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Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University, Tirupati

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  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    RADIOLOGICAL AND ULTRASONOGRAPHIC EVALUATION OF LIVER AND SPLEEN IN GERIATRIC DOGS
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY, TIRUPATI - 517 502. (A.P.) INDIA, 2023-11) AJAY KUMAR .V.V; HARI KRISHNA .N.V.V (MAJOR); SREENU MAKKENA; MUTHA RAO .M
    The present study entitled “Radiological and ultrasonographic evaluation of liver and spleen in geriatric dogs” was conducted on dogs aged 7 years and above presented to Department of Veterinary Surgery and Radiology, NTR College of Veterinary Science, Gannavaram. 1246 geriatric dogs were presented and 512 cases (41.0 %) had symptoms suggestive of gastrointestinal, hepatic and splenic disorders. and 41 cases (8.0 %) (3.2 % of total cases) had liver and spleen involvement. Spitz was the most affected breed. Dogs aged between 7 to 10 years had higher incidence (78.1 %). Male dogs (51.2 %) showed slightly more incidence. Geriatric dogs having liver affections showed clinical signs such as lethargy, anorexia, dyspepsia, icterus, dysuria, polydipsia, polyurea and haematemesis and dogs with splenic affections showed anorexia, emaciation, anaemia and slight abdominal distension. Radiographic signs observed in the present study includes hepatomegaly, rounding of liver lobes, hepatomegaly displacing the stomach and intestines dorsally and caudally, irregular margins, shrunken liver (cirrhosis), dorsal displacement of liver, hepatic tumour displacing the abdominal contents dorsally and caudally. Ultrasonographic lesions observed in liver were rounding of liver lobe with diffuse hyperechoic hepatic parenchyma, altered echotexture, mixed echogenicity, rounding of liver lobes with free fluid in abdomen, focal hyperechoic lesion, solitary or multiple hepatic abscess with irregular margin and hypoechoic centre, increased diffuse echogenicity with enlarged portal veins suggestive of cirrhosis, solitary or multiple hyperplastic nodules suggestive of hepatic tumour. Hyperechoic biliary sludge with thickened gall bladder wall was seen in few cases. Dogs with splenic affections showed splenomegaly and loss of serosal details in radiography and sonography showed splenic mass with irregular margin and hyperechoic centre, hyperechoic splenic parenchyma in splenomegaly and multiple masses with altered echotexture in splenic tumour. Mean values of Hb, PCV, TEC, in the liver and spleen affected dogs was lower normal range. TLC was higher in liver affected and liver and spleen affected dogs. In all the dogs mean values of AST and ALP were elevated whereas ALT in liver affected and spleen affected dogs was elevated. Increased levels of creatinine were observed in liver and spleen affected dogs. Total protein and albumin were within normal range whereas mean values of serum globulin in liver and spleen affected dogs were higher. To conclude, radiography and ultrasonography were useful in identifying liver and splenic disorders, even before the onset of clinical signs, and helps in correct diagnosis and to predict prognosis.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    CLINICAL STUDIES ON ANGULAR LIMB DEFORMITIES OF ANTEBRACHIAM IN DOGS
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY, TIRUPATI - 517 502. (A.P.) INDIA, 2023-07) CHINA MUNIYYA NUTAKKI; PRAKASH KUMAR .B (MAJOR); SREENU MAKKENA; SUNNY PRAVEEN .K
    Thirty dogs of different age groups (2-6 months, 7-12 months and above 1 year) with angular deformities of ante brachium were selected to study incidence, to assess angular limb deformities with Center of Rotation of Angulation (CORA) method radiographically and to classify the angular limb deformities based on radiographic findings. Further these dogs were divided into two groups of 15 each to study the effect of nutraceuticals for the management of angular limb deformities in dogs. Cases with clinical signs suggestive of antebrachial angular limb deformities were considered for the study. The incidence of antebrachial angular limb deformities was recorded as 3.04 % over a period for 1 year. The most represented dogs were German Shepherd (8, 26.66 %) followed by Mongrel (7, 23.33 %). The highest incidence of antebrachial angular limb