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Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University, Tirupati


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  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Treatment of Tibial Fractures in Bovines With Rush Pins
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY TIRUPATI - 517 502. (A.P.) INDIA, 1972-02) Venkateswara Rao, Koduru; Venkateswara Rao, S(MAJOR)
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Treatment of Tibial Fractures in Bovines With Rush Pins
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY TIRUPATI - 517 502. (A.P) INDIA, 1972-02) Venkateswara Rao, Koduru; Venkateswara Rao, S(Major)
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    (Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University, TIRUPATI – 517 502,A.P, 2012-10) REETU; SURESH KUMAR, R.V (Major); VEENA, P; SRILATHA, Ch
    ABSTRACT : The present study was carried out for the diagnosis of thoracic diseases specially related to respiratory system with the use of imaging techniques. Out of 597 dogs presented to the college clinics 223 (37.35 %) dogs were found with some thoracic affection among which 106 (17.76%) cases were found to have respiratory involvement. Incidence of respiratory affections were found highest in aged dogs 52 (49.1%) followed by adults 42 (39.6%) and young dogs 12 (11.3%). It was found that males were more affected compared to females. Incidence among breed showed a statistics of highest in Mongrel dogs 42 (39.6%) followed by Pomeranian 28 (26.4%), German shepherd 12 (11.3%), Labrador retriever 10 (9.4%), Boxer 5 (4.7%), Great dane 4 (3.77%), Dalmatian 3 (2.83%) and least in Pug i.e. 2(1.89%). Out of these 106 cases of respiratory ailments 31 (29.25%) dogs had pneumonia, 20 (18.87 %) animals were diagnosed with tracheobronchitis, 18 (16.98 %) had metastatic masses, 14 (13.21%) dogs diagnosed with pulmonary oedema, 9 (8.49%) had pleural effusion, 7 (6.6%) dogs diagnosed with pneumothorax, 5 (4.72 %) dogs had diaphragmatic hernia, and 2 (1.89 %) were diagnosed with tracheal narrowing. On the basis of clinical signs cases were subjected to further diagnosis for the study. Radiography was used as the first technique to screen out respiratory ailments from the cardiac affections. It was useful in diagnosis of pneumonia, metastatic lesion, diaphragmatic hernia and pleural effusion. Thoracic ultrasound was used further to confirm the radiological diagnosis and conditions like pneumonia, diaphragmatic hernia and pleural effusion etc. Tracheobronchoscopy was also used additionally for confirmatory diagnosis of diseases like tracheitis and bronchitis which were difficult to diagnose through radiograph or ultrasound procedures. Various blood parameters were evaluated; a marked neutrophilia, leukocytosis and lymphopenia were seen along with moderate monocytosis. There was no significant change observed in haemoglobin and total erythrocyte count but packed cell volumes were found elevated in diseased dogs. Total protein levels were also found significantly low in affected dogs and a mild hypoalbuminaemia were also seen. Bronchoalveolar lavage was also performed during tracheobronchoscopy and cytological interpretation was done for the fluid which showed increased number of neutrophils and degenaerated neutrophils in the samples. Antibiotic sensitivity test was also done with these samples and results were obtained against enrofloxacin with highest sensitivity followed by ciprofloxacin and least for cephalosporin. Diagnosed cases were effectively treated with a combination of antibiotics, antihistaminics, corticosteroids, antipyretics and supportive therapy. Surgery was performed some cases where required.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    (Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University, TIRUPATI – 517 502,A.P, 2012-10) SUMIRAN, N; VEENA, P (Major); SURESH KUMAR, R.V; SRILATHA, Ch
    ABSTRACT: Eighteen rabbits were divided into three groups of six each to study the efficacy of chitosan and chitosan-povidone iodine composite films on cutaneous wounds of 1x1 cm area. The wounds in all the groups were protected with external bandaging after thorough cleaning with normal saline to prevent infection. Chitosan films were applied in group II and chitosan – povidone iodine composite films in group III . The efficacy of these biocasings were studied based on gross, physiological, haematological, biochemical and histopathological changes at different periods of observations. Wounds were evaluated clinically by observing the appearance, extent of cicatrisation and percentage of wound contraction in all the groups of animals at different time intervals. Early wound healing was observed in group II (15.33±0.21 days) as compared to group I (18.5±0.22) and group III (16.5±0.22). None of the animals showed host rejection or local tissue reaction. Accumlation of wound fluid was more in group I as compared to other two groups. The biocasings were clearly adhered to the wound surface and prevented haemorrhage. Physiological parameters like temperature, respiration and pulse rates did not show any significant changes during the period of observations and were within the physiological range. Total erythrocyte