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Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University, Tirupati

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  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    EXTRACTION AND UTILIZATION OF PROTEIN FROM SHRIMP HEAD WASTE IN THE PREPARATION OF NOODLES AND WAFERS
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY TIRUPATI - 517 502. (A.P.) INDIA, 2019-08) VENGALA RAYUDU, Y; DHANAPAL, K (MAJOR); SRAVANI, K; MADHAVAN, N
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    STUDIES ON GROWTH AND SURVIVAL IN NURSERY REARING PHASE OF FINFISH SPECIES IN FLOATING NET CAGES FOR MARICULTURE
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY TIRUPATI - 517 502. (A.P.) INDIA, 2016-11) SURESH, GALIDEVAERA; CHAMUNDESWARI DEVI, B (MAJOR); RAVINDRA KUMAR REDDY, D; MADHAVAN, N
    The present studies were conducted at the closed bay near Suryalanka, Bapatla, Guntur district on “Studies on growth and survival in nursery rearing phase of finfish species in floating net cages for mariculture”. Total three (3) studies were conducted. The first study was on the effect of stocking density on growth and survival of milkfish, Chanos chanos in floating net cages in closed bay, Bapatla. Triplicate groups of milkfish with an average initial weight of 2.90±0.32 g were randomly stocked in floating net cages (1m×1m×2m) at 20, 40, 60 and 80 fish/m3 designated as D20, D40, D60 and D80 respectively. Milkfish in the cages were fed with 35% CP formulated diet at 10% of body weight twice daily. Sampling was done weekly. At the end of the stocking trail, growth in terms of body weight, weight gain, specific growth rate of fish were high in D40 than those in D20, D60 or D80. There was no significant difference in the survival rates of milkfish at different stocking densities. Total Feed Conversion Ratio was lower in D40 followed by D20, D60 and D80. The cages stocked with 40 fish/m3 have highest growth performance and 80 fish/m3 showed highest biomass performance. Water quality parameters were at optimum level during study period. Results suggest that 40 fish/m3 could be recommended for producing better quality milkfish fingerlings and 80 fish/m3 for highest number of seed production. Second study was conducted to study the effect of stocking density on growth and survival of seabass, Lates calcarifer in floating net cages in closed bay, Bapatla. Triplicate groups of seabass with an average initial weight of 1.29±0.12 g were randomly stocked in floating net cages (1m×1m×2m) at 20, 40, 60 and 80 fish/m3 designated as SD20, SD40, SD60 and SD80 respectively. Seabass in the cages were fed with 45% CP formulated diet at 10% of body weight twice daily. Sampling was done weekly. At the end of the stocking trail, growth in terms of body weight, weight gain, specific growth rate and survival rate of fish was high in SD20 than those in SD40, SD60 and SD80. Total Feed conversion ratio was lower in SD20 followed by SD40, SD60 and SD80. The cages stocked with 20 fish/m3 have highest growth performance and survival. 20 fish/m3 showed better survival percentage than SD40, SD60 and SD80. Water quality parameters were at optimum level during study period. Results suggest that 20 fish/m3 could be recommended for producing better quality seabass fingerlings and 80 fish/m3 for highest number of seed production. Another experiment was conducted to study the optimum crude protein for milkfish, Chanos chanos seed in floating net cages. Milkfish fry were obtained through natural seed collection. Rectangular floating net cages made of bamboo poles was provided inside with 1×1×2m hapas. Predatory net and bird net were provided. PVC drums filled with air were fixed to the net cage for floating. Milk fish with mean body weight of 2.81±0.07 g were stocked at the rate of 40 fish/m3 in each hapa in the rectangular cages. Triplicates were maintained for each treatment. Fish fry were fed with 5 artificial dry diets containing 12.5% (Control - C), 15% (T1), 25% (T2), 35% (T3) or 45% (T4) crude protein. The diets were fed at the rate of 10% of the biomass for a period of 63 days (9 weeks). Water quality parameters like D.O, pH, salinity, NH3, NO-2, NO-3 and temperature were estimated at weekly intervals and were within the optimum range for culture of milk fish. At the end of 63 days growth experiment, fishes fed on 35% (T3) crude protein feed exhibited highest growth and survival performance at 1% and 5% level of significance. The present study showed that milkfish seed reared in floating net cages in the closed bay performed best at 35% crude protein.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Studies on the effects of different dietary protein sources on the growth and survival of Channa striatus from fry to fingerling stage
