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Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University, Tirupati

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  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    STUDIES ON EXPERIMENTAL SUPPRESSION OF BURSA AND THYMUS DEPENDENT IMMUNE SYSTEM IN DUCKS
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY TIRUPATI - 517 502. (A.P.) INDIA, 1992-12) PRASADU, VAKANI; UMAMAHESWARA RAO, S(MAJOR); SUBBA RAO, M.V; SURI BABU, T; SRIRAMAN, P.k
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    STUDIES ON THE URETHRAL HEALING USING BIOCASINGS WITH AND WITHOUT URETHROSTOMY IN DOGS
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY TIRUPATI - 517 502. (A.P.) INDIA, 1999-07) SREENU, MAKKENA; VENKATESWARA RAO, N(MAJOR); HARAGOPAL, V; SESHAGIRI RAO, A; CHANDRASEKHARA RAO, T.S
    ABSTRACT: Ninety six mongrel dogs were randomly divided into 2 groups of 48 animals of urethrotomy and urzthrostomy. Each group was further divided into four sub groups depending on the technique ci reconstruction. -4111 cm incision was created on urethra prescrotally in dl the animals. The urethral incision was left unsutured/ sutured to carp== cavernosum penis in control animals keeping catheter in situ. Gelatm fibrin and amnion were wrapped around the urethrotomy / urethrostomy sites. The urethral healing was evaluated by clinical, haematologicd biochemical, radiological, gross and histopathological studies. Ventral urethral incision caudal to ospenis was found to be u effective model for the evaluation of biocasings for urethral healing. Introduction of catheter pre-operatively and lateral retraction of retracror penis muscle helped in location of urethra and application of biocasings on to operated site; Suturing of muscles and the biocasings helped in securing the casings in positiod at the urethral incision. Processed gelatin, fibrin and amnion provided adequate strength to wrap around the operated site; Premedication of the dogs before injection of thiopentone sochum facilitated easy intravenous injection of anaesthetic with minimal restraint and potentiated the effect. Intermittent doses of thiopentone sodium produced adequate anaesthesia and muscle relaxation to perform surgery. Haemorrhage from the operative site was less in urethrostomy group when compared to urethrotomy group. Act of micturition was painful in the initial post operative days in all the dogs. Scrota1 oedema and subcutaneous ecchymosis were not a common observation. The rectal temperature, pulse and respiratory values showed significant increase during initial post-operative days in all dogs. Significant variation was noticed among the control sub groups and gelatin, amnion and fibrin in both the groups. Urine analysis revealed non-significant variation in pH value and specific gravity in both the groups. Non-significant variation in blood urea nitrogen levels were observed among control ; gelatin, fibrin, and amnion treated animals of both groups. A significant increase in serum creatinine values were observed in all the dogs. Inorganic phosphorus values showed an initial raise. A sigruficant decrease was noticed in total protein values of control and treated groups, which was more in control and gelatin treated animals. Total erythrocyte values, packed cell volume and haemoglobin values exhibited sigmficant decrease upto 5th post-operative day and 3rd post-operative day in urethrotomy and urethrostomy groups respectively. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate showed hghly significant increase upto seventh post operative day in gelatin group only. Total leucocyte counts were elevated significantly upto 5th post operative day in urethrotomy group and upto 7th post-operative day In urethrostomy group. Positive contrast urethrography using 15% barium sulphate provided good visualisation ofY urethra. Early urethrograms of urethrotomy group showed no leakage at the operative site; whereas urethrostomy group showed potential leakage of contrast media into periurethral space. In the later stages, control and gelatin wrapped