deformity in dogs was recorded in the age group of 2-6 months (13, 43.33 %). Male dogs (18, 60 %) showed higher incidence of antebrachial angular limb deformities than female (12, 40 %). The highest incidence of these deformities was due to premature closure of distal physis of radius and ulna. The affected antebrachium was subjected to lateral and craniocaudal views to evaluate the etiology and to facilitate CORA planning. CORA planning was performed by using orthogonal radiographs to determine the joint orientation angles, plane, type of deformity and number of deformities in both frontal and sagittal plane. Out of 32 affected limbs of 30 dogs presented were categorized of having 25 uniapical deformities and 7 biapical deformities. Further among biapical deformities, all were of having partially compensated brachial deformities. Overall, irrespective of age group uniapical deformities has higher incidence followed by biapical deformities. Further among biapical deformities, more of partially compensated brachial deformities were recorded. The plane of deformity in group I dogs was frontal in eight and sagittal in four limbs and biplanar in three limbs out of 15 limbs in 13 dogs. The plane of deformity in group II dogs was frontal in two, sagittal in two and biplanar in six dogs. The plane of deformity in group III dogs was frontal in two, sagittal in two and biplanar in three dogs. The total dogs (n=30) with angular limb deformities of random age were divided into 2 groups of 15 each to study the effect of nutraceuticals for the management of angular limb deformities in dogs. Group I dogs were given oral calcium @ 25 mg/kg, twice a day for 2 months and group II was treated with oral calcium @ 25 mg/kg, twice a day for 2 months and oral vitamin D3 @ 4000 IU/kg weekly for 6 weeks. In both the groups, there was substantial reduction in severity of clinical signs related to pain and lameness although the bowing of limbs could show only mild improvement. When compared to group I, group II dogs showed satisfactory to good clinical response in terms of improvement in weight bearing, reduction in lameness and pain, and decrease in the enlargement of metaphyses and straightening of forelimbs in affected dogs. However, these improvements were observed mostly in the dogs below 8 months age and there was no significant improvement in dogs above 8 months age group in both the groups. The serum calcium level significantly increased on day 45 in group I dogs whereas in group II the serum calcium levels increased significantly on day 30. The phosphorus levels in both the groups showed increase in values with no significant difference. In group I and II dogs the ALP values started declining from day 15, but significant decrease is noted on day 60 in group I and day 45 in group II. It is concluded that Center of Rotation of Angulation (CORA) method is ideal to determine plane, type and magnitude of deformity for accurate and precise correction of antebrachial angular limb deformities. Reference ranges for normal frontal and sagittal plane alignment should be used for correctional techniques in animals that do not have a normal contralateral antebrachium. Biapical and multiapical radial deformities represent unique challenges for postoperative correction. In the present study, irrespective of age group uniapical deformities has higher incidence followed by biapical deformities. Further among biapical deformities, more of partially compensated brachial deformities were recorded. Many animals with mild growth deformities can be managed non-surgically. In general, the smaller and more sedentary a dog, the greater the chance for non-surgical management especially in immature dogs. Further, our study shows that treatment of dogs having ante brachial limb deformities with vitamin D3 and Ca for 60 days could result into correction of clinical signs, levels of serum biochemical parameters and angular limb deformities when compared to Ca supplementation alone. However, in adult dogs, corrective surgery is elective and thus can be considered at any time if the response to conservative management is unsatisfactory.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    CLINICAL STUDIES ON URINARY SYSTEM AFFECTIONS IN CATS
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY, TIRUPATI - 517 502. (A.P.) INDIA, 2023-06) SARANYA PAIDI; KAMALAKAR .G (MAJOR); HARI KRISHNA .N.V.V; CHANDRA PRASAD .B