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY TIRUPATI - 517 502. (A.P.) INDIA, 2017-05) YESHDAS, B; RAVINDRA KUMAR REDDY, D(MAJOR); CHANDRASEKHARA RAO, A; MADHAVI, K
    The present study “Studies on the effects of different dietary protein sources on the growth and survival of Channa striatus from fry to fingerling stage” was conducted in the Wet Laboratory of the Department of Aquaculture, College of Fishery Science, Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University, Muthukur, Nellore Dist. Two experiments were conducted- one for the effects of different dietary protein percentages and other for the effects of different dietary protein sources on the growth and survival of Channa striatus. Fish Meal is used as the protein source for the protein percentages (Crude Protein 40, 45 and 50%) in first experiment and Trash Fish, Goat Intestine and Chicken Waste are used as protein sources for the other experiment. The experiments were conducted for 60 days in Fiber tanks. Triplicates were maintained for each of the treatment. Feed was given twice a day. Weekly sampling was done for water quality parameters viz., pH, Temperature, Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Total Alkalinity and Total Hardness. The growth, survival, SGR and feed conversion ratio were estimated by sampling the fish once in a week. The temperature values recorded during 60 day period of the experiment were 26.1-29.4 in all the treatments. The pH values recorded during the 60 day of period of experiment were 7.41-7.69. The DO was found to be in the range of 5.9 ppm and 6.6 ppm. The range of Total Alkalinity varied between 160 mg/l to 166 mg/l in all the treatments. Total hardness of water ranged between 210 mg/l to 216 mg/l. Weight of Channa striatus fry (in grams) and weight increment data was observed weekly for different treatments at different protein percentages and protein sources. After 60 days, the highest average body weight of 6.61 g (Crude Protein 45%) and the lowest average body weight of 5.24 g (Crude Protein 40%) for different protein percentages; The highest and lowest average body weight of 4.87 g (Trash Fish) and 3.97 g (Chicken Waste) were observed. The Specific Growth Rate (SGR) for Channa striatus at different protein percentages and protein sources were calculated. The highest (1.86%) and lowest (1.70%) SGR recorded in Crude Protein 45% and Crude Protein 40% respectively for different protein percentages. The highest (1.64%) and lowest (1.49%) was observed in Trash Fish and Chicken Waste respectively for different protein sources. The Feed Conversion Ratio at different protein percentages and protein sources were calculated. The better (lowest) FCR of 1.52 and 2.18 was found in Crude Protein 45% and Trash Fish respectively. Survival rates at different protein percentages and protein sources were recorded. The highest (75.5%) and lowest (62.2%) survivals were observed in crude Protein 45% and Crude Protein 40% respectively for different protein percentages; the highest (68.9%) and lowest (60%) were observed in Trash fish and Chicken Waste respectively for different protein sources. Overall performance of Channa striatus fry at different dietary protein percentages and protein sources shows that highest Growth, Weight gain, SGR, Survival and lowest FCR is obtained in Crude Protein 45% at different dietary protein percentages; and highest Growth, Weight gain, SGR, Survival and lowest FCR is obtained Trash Fish at different dietary protein sources.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Studies on Physico-chemical characteristics of Nellore and Kanigiri reservoirs of Andhra Pradesh
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY TIRUPATI - 517 502. (A.P.) INDIA, 2017-03) VENKATESH, D; MADHAVI, K (MAJOR); PRABHANJAN KUMAR REDDY, C; DHANAPAL, K
    The present investigation was carried out in Kanigiri and Nellore reservoirs of SPSR Nellore district, Andhra Pradesh, for a period of 8 months from December, 2015 to July, 2016. Surface water samples were collected from the chosen sampling stations at fortnightly intervals and analyzed as per APHA standard methods to provide base line information on the physico-chemical characteristics of these reservoirs. The results obtained (for which guidelines have already been issued by the standard recommending bodies i.e., WHO, BIS) were found to be within the prescribed limits, except BOD as per WHO (2004) and total hardness, when compared with the standards (WHO, 1984; WHO, 2004; BIS, 1991; BIS 2012). Total hardness values were much higher than the permissible limit as prescribed by WHO (1984) but well within the permissible limits as prescribed by BIS (1991) standards. The observed values were tested from fisheries point of view also with the standards proposed by renowned scientists of the field and found to be well within the desired limits. Though the values obtained were within the