count, total leucocyte count, haemoglobin, PCV, neutrophil count, and lymphocyte count showed significant differences. However monocyte count, eosinophil count and basophil count didnot show any significant changes. The wound healing was evaluated microscopically and by biochemical estimation of hydroxyproline , hexosamine and trace elements like zinc, iron, copper in biopsy specimens collected from wound at 7th, 14th day after treatment. The values of hydroxyproline and all the elements were lower in the initial stages of wound healing, whereas hexosamine values decreased with the progression of healing. None of the animals in all the groups showed CRP positive reaction. Histopathologically, early epithelialisation and marked fibrovascular proliferation were noticed in chitosan treated animals when compared to other groups. . However metaplastic changes and gaint cells were not noticed, suggesting safety of biocasings. Based on the above findings, it was concluded that use of chitosan film for cutaneous wound healing in rabbits was effective without any adverse effects.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    (Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University, TIRUPATI – 517 502,A.P, 2011) RAVI KUMAR, P; SURESH KUMAR, R.V (Major); DHANA LAKSHMI, N; SRILATHA, Ch
    ABSTRACT : The present study was conducted on eighteen rabbits divided into three groups of six animals comprising group-I with control group of animals, group-II with calcium-silver (35:55) nanocomposite films applied animals, group-III with calcium-silver (45:45) nanocomposite films applied animals. Cutaneous wounds were created at the loin region of all the animals and the wounds were left unsutured in control group, same size nanocomposite films were cut and applied in group-II and group-III animals. These were evaluated by clinical, physiological, gross, haematological, biochemical and histological studies. Group-III animals showed early healing compared to group-I and group-II. These nanocomposite films did not alter the physiological parameters. The total erythrocyte count values showed a significant decrease followed by significant increase in group-I, significant and nonsignificant increase throughout the period of observations was seen in group-II and group-III respectively. The changes were significant among the groups on day-0, day-1 and day-2. Haemoglobin values differed significantly throughout the observation intervals in group-I and group-II. Significant difference was observed among the groups on day-0, day-1 and day-2. PCV values showed significant changes between different observation intervals in group-I and group-II but the changes were nonsignificant in group-III. The values differed significantly among the groups on day-1 and day-7. The total leucocyte count values showed a significant increase followed by significant decrease reaching almost initial value by day 14. There was a significant difference between the groups and also among the groups. In differential leucocyte count, neutrophil count and lymphocyte count showed significant difference between the groups and also among the groups. The esinophil, monocyte and basophil counts in all the groups did not show any significant changes among the groups and so also between the groups. Hydroxyproline and all trace elements showed significant changes among the groups and also between the groups with lower value on day 7 and higher value on day 14. Hexosamine values showed significant changes between the groups and also among the groups but with higher value on day 7 which were decreased on day 14. None of the animals showed a positive reaction for C- reactive protein at different periods of observations in all the groups. Early fibroplasia, vascularization and epithelialisation were noticed in group III compared to other two groups. Based on the observations in the present study it was concluded that calcium-silver nanocomposite films could be used safely for cutaneous wound healing without any adverse effects.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    (Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University, TIRUPATI – 517 502,A.P, 2011-09) KOKILA, S; VEENA, P (Major); SURESH KUMAR, R.V; SRILATHA, Ch
    ABSTRACT : The present clinical study was conducted to study incidence, clinical symptoms on anal and perineal tumors in dogs. Among total of 221 dogs presented with tumors 30 dogs were anal and perineal tumors. Thirty dogs were divided into two groups of 15 animals each which were again divided into two subgroups according to type of tumors and treatment adopted as Group I (a), Group I (b), Group II (a) and Group II (b). Anal tumors were found to be most common in males where as perineal tumors were most common in females. Among anal tumors, anal sac adenocarcinoma was the most common tumor affecting the female dogs. TVT was the most prevalent among urogenital perineal tumors. Highest incidence of anal or perineal tumors was seen in age group of 10-12 years. German Shepherd was the most commonly affected dog breed followed by Mongrel. The dogs suffering from anal or perineal tumors exhibited variety of symptoms like swelling in anal or perineal area, anorexia, bloody discharge, biting anal and the perineal area, discomfort, weight