    A comprehensive study was undertaken to evaluate various urinary system affections in cats presented to the Dept. of Veterinary Surgery and Radiology, NTRCVSC, Gannavaram both retrospectively and prospectively. 118 cats were presented among which, urinary system affections were next to fracture cases. In both studies Persian breed tom cats aged below four years were predominantly affected. Prospectively, 21 out of 91 registered cats had urinary system problems. Clinical signs like dehydration, anuria, constipation, haematuria, stranguria, oliguria, vomition, dribbling of urine, anorexia and abdominal distension were recorded. Physiological parameters were unaltered and within normal range. Mild anaemia, mild neutrophilia, high creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and alanine aminotransferase values and hypoproteinemia were observed. Urine was red to yellow coloured, turbid, had neutral pH and increased specific gravity. The sediment revealed presence of epithelial cells, red blood cells, white blood cells and crystals of struvite and calcium oxalate dihydrate. Abdominal sonography recorded hydronephrosis, renal cyst, pyelonephritis, renal capsular edema, thickened capsule, indistinct cortico-medullary junction, calculi, distended bladder, cystitis, sludge in bladder, blood clots, thickened bladder wall, blood clots and edema of bladder wall. Radiography (lateral and ventro-dorsal views) could diagnose nephromegaly, distended urinary bladder, calculi in bladder or tip of urethra. Pole to pole kidney length and width at renal pelvis of kidney were measured sonographically and radiographically. Pneumocystography was performed to diagnose a blood clot embedding two small calculi in it. Urethral plugs were retrieved in five cases composed of struvite and calcium oxalate dihydrate crystals. Urethral catheterization carried out to relieve blocked urethra. In cats that could not be made urethra patent, cystocentesis was performed to relieve the condition temporarily. Medical treatment with amoxicillin plus sulbactum, amitriptyline, urotone, cystone treated the condition. Caudal mid ventral laparo-cystotomy was performed in two cats and retrieved solitary calculus in one cat and two small calculi in another case.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT ANAESTHETIC PROTOCOLS FOR STANDING SEDATION IN BUFFALOES
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY TIRUPATI - 517 502. (A.P.) INDIA, 2023-04) HYMAVATHI CHANDAKA; MALLIKARJUNA RAO .CH (MAJOR); Devi Prasad .V; SUNNY PRAVEEN .K
    The present study “comparative evaluation of different anaesthetic protocols for standing sedation in buffaloes” was undertaken to standardize the anaesthetic doses and combinations and to evaluate the efficacy of Butorphanol + Xylazine + Ketamine vs Butorphanol+ Dexmedetomidine + Ketamine with reference to clinical, physiological, biochemical and haematological parameters. The group I (6) animals were sedated with butorphanol @ 0.01 mg/kg B. wt, xylazine @ 0.02 mg/kg B. wt and ketamine @ 0.04 mg/kg B. wt I/V whereas in group II (6), animals were sedated with butorphanol @ 0.01 mg/kg B. wt, dexmedetomidine @ 1 µg/kg B. wt and ketamine @ 0.04 mg/kg B. wt I/V. Horn amputation was performed under sedation followed by cornual nerve block and ring block. In group I, 66.67% of animals had shown mild salivation and 33.33% of animals showed very mild salivation. In group II, 66.67% of animals had shown moderate salivation and 33.33% of animals showed mild salivation. In group I, 83.33% of the animals showed lowering of the head whereas, all animals in group II showed lowering of the head. All the animals in both the groups had shown drooping of their upper eyelids and were aware of their surroundings. 