prescribed standard values, it was found that turbidity, TSS, TDS, TS, pH, BOD, NH3, total alkalinity and total hardness values were found to be slightly higher in the water samples analyzed from Nellore reservoir, while transparency, DO, CO2 levels seemed to be little higher in water samples collected from Kanigiri reservoir. Mean chloride content and salinity values showed negligible difference between the waters of both the reservoirs. With respect to the parameters analyzed in the present study, water quality of Kanigiri reservoir is comparatively better than the Nellore reservoir. Correlation among various parameters showed significant positive and negative trends. Water from both the reservoirs can be considered as ‘alkaliphilous’ based on pH values observed, ‘nutrient rich’ based on the total alkalinity values estimated, ‘hard’ with respect to observed total hardness values. Though both the reservoirs exhibited moderate domestic pollution based on the analyzed chloride content of water, these concentrations are found to be within in the limits as per standards recommended for drinking water supply. Hence, it can be said that, water from both the reservoirs is fit for irrigation, agriculture, pisciculture, industrial and domestic purposes. 1
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    STUDIES ON GROWTH AND SURVIVAL IN NURSERY REARING PHASE OF GREY MULLET (Mugil cephalus) FOR MARICULTURE
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY TIRUPATI - 517 502. (A.P.) INDIA, 2017-11) SANTOSH KUMAR, TADANGI; Ravindra Kumar Reddy, D (MAJOR); Chandrashekara Rao, A; MADHAVAN, N
    The present studies were conducted at the closed bay near Suryalanka, Bapatla, Guntur district on “Studies on growth and survival in nursery rearing phase of Grey mullet (Mugil cephalus) for mariculture”. Total two (2) studies were conducted. The first study was on the effect of stocking density on growth and survival of grey mullet, (Mugil cephalus) in floating net cages in closed bay, Bapatla. Triplicate groups of mullets with an average initial weight of 0.95 g were randomly stocked in floating net cages (1m×1m×2m) at 20, 40, 60 and 80 fish/m3 designed as D20, D40, D60 and D80 respectively. Mullets in the cages were fed with 25% CP formulated diet at 10% of body weight twice daily. Sampling was done weekly. At the end of the experiment, growth in terms of body weight of fish was high in D20 than those in D40, D60 or D80, and in terms of weight gain, and specific growth rate of fish was high in D40 than those in D20, D60 and D80. There was no significant difference in the survival rates of mullets at different stocking densities. At the end of the experiment survival rates was almost similar in D20, than those in D40, D60 and D80. Total Feed Conversion Ratio was lower in D20 and D40, followed by D60 and D80. The cages stocked with 20 fish/m3 have highest growth performance and 80 fish/m3 showed highest biomass performance. Water quality parameters were at optimum level during study period. Results suggest that 20 fish/m3 could be recommended for producing better quality mullet fingerlings and 80 fish/m3 for highest number of seed production. Another experiment was conducted to study the optimum crude protein for grey mullet, Mugil cephalus seed in floating net cages. Mullet fry were obtained through natural seed collection. Rectangular floating net cages made of bamboo poles were provided inside with 1×1×2m hapas. Predatory net and bird net were provided. PVC drums filled with air were fixed to the net cage for floating. Mullets with mean body weight of 0.95 g were stocked at the rate of 40 fish/m3 in each hapa in the rectangular cages. Triplicates were maintained for each treatment. Fish fry were fed with 5 artificial dry diets containing 12.5% (Control – C (T1)), 15% (T2), 25% (T3), 35% (T4) and 45% (T5) crude protein. The diets were fed at the rate of 10% of the biomass for a period of 63 days (9 weeks). Water quality parameters like D.O, pH, salinity, NH3, NO-2, NO-3 and temperature were estimated at weekly intervals and were within the optimum range for culture of mullet. At the end of 63 days growth experiment, fishes fed on 25% (T3) crude protein feed exhibited highest growth and survival performance at 1% and 5% level of significance. The present study showed that Mullets seed reared in floating net cages in the closed bay performed best at 25% crude protein.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    SCREENING FOR INCIDENCE OF MICROSPORIDIAN PARASITE Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP) IN Litopenaeus vannamei FROM AQUACULTURE PONDS IN SPSR NELLORE DISTRICT OF ANDHRA PRADESH
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY TIRUPATI - 517 502. (A.P.) INDIA, 2017-02) RAVEENDRA, MATLAPUDI; HARI BABU, P (MAJOR); Neeraja, T; MADHAVAN, N