urethra showed mucosal irregularities and stricture formation. The fibrin and amnion wrapped animals showed patent urethral lumen in urethrotomy group. The control and gelatin treated animals of urethrostomy group showed fistulation and mucosal irregularities, while fibrin and gelatin treated animals showed widening of the urethral lumen at the operative site. Grossly, all the dogs showed swelling, congestion, and edema at the operative site in early post operative days. As time advanced, these changes were not seen. Thick to filamentous adhesions at the operated site with the surrounding tissues were seen in all the dogs. Microscopically all the sections showed inflammatory reaction in the early post-operative days. The inflammatory reaction was severe in control and gelatin wrapped animals compared to fibrin and amnion treated group animals. Urethrotomy group showed stenosis of urethral lumen whereas urethrostomy group showed widening of urethral lumen at operated site. EpitheliaLization was complete by 14 to 30 days in both the groups. Based on the above observations made it is concluded that urethrotomy incision covered with fibrin and amnion proved to be better compared to control and gelatin treated groups. Urethrostomy groups had post-operative complications like leakage, fistula formation, and mucosal abnormalities. However these complications can be lessened by use of fibrin and amnion as evidenced by the result of the present study.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    STUDIES ON INCIDENCE OF PARASITES OF QUAILS (Coturnix coturnix) AND PIGEONS (Columba livia} IN AND AROUND TIRUPATI. ANDHRA PRADESH
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY TIRUPATI - 517 502. (A.P.) INDIA, 1998-04) SRINIVASA RAO, R; HAFEEZ, Md(MAJOR); RAMAKRISHNA REDDY, P; VENKATESWARLU, U
    ABSTRACT: A study was undertaken to record the ecto and endo parasites of pigeons and quails in and around Tirupat~A. ndhra Pradesh. Out of the 162 pigeons examined. 60 were positive for ectoparasites with a percentage incidence of 34.03. Pigeons had lice. ticks and mites. Among lice the species recorded were CdurnMa cofumbae, M?mpon gahae, Menacanthus. sb9rnineus. Gonlbcotes gaiiin8e and tipewus capons. Lipewus capcxls was the least prevalent lice with an incidence of 3 per cent and the most prevalent was Colurnbkuh columbae with 56.6 per cent. The only tick species recorded was Argas pemiws with an incidence rate of 1.6 per cent. Two species of mites were observed viz., Ornithonyssus bursa (6.6%) and Megninia columbae (8.33%). Among the total number of pigeons examined. 61.41% 2 1.59 had one or the other infection. Helminths were present in 57 per cent and protozoa were present in 28 per cent of pigeons. The endoparastic fauna af pigeons recorded was composed of three cestode species, two nematode species and three species of protozoa. The cestodes noted were R. tetragons, R. echinobofhrida and R. Cesticillus. Nematodes observed were Ascandia gall; and Heterakis gallinarum. The protozoa recorded were Eimeria species. Haemoproreus columbae and Trichomonos gallinae. Over all percentage inctdence of ectoparasites on quails was 37.89 2 3.4 per cent. The incidence of ectoparasites in farm quails was far less (1 0.47 2 7.03) than that observed in migratory quails (37.14 2 3.66%). The only type of ectoparasite recorded was lice. The four species of lice recorded were Guntocotes gallinae. Goniodes d~sstmiIisG~ onmdes gigas and Menopc~gl allnae. Examination of both farm and migratory quails did not reveal any helm~nth parasites. But they were posltrve for the oocysts of Enneria and lsospora specles with the percentage ~ncidenceo f 47 and 42 respectivety. Two drugs. one pyrethrod. dettramethrin (Butox) and the other a neem based herbal compound (Nimbitor) were studied for ttmr efficacy against ectoparasites of pigeons. Butox in the concentrations of 0.1. 0.15 and 0.2 per cent produced maximum efficacy after 24, 12 and 6 hours repsectively. Nimbitor when used in 1, 1 .S and 2.0 percent concentration exhibited maximum response after 48, 24 and 12 hours respectively.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    ISOLATION AND CHARACTERISATION OF LACTOCOCCI AND SCREENING FOR BACTERIOCIN ACTIVITY