50% of the animals in both groups had shown snoring. In group I, 83.33% of the animals had shown a good degree of sedation followed by 16.67% of animals with a mild degree of sedation; whereas in group II, 66.67% of the animals had shown a profound degree of sedation followed by 33.33% of animals with a good degree of sedation. Group I had shown a highly significant increase (P<0.01) in the meantime of onset of sedation compared to that of group II, whereas group II had shown a highly significant increase (P<0.01) in the duration of sedation compared to that of group I. Group II had shown a better analgesic effect compared to that of group I. Physiological parameters like rectal temperature, respiratory and pulse rates fluctuated within the normal physiological range in both the groups. The haemoglobin, TEC, TLC, glucose, creatinine, ALT, AST and cortisol values fluctuated within the normal physiological range in both the groups. Out of six animals in group I, 83.33 % (5) of animals had shown good recovery followed by 16.67 % (1) of animals with excellent quality of recovery; whereas in group II, all the animals had shown an excellent quality of recovery i.e., group II was superior to group I. Butorphanol-Dexmedetomidine-Ketamine protocol showed quick onset, profound degree of sedation, better analgesia and excellent quality of recovery with longer duration of action than Butorphanol-Xylazine-Ketamine. It can be concluded that both protocols employed in the present study were safe and effective for standing sedation in buffaloes.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF STAINLESS STEEL AND TITANIUM DYNAMIC COMPRESSION PLATES FOR MANAGEMENT OF LONG BONE FRACTURES IN DOGS
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY TIRUPATI - 517 502. (A.P.) INDIA, 2023-04) AMAL .K. A; Ravi Kumar .P (MAJOR); Devi Prasad .V; Srinivas Manda
    The present study was conducted on long bone fractures in dogs presented to the Department of Veterinary Surgery and Radiology, NTR College of Veterinary Science, Gannavaram and SVVU Super Speciality Veterinary Hospital, Visakhapatnam. The highest incidence of long bone fractures was observed in mongrel, juvenile, male dogs with femur bone with the highest frequency. Automobile accidents were the common etiological factors. Twelve selected cases of diaphyseal fractures of the radius and ulna were equally divided into two groups, and the fractures were stabilized with indigenously made stainless steel alloy (group-I) and titanium alloy dynamic compression plates (group-II) following standard AO/ASIF procedures. The medial approach was used to expose the fracture fragments of the radius and ulna for fracture reduction and for rigid stabilization with the cranial application of DCP. Selection of the appropriate size of plate and screws according to body weight and type of fracture (3.5 mm plate for dogs above 11 kg body weight) provided good stability. Haematological parameters were found within the normal range before and after surgery probably due to supportive therapy and the absence of post-operative infection. Serum alkaline phosphatase and phosphorus were found highest on the 7th postoperative day that gradually decreased up to 90th post-operative day. Serum calcium levels were found to decreased up to 7th postoperative day followed by an increase with highest value reached on 90th postoperative day. However, all values were within and near to the normal physiological limits in both groups of dogs. Clinical and radiographic evaluation was carried out on the 7th, 15th, 30th, 60th and 90th postoperative days and the findings were compared between both groups. All the animals regained normal weight bearing early by the 30th postoperative day with excellent to good limb usage at the end of the study. The amount of callus formed during the process of fracture healing was felt comparatively less in group-II than that in group-I. There was no significant difference in the values of fracture healing scores among different groups during various periodic intervals except on 60th postoperative day, where the scores of group-II were significantly less than those of group-I. The fractures showed radiographically excellent postoperative healing by exhibiting the cortical union and absence of fracture lines. In conclusion, both stainless steel and titanium DCP are good for the stabilization of long bone fractures in dogs. However, early limb ambulance and excellent clinical outcome without postoperative complications were observed with titanium DCP due to its biocompatibility, high corrosive resistance and lower modulus than with stainless steel DCP. Due to these advantageous properties, titanium DCP is preferred for the repair of long bone diaphyseal fractures in dogs, even though they are slightly more expensive than stainless steel DCP.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF BARIUM SULPHATE VS IOHEXOL AND CARBOXY METHYL CELLULOSE CONTRAST MEDIA FOR IMAGING DISORDERS OF DIGESTIVE SYSTEM IN DOGS