    Hepatopancreatic Microsporidiosis (HPM) caused by Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP), a microsporidian parasite to be associated with slow (retarded or stunted) growth and white feces syndrome (WFS) in cultured shrimp in many of the shrimp growing countries in Asia, also in India. In the present study, shrimp samples from various shrimp ponds from different Mandals of SPSR Nellore district, Andhra Pradesh, India, were collected over a period of five months (February 2016 to June 2016). Important diagnosis observed were histopathological studies, molecular technique (PCR) and also the effect of this parasite on pond profitability. Histologically, the infected animals showed severe degeneration of hepaotopancreatic tubule, basophilic inclusions resembling the developmental stages of EHP were found in the epithelial cells and large number of spore aggregations was observed in the tubular lumen. Enlargement of haemal sinuses was also observed in some cases. The problems associated with slow growing shrimp populations were found to be basically two groups, these are; Group A: slow growing animals associated with white gut and white feces and Group B: slow growing animals without any clinical signs. Samples from these two groups (25 case studies each) were examined for the presence or absence of EHP. As per group A population, 12 samples were positive by histopathologically and another three more samples are further confirmed by PCR, the remaining 10 samples did not give any recognizable indication. In the group B animals, showed only the presence of EHP in 11 samples histopathologically and further confirmation with PCR tested positive in 5 more samples, the remaining 9 samples were not showing any apparent signs of infection. From this study, out of 50 pond case studies, 31 cases were showing EHP symptoms with 62 % prevalence. To evaluate the economical importance of this parasite on pond profitability, five farm pond production effected by both EHP and white feces syndrome were compared with 5 normally performed shrimp population with biosecured environment. EHP-infected ponds have poor performance in average daily growth (ADG), days of culture (DOC), average body weight (ABW), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and shrimp biomass compared to normal healthy ponds. The portal route of entry of pathogen into shrimp was evaluated by performing oral feed bioassay, it was revealed that EHP can be transmitted through per os feeding of EHP infected hepatopancreas tissue to healthy shrimp.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Studies on catch composition and Biology of Etroplus suratensis (Bloch, 1790) and Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) from Survepalli Reservoir of Andhra Pradesh
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY TIRUPATI - 517 502. (A.P.) INDIA, 2018-08) Prudhvi Veda Priya, P.S.; Ramalingaiah, D (MAJOR); Suguna, T; Neeraja, T
    The present investigation on Etroplus suratensis and Oreochromis niloticus describes the Morphometric and Meristic characters, Length-Weight relationship, Food and feeding habits, Reproductive biology and Age, Growth and Mortality parameters. The maximum length of Etroplus suratensis and Oreochromis niloticus were examined and found to be 23.6 cm and 42.4 cm from Sarvepalli reservoir. The observed ‘b’ values of Etroplus suratensis (Male = 2.912, Female = 3.048, Juveniles = 2.899) and for Oreochromis niloticus (Male = 3.015, Female = 3.056, Juveniles = 3.072) indicates that the growth was isometric, where the value of b can be approximated to ‘3.0’. Etroplus suratensis found to be omnivorous and feeds mainly on Filamentous algae and Oreochromis niloticus found to be herbivorous and feeds on Diatoms. The length at first maturity were observed to be 149 mm and 251 mm for E. suratensis and O. niloticus. Fecundity estimates ranged from 757 - 3715 and 1852 - 3064 for E. suratensis and O. niloticus. Age at zero length (t0) calculated as – 0.14 for E. suratensis and – 0.22 for O. niloticus. Growth parameters such as asymptotic length “L∞” and growth co-efficient “K” were estimated to be 24.8 cm and 0.43 for E. suratensis and 44.2 cm and 0.86 for O. niloticus. The total mortality (Z), natural mortality (M) and fishing mortality (F) calculated for Etroplus suratensis were 1.25, 1.0 and 0.25 and For Oreochromis niloticus were 3.21, 0.11 and 3.10 respectively.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Studies on catch composition and Biology of Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) from Nellore and Kanigiri Reservoirs of Andhra Pradesh
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY TIRUPATI - 517 502. (A.P.) INDIA, 2017-02) PRAGNA, G; Ramalingaiah, D (MAJOR); Suguna, T; Ravindra Kumar Reddy, D