loss, ulceration, tail lifting, lethargy, dysuria, constipation, necrosis, pain while defaecation (dyschezia), passing ribbon like stools. Haematological parameters like Hemoglobin, PCV and TLC values were higher in animals with anal and perineal tumors subjected to surgical excision compared to chemotherapy. Neutropenia, lymphocytosis, monocytosis were noticed in the animals subjected to chemotherapy. Biochemical parameters like Calcium, Phosphorus, Blood urea nitrogen and Creatinine were estimated in all the animals. Hypercalcemia and hypophosphotemia were evident in dogs with anal tumor at the time of presentation which gradually turned to normal level after treatment. No distant metastasis to lung, liver, kidney or regional lymph node could be seen in the present study. Diagnostic cytology techniques like fine needle aspiration biopsy established the malignancy in tumors. AgNOR counts helped to know the rate of proliferation among malignant tumors. The mean AgNOR count in anal and perineal tumor ranged from 2.86 to 7.21 and 3.20 to 5.3 respectively. Histologically, anal sac adenocarcinoma (40.0%) was found to be the most common anal tumor encountered followed by myxofibrosarcoma and hepatoid adenocarcinoma (20.0%), basal cell carcinoma (13.34%). Incidence of cystic papillary adenocarcinoma was less (6.66%). TVT was found to be the most commonly occurring (33.34%) perineal tumor in dogs, followed by mixed tumor (26.66%), SQCC (20.0%), myxosarcoma (13.3%). Fibrohemangiosarcoma was comparatively a less frequently occurring tumor (6.66%). However, when anal tumors and perineal tumors were considered to occur in the whole perineal area of dog, anal sac adenocarcinoma was found to be the most frequently encountered type of tumor followed by TVT and mixed tumors. Proliferative markers like P53 and AgNOR staining and counting was studied to know the rate of proliferation. P53 positivity was expressed in 2 dogs with anal sac adenocarcinoma. Treatment modalities like surgical excision and chemotherapy were adopted. In chemotherapy, neutropenia was observed. Lethargy, vomition and anorexia were the side effects of chemotherapy observed which subsided by administration of supportive therapy. Vincristine sulphate was the anti cancerous drug used in the chemotherapy. Anal fistulation, faecal incontinence were the most common complications of surgical excision. Dogs with anal sac adenocarcinoma which had highest AgNOR count showed recurrence following surgery and chemotherapy. In perineal tumors no recurrence was seen in animals of both the groups. The benefits of chemotherapy and surgical excision depended on nature, type and location of tumor.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    (Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University, TIRUPATI – 517 502,A.P, 2011-07) SANKAR, P; SURESH KUMAR, R.V (Major); DHANA LAKSHMI, N; CHANDRASEKHARA RAO, T.S; SRILATHA, Ch
    ABSTRACT : The present investigation was conducted on 96 (13.67%) dogs with lower gastrointestinal tract affections among the total of 702 dogs presented over a period of 2 years. Highest incidence of lower gastrointestinal tract affections was observed in age group of 1-3 years followed by 4-6 years, 7-9 years, 10-12 years and 13-15 years. German Shepherd followed by Mongrel, Spitz, Labrador Retriever, Doberman Pinscher, Lhasa Apso and Rottweiler were the most commonly affected breeds. The incidence was more in males compared to females. The animals under the study were categorised into three groups i.e. group I (40) constituted animals with lower gastrointestinal tract affections with inflammatory/infectious origin. Animals with non inflammatory etiology were categorised under group II (32) where as group III (24) animals had neoplasia as etiological factor. Clinically group I animals showed diarrhoea, constipation, vomition, dehydration, dry or pale mucous membrane, haematochezia, anaemia and constipation whereas straining, scooting, dehydration, vomiting attempts, restlessness, colic symptoms, abdominal distension, intussusceptions and foreign bodies were the features in group II animals. Group III animals had fistulation, straining, constipation, visible growth at perianal region and palpable lesion by rectal examination. Presence of Ancylostoma caninum infestation responsible for colitis was diagnosed by faecal examination. Presence of occult blood was noticed in group I with haemorrhages, ulceration and parasitic colitis. It was also observed in group III with neoplasm and extensive growths. Haematological observations showed significant increase in total erythrocyte count, haemoglobin, packed cell volume and neutrophil whereas total leukocyte count and lymphocyte levels showed a significant decrease at different periods of observation. Serum sodium, potassium and chloride values showed significant raise throughout the period of observations. Total protein values though fluctuated those were within the normal range only. Animals with neoplastic and, samples with severe inflammatory diseases showed highest values of C- reactive protein suggestive of malignancy. Plain and contrast radiographic studies revealed details like ascending, transverse, descending colon and rectum. Radiographs in group I revealed comma shaped