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY TIRUPATI - 517 502. (A.P.) INDIA, 2023-04) BHAGYA SRI KONDETI; Devi Prasad .V (MAJOR); Sreenu Makkena; Chandra Prasad .B
    The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of various diagnostic modalities in detecting the disorders of digestive system in vomiting dogs. Among 52 dogs with clinical signs of obstruction, 47 (90.38%) were diagnosed with a specific disorder. In the present study, mongrel (n=11; 23.4%) and mixed breed dogs (n=10; 21.3%), male dogs and young animals were found to have affected to the highest extent. Anorexia, loss of body weight and projectile vomiting were the chief clinical signs The haematological findings in specific cases included anemia and neutrophilic leucocytosis. In chronic cases, the serum biochemical alterations included elevated levels of serum cortisol, CRP, glucose and cholesterol and decreased levels of total proteins and serum electrolytes. Assessment of SI max/L5 yielded correct results in 68.75% and false negative results in 31.25% cases. Contrast radiography was useful either in confirming or supporting the diagnosis and in no case, it remained inconclusive. Out of 32, 26 were confirmed (81.25%) and six (18.75%) were supported by the contrast radiography. The images obtained with barium sulphate and MCM were of adequate diagnostic quality. But between them, barium sulphate can be adjudged superior to MCM. Adverse reactions were not recorded in any of the animals under study. In the present study, ultrasonography was performed in 17 dogs out of which it confirmed the diagnosis in 9 (52.9%), supported the diagnosis in 5 (29.4%) and remained in conclusive in 3 (17.7%) animals. Thus, from the above results in can be concluded that, ultrasonography can be a good diagnostic modality in detecting the foreign bodies of GIT by acoustic shadowing, intussusception by target sign, pyloric stenosis, splenic tumours. The use of ultrasonography in detecting hypomotility of stomach is variable. It is difficult to assess the ulceration of the GIT. Endoscopy was useful in visualizing the foreign bodies, assessing the oesophageal and gastric mucous membranes and confirming the ulceration. The conclusion from this study include: 1. Radiography is the simple and basic tool in assessing the digestive system in vomiting dogs with equivocal clinical signs. 2. Contrast radiography is superior to ultrasonography in establishing an objectively verifiable conclusions in cases like megaoesophagus and delayed gastric emptying, 3. The image quality of bariums sulphate and iohexol + CMC is adequate although, when compared, barium sulphate contrast radiography remains superior. 4. Results of ultrasonography can be equipment dependent and must be carried out by spending enough time 5. For diagnosing mucosal disorders of oesophagus and stomach, endoscopy can be considered best.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    STUDIES ON OCULOMETRY WITH REFERENCE TO SKULL CONFORMATION AND AGE IN DOGS
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY, TIRUPATI - 517 502. (A.P.) INDIA, 2023-03) CHATTALA, NAGA TRILOCHANA; MAKKENA, SREENU; N V V, HARI KRISHNA
    The present work “Studies on oculometry with reference to skull conformation and age in dogs” was carried by selecting the normal eyes after assessing the eyes with general and clinical ophthalmological examination. Transcorneal direct contact for A scan and immersion method for B scan was carried under topical anesthesia in 54 dogs and yielded in good data for oculometry. Based on skull conformation (Dolichocephalic, Mesaticephalic and Brachycephalic Breeds) and age (Young (0-9 months); Middle age (1-6 years) and Old: above 7 years) dogs were divided for analysis following oculometry. On A scan, anterior chamber depth, lens thickness, vitreous chamber depth and globe axial length of right and left eyes were 3.03 ±0.10 and 3.10±0.14 ; 2.62±0.21 and 2.32±0.22 ; 14.83±0.33 and 14.96±0.31 and 20.48±0.22 and 20.49±0.22 , respectively while the measurements on B scan were 2.92±0.08 and 2.84±0.09 6.87±0.08 and 6.84±0.09 ; 8.84±0.09 and 8.86±0.08 and 19.60±0.25 and 19.52±0.26 respectively. A and B-mode ultrasonography were easy, practical, safe and useful techniques for ocular biometry in dogs. There was a phase of growth