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY TIRUPATI - 517 502. (A.P.) INDIA, 1997) SUDHAMANI, M; SARMA, K.S(MAJOR); VENKATA REDDY, T; PADMANABHA REDDY, V
    ABSTRACT: Raw milk (40) and Dahi (10) samples were used to isolate lactococci. Two hundred isolates from raw milk and 50 isolates from dahi were obtained on M17 agar medium. Of these 167 and 46 isolates from raw milk and dahi rc!spectively proved to be streptococci. Subsequently, 65 and 6 isolates of lortococcc~l.a~c tis subsp. Lactis, 27 and 4 isolates of Lactococrus lactis subsp. rrenoris, and 4 and 4 isolates of Lactococc.us lactis subsp. lactis biovar diacet,vlactis were identified respectively from raw milk and dahi. The range of titrable acidity exhibited by the lactococcal isolates was 0.52% - 0.89% 1.a over 16 h. The range of milk curdling time was 5 - >12h. There was noticeable correlation between acid producing ability and milk curdling time of the lactococcal isolates. Eleven isolates of L. lactis subsp.lactis and 6 isolates of L. lactis subsp, cremoris exhibited antagonism against at least one of the 5 lactococcal indicator strains used. However, none of the lactococcal isolates inhibited any of the 3 pathogens of Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereu.s and Staphylococcus aureus. L. lactis subsp. lactis CI0 was most sensitive lactococcal indicator while Id. lactis subsp. lactis hiovar diacet.ylactis L)RC3 was the least sensitive.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    STUDIES ON THE QUALITY OF SUBCLINICAL MASTITIC MILK
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY TIRUPATI - 517 502. (A.P.) INDIA, 1993-09) SRINIVASA RAO, MADDULA; JAIRAM, B.T(MAJOR); SRINIVASA MOORMY, P; HAMZA, P.A; NARASAIAH NAIDU, K
    ABSTRACT: Teat w i s e screening of individual m i l k s a m p l e s f r o m 16 c o w s situated a t college dairy and 69 crossbred c o w s sltuated a t TTD farm w e r e done using CMT and SLST test. B a s e d upon gel f o r m a t i o n m i l k samples w e r e graded into negative, doubtful, 1+. 2+ and 3+. The proportion of ~verall'ne~ativt eea t s i n the population w e r e 57.8, 67.96% and doubt w e r e 9.58 and 8.53% as revealed by CMT 1 and SLST test respectively. Irrespective of the position of teats the frequency of negativee i n the population w e r e h i g h e s t , next i n the descending order w e r e I+, f and the least w e r e 2+ or 3+. Breed w i s e studies showed that jersey breed was highly resistant t o subclinical mastitis being maximum proportion of population showed negative followed by HF and miscellaneous breeds and the lowest were FB crosses of the college dairy farm. Somatic c e l l count between CMT and SLST t e s t in different grades of subclinical mastitis milk showed no difference concluding any one - t e s t was equally good. Highly significant differences were observed between grades in a l l the parameters namely SCC, SPC, chloride content and pH and a l l are showing ascending with increase in grade of milk. However COB t e s t showed no coagulation and RRT showed significant difference between the grades both in college as well as TTD farm. The milk samples graded 1+ and abwe exceeded the l i m i t s of quality in a l l the parameters requiring rejection of milk samples salvaging doubtful cases t o some extent. The parameter studies of t e a t w i s e samples showed no significant differences between the position of teats and breeds similar were the cases with age wise studies, lactation numbers, stage of lactation and farms indicating these factors were not influencing the parameters to a signi f ican t extent. There was no correlation between two parameters stuaied so f a r except i n two cases i n college dairy farm. Shelf l i f e studies of different grades of subclinical mastitis milk and control milk samples stored a t room temperature showed no significant variation i n the levels of acidity be tween a torage timing but significant dif f erences i n RRT between timings and tendency