    The present investigation was carried out on Catch composition, Morphometric & Meristics, Length-Weight relationships, Food and feeding, Reproductive biology, Age and growth, Mortality. Length-frequency data of Nile tilapia was collected from fish landing centres of Nellore and Kanigiri reservoirs of Andhra Pradesh from August, 2015 to July, 2016. The catch composition of two reservoirs was investigated and higher annual yield was reported from Nellore reservoir (639.03 kg/ha/yr) than Kanigiri reservoir (334.70 kg/ha/yr). In both the reservoirs, catches of O. niloticus was dominant followed by O. mossambicus and Rohu species (L.rohita, L. calbasu, L. fimbriatus). Basically Nile tilapia is herbivorous followed by omnivorous. Length at first maturity was observed at 189.5 mm and 164.5 mm from Nellore and Kanigiri reservoirs. The absolute fecundity of Nellore and Kanigiri ranged from 1854 to 2371 eggs for 180 to 335 g fish and 368 to 568 eggs for 70 to 190 g fish at each reservoirs respectively. Riped ovaries observed highest during September followed by December from Nellore Reservoir where as March followed by November in case of Kanigiri reservoir. The Von Bertalanffy’s growth parameters for O. niloticus from Nellore reservoir worked out as L = 43.48 cm, K=0.71 per year and to = 0.11. Based on these values the growth at the end of I-IV years of its life worked out to be 23.71, 33.76, 38.7 and 41.13 cm respectively. The Von Bertanlanffy’s growth parameters for O. niloticus in Kanigiri reservoir were L = 29.12 cm, K= 0.69 per year and to = 0.07 and based on these values the growth at the end of I - IV years were 15.2, 22.13, 25.61 and 27.36 cm respectively. The mortality co-efficient (Z, M and F) for Nellore reservoir were estimated as 5.32, 1.70 and 3.62 and for Kanigiri reservoir 5.09, 1.50, 3.59 respectively.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    EFFECT OF COTTONSEED MEAL BASED DIETS ON THE PERFORMANCE OF CULTIVABLE FISH
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY TIRUPATI - 517 502. (A.P.) INDIA, 2010-09) PAVAN KUMAR, B; CHAMUNDESWARI DEVI, B (MAJOR); RAVINDRA KUMAR REDDY, D; BALASUBRAMANIAN, A
    Fish nutrition has advanced dramatically in recent years with the development of new, balanced commercial diets that promote optimal fish growth and health. Feed accounts for a major part (30-70%) of the total operation cost of an average fish farm. Traditionally, animal protein sources, particularly fishmeal have been the major ingredient of aqua feeds. Fishmeal is one of the most expensive ingredients in formulated fish feeds. Due to increasing demand, decreasing supply and the high cost of fish meal, fish nutritionists have concentrated their efforts to find alternative protein sources to substitute fish meal in the diet of fish. Thus, cottonseed meal (CSM), a by-product of the cotton fibre and cottonseed oil industries, has been used to replace fish meal partially or totally in fish diets. The present studies were conducted on “Effect of cottonseed meal based diets on the performance of cultivable fish” at College of Fishery Science, Muthukur. Cottonseed meal was used in the diets at four different levels 5%, 10%, 15% or 20%. Control diet was prepared with soybean meal (SBM), groundnut cake (GNC) and deoiled rice bran (DOB). All the formulated diets were isonitrogenous with 30% crude protein. Proximate composition and mineral composition of diets were analyzed by AOAC (1995) methods. Each diet was fed to catla and rohu in triplicate aquaria twice daily at 5% average body weight of the fish for three months for determination of growth response and survivability. Fortnightly sampling was done for the estimation of the water quality parameters and growth parameters [growth, percentage of survival, feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and condition factor (K)]. Specific growth rate (SGR) and Hepatosomatic index (HSI) were estimated at the end of the experiment. Histopathological studies on liver of experimental fishes were conducted at the end of the experiment. Fishes were analyzed for proximate and mineral composition at the beginning as well as at the end of the experiment Significant difference was observed in growth, FCR, PER and K in both rohu and catla. Mortality was observed in catla. However, no mortality was observed in survival of rohu. Inclusion levels of CSM at 15 or 20% resulted in histopathological changes in the liver of both rohu and catla. Carcass composition was observed to be better at CSM10 and CSM5 in rohu and catla respectively. Better growth performance was observed at 5% CSM level of inclusion in catla. However, no significant differences were observed in the growth, survival and condition factor at inclusion level of 5% and 10% CSM in catla. Better performance was observed at 10% CSM level in rohu. Hence, it can be recommended that CSM can be included at 10% level in the diets of catla and rohu. Further inclusion of CSM results in growth depression.