of the ocular components in the age group of 0-9 months in all the breeds with different skull conformation. Skull size do not interfere with ocular biometry measurements in above one year aged dogs. There was no significant difference between the ocular biometric measurements of left and right eyes, at different age. Anterior chamber length and lens thickness increased as age advances with B scan however both the values are different in A and B mode scanning procedure. A scan reveals clear axial globe length and B scan measured lens thickness, vitreous chamber depth and globe axial length with more reliability. To conclude that the B scan procedure showed to be better as it recorded all the ocular components accurately with clear image. The A scan procedure was simple to perform and recorded globe axial length accurately and unable to record the values of lens thickness and vitreous chamber depth precisely. B scan can be a useful tool for ocular biometry due to its accuracy and the reliability with an advantage of effective role in recording the ocular components architecture for diagnosis.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    PLATE-ROD TECHNIQUE FOR REPAIR OF DIAPHYSEAL FEMORAL FRACTURES IN DOGS
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY TIRUPATI - 517 502. (A.P.) INDIA, 2022-08) PRATHYUSHA, B; HARI KRISHNA, N.V.V(MAJOR); DEVI PRASAD, V; SRINIVAS, MANDA
    The present study entitled “Plate-rod technique for repair of diaphyseal femoral fractures in dogs” was carried out on 12 clinical cases with femur diaphyseal fractures presented to Department of Veterinary Surgery and Radiology, NTR College of Veterinary Science, Gannavaram and divided into two groups of 6 each. Total number of fracture cases recorded in dogs were 197 of which long bone fractures were 156 (79.18%). Among the long bone fractures incidence was highest in femur (37.82%) followed by tibia and fibula (25.01%), radius and ulna (21.15%) and lowest in humerus (16.02%). More incidence was observed in dogs aged below 1 year (62.71%). Incidence was more in Mongrels (42.37%). Higher incidence was observed in males (54.23%) than females (45.77%). The main cause for fracture was automobile accident (75.0%) followed by unknown causes (16.67%) and fall from a height (8.33%). Dogs with femur fracture exhibited symptoms like non-weight bearing of the affected limb, local swelling, pain, crepitus and abnormal mobility with or without soft tissue damage. Cranio-caudal and medio-lateral radiographs were taken for diagnosis, fracture classification and selection of implant. Among 59 femur fractures, 15.25% were proximal femur fractures, 44.08% were diaphyseal fracture and 40.67% were distal femur fractures. Cranio-lateral approach was used for femur under atropine premedication and ketamine-xylazine induction with 2-3% isoflurane maintenance. In Group I, the fracture was stabilized with IM pinning and in Group II with LCP platerod system. Implants were selected based on body weight and bone length. Postoperatively, the dogs were evaluated by clinical, radiographical parameters, lameness grading and serum biochemistry on immediate, 15th, 30th and 60th post-operative days. In both the groups, fracture healed by secondary healing. In Group I, complete healing was observed on 60th POD. In Group II, majority dogs showed signs of clinical union by 30 POD and signs of radiographic union on 40th POD. In group I, the dogs regained full functionality of the limb on or after 60th POD, whereas in Group II, by 30th POD. Dogs regained normal return to weight bearing far early in Group II compared to Group I. In Group I, pin migration and suture dehiscence were observed. Elevation in serum Ca, P and alkaline phosphatase values was observed up to 15th POD and later returned to base value by 60th POD. Significant variation was observed between the groups with regard to serum phosphorous and alkaline phosphatase. To conclude, plate-rod system for repair of femur diaphyseal fractures resulted in early ambulation and accelerated bone healing without any complications. Adding an IM pin to the implant system increases the rigidity by two-fold and reduces the stress on plate by ten-fold.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    CLINICAL STUDIES ON DIAGNOSIS OF CARDIAC DISEASES IN DOGS WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO RADIOGRAPHY
