total dogs (n=30) with angular limb deformities of random age were divided into 2 groups of 15 each to study the effect of nutraceuticals for the management of angular limb deformities in dogs. Group I dogs were given oral calcium @ 25 mg/kg, twice a day for 2 months and group II was treated with oral calcium @ 25 mg/kg, twice a day for 2 months and oral vitamin D3 @ 4000 IU/kg weekly for 6 weeks. In both the groups, there was substantial reduction in severity of clinical signs related to pain and lameness although the bowing of limbs could show only mild improvement. When compared to group I, group II dogs showed satisfactory to good clinical response in terms of improvement in weight bearing, reduction in lameness and pain, and decrease in the enlargement of metaphyses and straightening of forelimbs in affected dogs. However, these improvements were observed mostly in the dogs below 8 months age and there was no significant improvement in dogs above 8 months age group in both the groups. The serum calcium level significantly increased on day 45 in group I dogs whereas in group II the serum calcium levels increased significantly on day 30. The phosphorus levels in both the groups showed increase in values with no significant difference. In group I and II dogs the ALP values started declining from day 15, but significant decrease is noted on day 60 in group I and day 45 in group II. It is concluded that Center of Rotation of Angulation (CORA) method is ideal to determine plane, type and magnitude of deformity for accurate and precise correction of antebrachial angular limb deformities. Reference ranges for normal frontal and sagittal plane alignment should be used for correctional techniques in animals that do not have a normal contralateral antebrachium. Biapical and multiapical radial deformities represent unique challenges for postoperative correction. In the present study, irrespective of age group uniapical deformities has higher incidence followed by biapical deformities. Further among biapical deformities, more of partially compensated brachial deformities were recorded. Many animals with mild growth deformities can be managed non-surgically. In general, the smaller and more sedentary a dog, the greater the chance for non-surgical management especially in immature dogs. Further, our study shows that treatment of dogs having ante brachial limb deformities with vitamin D3 and Ca for 60 days could result into correction of clinical signs, levels of serum biochemical parameters and angular limb deformities when compared to Ca supplementation alone. However, in adult dogs, corrective surgery is elective and thus can be considered at any time if the response to conservative management is unsatisfactory.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    INFLAMMATORY CYTOKINE GENE EXPRESSION IN FETAL DYSTOCIA vis-à-vis NORMALLY CALVED BUFFALOES (Bubalus bubalis)
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY, TIRUPATI - 517 502. (A.P.) INDIA, 2023-07) VENKATA SAI BHAVYA CHARITHA .B; CHANDRA PRASAD .B (MAJOR); SUNNY PRAVEEN .K; KAMALAKAR .G; SRINIVASA PRASAD .CH
    The present study was conducted in fetal dystocia affected buffaloes, which were presented to the obstetrical unit, Department of Veterinary Gynaecology and Obstetrics, NTR College of Veterinary Science, Gannavaram, Andhra Pradesh during the study period from January 2022 to December 2022. Detailed obstetrical examination were performed in fetal dystocia affected buffaloes (n=21) and various forms of fetal dystocia were recorded. Fetal dystocia was recorded in 6 primiparous (28.57%) and 15 pluriparous (71.43%) buffaloes. The condition was observed for 6 hours in 19.05 per cent, 12-24 hours in 66.67 per cent and >36 hours in 14.28 per cent of the buffaloes, respectively before they were presented for treatment. 90.48 per cent of fetuses were delivered in anterior longitudinal presentation and 9.52 per cent of the fetuses were delivered in posterior longitudinal presentation. The fetal cause of dystocia included limb flexion (42.86%), head deviation (33.33%), fetal emphysema (14.29%), fetal monsters (4.76%) and fetal ascites (4.76%). Male and female calves were born at 66.67 and 33.33 per cent, respectively among them, 23.81 and 76.19 per cent were live and dead, respectively. Out of 21 fetal dystocia affected buffaloes, six buffaloes of distinct parities were utilized in the study and compared with six eutocia buffaloes which were reared in and around Gannavaram. Further, variations in haemato-biochemical parameters and gene expression of certain pro-inflammatory cytokines, anti-inflammatory cytokines and heat shock proteins were analyzed and compared between the buffaloes with fetal dystocia and