colon, tubular rectum and were ulcerated and well differentiated by barium contrast radiographic studies. Radiolucent lumen and radiopaque walls were noticed. Increasing size of intestinal lumen and mucosal irregularities were noticed in different types of colitis. Ulceration with mucosal damage were features in group I. Foreign bodies and fecoliths were observed as radiopaque masses in plain radiography. Intestinal obstruction featured as gas filled intestines and megacolon appeared as distended colon with accumulation of radiopaque materials. Intussusception appeared as coiled intestinal loops with radiopaque masses. Fractures of vertebral column and multiple fracture of pelvic bone resulted in faecal retention. Group III animals showed presence of intra and extra luminal masses and metastatic lesions in lungs and ribs in certain type of malignant tumours. Radiopaque areas inside rectum and colon were noticed. Real time B mode ultrasonographic examination of lower gastrointestinal tract was carried out in all the animals. Group I animals showed hyperechoic intestinal wall with anechoic or hyperechoic areas suggesting fluid/gas accumulation in different quantities in colitis cases. Animals with ulcerative colitis showed irregular thickened hyperechoic intestinal wall with hypoechoic lumen. Dogs with irritable bowel syndrome did not show any significant findings. Group II animals with intussusceptions had a bull’s eye appearance with admixture of hypo and hyperechoic areas, faecal retention and fecoliths appeared as hyperechoic areas intra luminally. Foreign bodies appeared as hyperechoic masses with acoustic shadowing. Megacolon showed hyperehoic dilated intestines with presence of mixed echogenic air as well as faecal contents adjacent to the bladder. Group III animals with intra or extra luminal masses appeared as hyperechoic areas. Intra abdominal masses showed mixed echogenic pattern during ultrasonography. Endoscopic examination of rectum and colon revealed inflammatory changes, submucosal haemorrhages, presence of blood, blood clots, thickened and ulcerated mucous membrane in group I. Group II animals showed congested mucosa, presence of faecal materials and in few cases stricture and obliteration of intestinal lumen. Group III animal showed extensive ulceration, bleeding and multiple nodular growths throughout the intestinal tract. Cytological examination of the samples showed presence of inflammatory cells, neutrophils, denuded epithelium and presence of erythrocytes, traces of faecal materials in group I whereas few cellular details were observed in group II. Impression smears and cytological samples revealed different types of cells corresponding to the tumourous growths in group III. The faecal samples collected for sensitive test showed that enrofloxacin was more effective followed by metronidazole, gentamicin, amoxicillin and cloxacillin and streptomycin. Histological sections revealed colitis, eosinophilic colitis, haemorrhagic colitis, lymphocytic colitis, diphtheritic colitis and catarrhal enteritis in group I and in group III animal revealed adenocarcinoma (colon, rectum and anal gland), fibromyxosarcoma, myxosarcoma, basal cell carcinoma, hepatoid tumour, hepatoid carcinoma and perianal gland tumour. AgNoR staining revealed proliferated cells with mitotic bodies in case of anal gland tumour and colonic neoplasia in group III animals. Animals in group I were treated with combination therapy of mesalazine @10 mg/kg body weight thrice daily and enrofloxacin @ 5 mg/kg body weight twice daily along with metronidazole @ 10 mg/kg body weight orally. Loperamide @ 0.08 mg/kg body weight were also used for 14 days. Styptics were also administered to control bleeding. In Ancylostomum caninum positive cases pyrental pamoate @ 5.0 mg/kg body weight and fenbendazole @ 50 mg/kg body weight were administered. Cyclosporine @ 7.5 mg/kg body weight along with ketaconazole @ 10 mg/kg body weight once daily for 16 weeks in anal furunculosis cases. Group II animals were treated surgically for obstruction and intussusceptions. Enterotomy and enteroanastomosis was performed following standard surgical techniques. Surgical excision was followed wherever it was possible for surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy was administered in animals with adenocarcinoma and cystic adenocarcinoma of the rectum. Post operatively the cases were followed for a period of six months. Complications like continuous diarrhoea and straining was noticed in group I animals. Faecal incontinence, stricture, diarrhoea, constipation, leakage from anastomotic site and tenesmus were noticed in group II animals. Wound dehiscence, fistulous formation, infection, hair loss and recurrence were noticed in group III animals.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    (Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University, TIRUPATI – 517 502,A.P, 2010-07) KOTESWARA RAO, TANNERU; DHANA LAKSHMI, N (Major); SURESH KUMAR, R.V; SRILATHA, Ch