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY TIRUPATI - 517 502. (A.P.) INDIA, 2022-05) ANJANA PRASAD; DEVI PRASAD, V(MAJOR); SREENU, MAKKENA; SRINIVAS, MANDA; CHAITANYA, Y
    The present work entitled “Clinical Studies on Diagnosis of Cardiac Diseases in Dogs with special reference to Radiography” was carried out on 42 dogs. In the present study, a prevalence of 1.38% of cardiac diseases was recorded, with highest in Labrador Retriever, Spitz, German Shepherd, Pug, Mongrel, Great Dane, Beagle, Boxer, Dachshund and Shih Tzu breeds; geriatric group; intact male and obese dogs. A majority of the dogs exhibited exercise intolerance followed by anorexia, dyspnoea, nocturnal cough, weakness, ascites, weight loss, pedal oedema, persistent cough, cyanosis and syncope. The findings of chest auscultation included murmurs, arrhythmia, caudally displaced PMI, frictional rubs, and muffled heart sounds. In the present study, the blood picture revealed anemia in 20 dogs diagnosed through less values of TEC, Hb and PCV; and neutrophilic leucocytosis. Hypoproteinaemia and hypoalbuminemia were observed in 7 dogs (16.67%). Elevated levels of ALT and AST were observed in 11 and 10 dogs respectively. BUN levels were found elevated in seven dogs. The CRP concentrations were found normal in all the dogs under study. The mean ± SE of cardiac Troponin I obtained by quantitative method in 20 out of 42 dogs was, 104 ± 7.19 ng/ml with a range of 45- 214 ng/ml. All the dogs with elevated levels of cTnI concentration had cardiac diseases. The mean ± SE VHS values of 37 dogs in the present study were 13.05 ± 0.13 ranging from 12.0- 16.8 on right lateral view of thorax respectively and there was no difference between right/left lateral radiographs or VD/DV radiographs for computing VHS. The Mean ± SE CTR values of 37 dogs in the present study was 59.69 ± 0.93, on VD view of thorax with a range of 54.10- 82.1%. All the 37 dogs were found to have elevated values suggesting cardiomegaly, considering a cut off value of 50%. CSI could detect cardiomegaly only in 26 out of 37 dogs (70.27%). Short Axis- MHS could detect cardiomegaly in 28 out of 37 dogs (75.68%) and is considered more sensitive than long axis and overall MHS. Out of 37, VLAS was found higher in 23 dogs and the remaining 14 had normal values out of which,12 dogs were diagnosed to have MVR while 11 had both MVR and DCM. RLAD was found higher in 26 dogs and the remaining 11 had normal values. Among the former (26), 15 dogs were diagnosed to have MVR while 11 had both MVR and DCM. The apex of the heart was found to have contact with greater than three sternebrae in 6 (16.22%) and less than three sternebrae in 31, out of 37 dogs (83.78%). The greatest width of the cardiac silhouette was circumpassed by 3.5 intercoastal spaces in 16 out of 37 dogs (43.24%), less than 3.5 in 21 out of 37 dogs (56.67%). The trachea was approximating the thoracic spine in 8 dogs (19.05%), parallel to the thoracic spine in 23 dogs (54.76%) and mildly elevated in 11 dogs (26.19%). On correlation with findings of ECG with echocardiography, in MVD, arrythmia, ST depression, short QRS complex were recorded; in DCM, peak QRS complex, peak P- wave, atrial fibrillation, ST depression and ST elevation were recorded; in PE, short QRS complex, T wave greater than one- fourth the QRS complex and electrical alternans were recorded. During echocardiography, in the present study, 15 out of 42 dogs had mitral valve regurgitation characterised by increased LA/Ao ratio in the range of 1.6- 2.13 mm. Seven out of 42 dogs had DCM characterised by increased EPSS ranging from 9- 16 mm, decreased FS ranging from 19.9- 23.1 and decreased EF ranging from 46.9- 56.3. Five out of 42 dogs had pericardial effusion characterised by an anechoic space around the heart. In the present study, 27 out of 42 (64.29%) were detected to have valvular regurgitation, which was diagnosed by the characteristic mosaic appearance due to turbulent flow of blood resulting from valvular insufficiency at the mitral, tricuspid and aortic valves. Thus, in the present study it can be concluded that, for detecting cardiac disorders in dogs right lateral and ventro-dorsal thoracic radiographs provided excellent information to objectively express the disease condition, and to provide a clue to proceed further in confirming the disease by other modalities.