to coagulate on heating i n 9th hour storage onwards indicating the pattern of quality of milk stored a t room temperature. Refrigerated storage samples showed significant degradation of quality from 36 hour storage onwards. Mixed milk samples stored a t room temperature showed significant difference between different grades as well as between storage timing in the estimates of t i t r a t a b l e acidity and only between storage timings i n the estimates of RRT the pattern of variation revealed mixing of each grade of milk into normal milk decreased the tendency of acid production beyond 9th hour storage i n a l l proportions. Refrigerated storage of mixed milk samples showed the lowering acidity a t 72 hour of incubation to a level a t 12 hour storage w i t h decreasing RRT. A definite reduction of acidity was indicated as storage time advances 48 hour and above with s l i g h t decrease i n RRT due to possible proliferation of Psychrophilics and s i m u l - taneous reduction of acid producing mesophilics. . Shelf .life..of curd samples of d i f f e r e n t grades of subclinical mastitis milk and normal milk kept a t room temperature reveals s i g n i f i c a n t t o highly siqnificant differences i n the means of a c i d i t y between grades as well as between t i m e intervals. The finding that decrease i n a c i d i t y a t 12th hour indicated the upper l i m i t of shelf l i f e of curd at room temperature. Curd samples stored a t r e f r i g e r a t i o n temperature showed s i g n i f i c a n t &iff erence in a c i d i t y between grades and intervals and highly s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s in curd tension between grades only indicating the pattern of quality of milk curd was good upto 24 hour storage as long as the a c i d i t y was increasing phase irrespective of the grades. It would be concluded that the grades of subc l i n i c a l mastitis milk 1+ and above require t o t a l rb jsction on par with mastitis milk samples. Routine t e s t i n g of the t e a t with milk samples is necessary using e i t h e r CMT or SLST t e s t which ever i s available i n addition t o s t r i p cup t e s t t o eradicate the daily Samples showing 1+ and above grades of subclinical mastitis. Only 50-60% of population showing negative quarters i n the population showing negative could be milked safely and those doubtful cases salvaged i f necessary and others should be discarded outrightedly. Proper package practices should be restored for improving the udder health and the milk quality i n the present production systems for the supply of milk and i n the preparation of fermented milk and milk products. Further studies are necessary t o find out exact. bacteriological picture of different grades of milk t o come up with further conclusions.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    A STUDY ON THE SHELF-LIFE AND ACCEPTABILITY OF SEMI-DRY FERMENTED RABBIT HEAT SAUSAGES
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY TIRUPATI - 517 502. (A.P.) INDIA, 1989-12) SRIDHAR, DASARI; Ramakrishna, G(MAJOR); Sreenivasa Reddy, M; Prabhakar, K; Janakiram Sharma, B
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    STUDIES ON THE CRYOPRESERVATION AND FERTILITY OF BOVINE SEMEN WITH BlOCIPHOS PLUS DILUTOR
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY TIRUPATI - 517 502. (A.P.) INDIA, 1998-11) KARUNAKARA RAO, N; Seshagiri Rao, A(MAJOR); Subramanyam Naidu, K; Venkateswara Rao, N
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    STUDIES ON OESTROUS CYCLE IN CROSS-BRED PIGS (Large White Yorkshire x Indigenous)
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY TIRUPATI - 517 502. (A.P.) INDIA, 1997) VENKATA RAMANA, KUDIKILLA; SESHAGIRI RAO, A(MAJOR); VENUGOPAL NAIDU, K; VENKATESWARA RAO, N; KRISHNA REDDY, N
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    GENETIC ANALYSIS ON PRE WEANING TRAITS OF DESl PIGS AND THEIR CROSSES WITH LWY
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY TIRUPATI - 517 502. (A.P.) INDIA, 1997-10) VENKATA LAKSHMAIAH, P; VIROJI RAO, S.T(MAJOR); CHENDRA REDDY, V.R; KRISHNA REDDY, K