    ABSTRACT : Twelve dogs presented to the College Hospital with unstable diaphyseal tibial fractures which were diagnosed by clinical signs, orthopedic examination and survey radiography were taken as clinical material for the study. The breed, age, sex wise incidence, cause and type of fracture were studied. The dogs were equally divided into group I and II of six animals each. The fractures were stabilized with modified frame constructions of type II external skeletal fixators of positive profile end threaded half pins and smooth full pins of minimal type (group I) and modified frame constructions of type II external skeletal fixators of positive profile centrally threaded full pins of maximal type (group II) following standard procedures. Selection of appropriate size of pins, connecting rods and clamps according to age, body weight and type of fracture provided good fracture stability. In both the groups, modified AO mini clamps, Beta clamps with knurl rods and low cost acrylic and local epoxy putty modified connecting frames were used in small dogs. No technical difficulties were observed while application of these modified construction frames of type II external skeletal fixators in these animals. The outcome of fracture stabilization and healing was evaluated with postoperative lameness grading, pain score, radiography and biochemical analysis. In both the groups, stabilization showed good clinical outcome with complete normal limb usage within seven weeks except in one case of group I where fixation failure with smooth pin migration and destabilization of fixator and fragments separation was recorded by second week. In this case, the fracture was again stabilized by passing pins and tightening with clamps which was healed later. In group II, no migration and pin loosening of centrally threaded pins was observed except pin tract infection with pin bone interface wound formation. These complications not showed any disturbance on clinical weight bearing and healing of fracture. The overall average healing time in both the groups was 4 -12 weeks. The fractures showed radio graphically excellent postoperative healing of cortical union, absence of fracture lines with endosteal bridging callus. Statistical analysis revealed a highly significant difference (P < 0.01) in increase of serum alkaline phosphatase, phosphorus and C-reactive protein in group II compared to group I whereas non significant change was observed in calcium levels. Based on present study, it was concluded that both minimal and maximal modified type II external skeletal fixators with standard and low cost connecting frames according to fracture patient assessment were good for stabilization of unstable tibial fractures for early limb ambulance and excellent healing. However the application of positive profile centrally threaded pins with predrilling of pilot hole was found easier than end threaded half pins with advantages like good stability, less pain and more pin and cortical intact of bone.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    (Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University, TIRUPATI – 517 502,A.P, 2010-07) VENKATESWARLU NAIK, B; SURESH KUMAR, R.V (Major); DHANALAKSHMI, N; SRILATHA, Ch
    ABSTRACT : The present research work dealt with „Clinical studies on bovine tumours‟ with special reference to their incidence, diagnosis and treatment. This study included both white and black cattle of different ages. A proforma was developed to arrive at the information and to carryout the research. Clinical cases presented to college hospital and hospitals in Chittoor and Guntur District formed the material for the present study. Out of the 1649 bovine cases studied, 541 were found to have space occupying lesions like abscess, cyst, haematoma, hernia etc. Among these 59 cases were diagnosed as tumours / neoplasms. In that, 46 were white cattle and 13 were buffaloes. Highest incidence of tumours were noticed in females (61%) compared with males (38.98%). Animals in the range of 6-9 years age showed highest incidence (i.e., 44.06%), and lowest incidence at 12 – 15 years of age (6.77%). HF cross bred animals had highest incidence of tumours i.e., 27.11%, followed by buffaloes (23.72%), Jersey (16.94%), non descript (15.25%), Ongole (13.55%) and lowest was in Hallikar breed (3.38 %). Histologically 13 different types of tumours were diagnosed. Papillomas were predominant in the present study followed by squamous cell carcinoma of eye and horn. Physiological parameters like temperature, respiration and pulse did not show much significant difference before and after surgery. Wide varities of tumours with different size, shape, location with symptoms like ulceration, bleeding, pedunculation, different degrees of tissue involvement were recorded. Fine needle aspiration biopsy, impression smear examination before the surgical procedure was found to be beneficial in diagnosing the tumorous condition. Though haematalogical and biochemical parameters showed a significant rise or a fall, the fluctuations were within the normal physiological limits. Surgical excision along with cryotherapy were found to be very effective in treating cases of tumours. Early diagnosis of tumorous conditions was made possible by their clinical presentation, fine needle aspiration biopsy, impression smears examination so that progress of growths could be avoided. Cytological, haematological, biochemical and histological examinations has proved to have prognostic value by which economic lossess to the farmers can be avoided.