eutocia. Significantly (P<0.05) lower levels of haemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV) were observed in between the buffaloes with fetal dystocia and eutocia, while leukocytosis with neutrophilia, monocytosis, lymphopenia and eosinopenia were recorded in fetal dystocia affected buffaloes when compared with normally calved buffaloes. Non-significant variations were recorded in serum total plasma protein and blood urea nitrogen concentrations in between the buffaloes with fetal dystocia and eutocia. Significantly (P<0.05) higher albumin and globulin concentration were observed in buffaloes afflicted with fetal dystocia than eutocia. Significantly (P<0.01) higher creatinine and albumin: globulin ratio was observed in fetal dystocia affected buffaloes than normally calved buffaloes. Further results indicated that the mRNA expression of certain inflammatory mediators such as TNFα (pro-inflammatory cytokine), IL10 (anti-inflammatory cytokine), HSP70 and HSP90 were all significantly (P<0.05) up-regulated in fetal dystocia affected buffaloes compared to control animals.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    JOB PERFORMANCE AND JOB SATISFACTION OF VETERINARY ASSISTANT SURGEONS IN ANDHRA PRADESH – A STUDY
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY, TIRUPATI - 517 502. (A.P.) INDIA, 2023-07) JAYABHARAT REDDY .A; SUNITHA PRASAD (MAJOR); SUBRAHMANYESWARI .B; SUDHAKAR .K
    The present study was attempted with the main objective of assessing the “JOB PERFORMANCE AND JOB SATISFACTION OF VETERINARY ASSISTANT SURGEONS IN ANDHRA PRADESH.” The present study adopted ex-post facto research design. A total of 1384 VASs were working at time of selection of research problem. The ideal sample size of 90 was determined for 1384 VASs at 95 per cent confidence level and 10 per cent margin of error. Veterinary Assistant Surgeons from all the four zones comprising of 13 districts of Andhra Pradesh were determined proportionally and were selected from each district through Simple Random Sampling (SRS). The data was collected by administering structured questionnaire through ‘Google forms,’ and the data collected was coded, tabulated, analyzed, interpreted, discussed and necessary conclusions and inferences were drawn. Majority of the respondents were middle aged, male, had an educational qualification of B.V.Sc. & AH, with medium level of service experience, posted at a medium distance from their native place, undergone medium number of trainings and had medium sources of information utilization. Majority of the VASs had medium level of work motivation, self-esteem, job stress and job involvement. As per the organizational or situational conditions, majority of the VASs perceived moderate organizational climate, organizational communication, span of control, physical facilities and their utilization, timeliness in availability of resources and workload. Majority of the VASs possessed medium level of job satisfaction under components of salary package or benefits, promotions, job nature, supervision and staff and co-workers. Most of the VASs had medium level of job performance under components of animal health services, animal reproduction services, administrative services, extension services and rural upliftment services. Correlational analysis between dependant and independent variables revealed that educational qualification, source of information utilization, work motivation, self-esteem, job involvement, organizational climate and organizational communication had significant and positive correlation with both job performance and job satisfaction of field VASs. Workload had negative significant correlation to job performance, while physical facilities and their utilization had significant positive correlation with job satisfaction of the VASs in AP. Majority of VASs perceived constraints as “ more emphasis on reports and records, lack of adequate infrastructure, lack of transportation facility for VASs for conducting special programs, shortage of skilled supporting staff or manpower, lack of realistic target fixations, lack of priority towards field problems during official meetings, large operational areas due to shortage of manpower, lack of trainings on the basis of the needs of the field VASs, lack of opportunity for participation of VASs in developing need based livestock development programs, farmers’ lack of interest and knowledge on recommended scientific practices and reliance on unscientific procedures, lack of timely and adequate communication, lack of skill based training on innovations, lack of coordination among VASs & with other line departments, lack of motivation for VAS and support from peer veterinarians and lack of good rapport with farmers.”