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Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University, Tirupati

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  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    IN VITRO ANTICANCER ACTIVITY OF 6–THIOGUANINE AND 6-THIOGUANINE LOADED CHITOSAN NANOPARTICLES WITH OR WITHOUT CURCUMIN AND PHARMACOKINETIC STUDIES IN RATS
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY TIRUPATI - 517502. (A.P.) INDIA, 2019-08) RASHMI, R; RAVI KUMAR, P(MAJOR); PRAKASH, N; SRINIVASA RAO, G; RAMA DEVI, V; MURALIDHAR, M
    Cancer is the second leading cause of mortality in the world. Cancer nanotherapeutics are rapidly progressing and being implemented to overcome several limitations of conventional drug delivery systems. 6 thioguanine encapsulated chitosan nanoparticles ( 6 – TG – CNPs ) were formulated by ionic - gelation method. Morphologically , the 6 – TG - CNPs were spherical in shape and showed mean size, PDI, z eta potential and e ntrapment eff iciency of 261.63±6.01nm, 0.3 4 ±0.10, + 15.97±0.46mV and 44.27 per cent , respectively. IR spectra confirmed 6 - TG complex with chitosan. In vitro drug release profile of 6 - TG - CNPs revealed slow but increased ( 91.40 ± 1.08 per cent at 48h) release at pH 4.8 compared to less and sustained ( 73.96 ± 1.12 per cent at 48h) release at pH 7.4. MTT assay was conducted on MCF - 7 and PA - 1 cell lines at 48h incubation to determine per cent cell viability . IC 50 values of 6- TG, 6 - TG - CNPs and curcumin for MCF - 7 were 23.09, 17.82 and 15.73μM , respectively. Likewise, IC 50 values of 6 - TG, 6 - TG - CNPs and c urcumin for PA - 1 were 5.81, 3.92 and 12.89μM , respectively. Combination of 6-TG-CNPs (IC25) with curcumin (IC25) on PA-1 and MCF-7 showed percent cell viability of 43.67±0.02 and 49.77±0.05, respectively. The in vitro cytotoxicity potential in terms of per cent cell viability, early apoptosis, G2/M phase arrest and global DNA demethylating activity of 6-TG-CNPs alone and in combination with curcumin proved to be more effective than that of 6-TG on PA-1 cells. The Cmax of 6-TG in 6-TG-CNPs alone and 6-TG-CNPs in curcumin pre-treated groups was found to increased by 1.6-fold and 2-fold, respectively when compared to those observed with 6-TG treated group. The rate and extent of 6-TG absorption was increased by 2.5-fold following 6-TG-CNPs alone and 3.2-fold in curcumin followed by 6-TG-CNPs treated group compared to those observed with 6-TG treated group. The enhanced Cmax and AUC for 6-TG were in the order of curcumin pre-treatment + 6-TG-CNPs>6-TG-CNPs>6-TG groups. The apparent volume of distribution was substantially lower for 6-TG in 6-TG-CNPs alone and 6-TG-CNPs in curcumin pre-treated groups when compared to those observed with 6-TG treated group. Apart from this, volume of distribution at steady-state was also found lower for 6-TG in both the 6-TG-CNPs treated groups. These PK parameters suggests the better tumour targeting efficiency of 6-TG nanoformulations with less toxicity in off-target tissues. Thus, the 6-TG encapsulated chitosan nanoparticles prepared in the present study used either alone or in combination with curcumin present a wide scope for efficient delivery of 6-TG at the target sites.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    IN VITRO STUDIES ON THE RELAXANT EFFECTS OF THYMOL AND NARINGENIN IN SHEEP AIRWAY SMOOTH MUSCLE
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY TIRUPATI – 517 502. (A.P) INDIA, 2011-10) PANKAJ PATEL, T; Srinivasa Rao, G (Major); Ravi Kumar, P; ANAND KUMAR, P
    ABSTRACT: Thymol is a monoterpenic phenol chiefly found in plants belonging to Lamiaceae family, especially Thymus vulgaris Linn. (Thyme). Naringenin is a flavanone mainly found in citrus fruits (grapes, oranges) and tomato skin. The relaxant effects of these two phytopolyphenols on the airway (tracheal) smooth muscle of sheep subjected to various receptor-and voltage-operated spasmogens like carbachol, histamine, potassium chloride, barium chloride and calcium chloride were investigated in the present study. To elucidate the various mechanisms responsible for relaxant effect, the inhibitory effects of thymol and naringenin on muscarinic receptors, histamine receptors and calcium channels were examined in this study. Also, an attempt was made to study the beta2- adrenoceptor stimulatory activity of thymol and naringenin with salbutamol, a known beta2-adrenoceptor agonist. The antimuscarinic and antihistaminergic effects of thymol and naringenin were tested by performing the cumulative concentration-response curves of carbachol and histamine on sheep tracheal strips incubated in the presence of thymol and naringenin at two dose levels of each compound at 1.5 x 10-8M or 15nM and 3 x 10-8M or 30nM and compared with those of atropine, an antimuscarinic agent and cetrizine, an antihistaminic agent at two dose levels of 10-10M or 0.1nM and 10-8M or 10nM each respectively. EC50 for carbachol and histamine in the absence and presence of thymol, naringenin, atropine and cetrizine were calculated and compared. The relaxant effects of thymol and naringenin on carbachol (1.5 x 10-6M) and histamine (1.5 x 10-5M) induced contractions were also studied and their mean IC50 values were calculated. The results showed a clear significant (p < 0.01) rightward shift in the carbachol mean EC50 response in the presence of both the doses of thymol and naringenin comparable to that of atropine. On the other hand, only the higher dose of thymol was able to show a significant (p < 0.01) rightward shift in histamine mean EC50 response comparable to that of cetrizine. This was not evident with both the doses of naringenin. However, both thymol and naringenin showed appreciable relaxation of carbachol and histamine-induced contractions. The mean IC50 values of thymol and naringenin on histamine induced contractions were comparable with that of salbutamol, a beta2-adrenoceptor agonist although salbutamol seems to be more potent in relaxing sheep tracheal smooth muscle than either thymol or naringenin. The calcium channel blocking effect of thymol and naringenin were tested by recording the mean IC50 responses of thymol and naringenin on the potassium- (80mM) and barium- (50mM) induced contractions and also by performing the cumulative dose-response curve of calcium chloride on sheep tracheal smooth muscle strips suspended in calcium-free depolarizing Krebs solution containing 0.05mM EGTA. The results showed a clear significant (p < 0.001) leftward shift in the IC50 responses of thymol and naringenin on tracheal strips precontracted with potassium chloride in the presence of either atropine, cetrizine and nifedipine at 10-6M or 1µ M or in the presence of methylene blue at 3.12 x 10-6M or 3.12 µ M. The IC50 response of naringenin on barium-induced contraction was stronger when compared to that of thymol. The calcium chloride EC50 response was siginficantly (p < 0.001) shifted towards right in the presence of thymol and naringenin at a dose of 3 x 10-8M or 30nM each which was comparable to nifedipine, a calcium channel blocker. The results in the present study suggest that both thymol and naringenin possess anticholinergic, mild antihistaminergic and calcium channel blocking effects in vitro. However, further in vivo studies using thymol and naringenin are needed to test the utility of these two phytopolyphenols as bronchodilators in actual clinical conditions of respiratory infections.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    COGNITIVE AND NEURO-ENDOCRINE DISRUPTION OF LEAD AND MONOCROTOPHOS AND THEIR RELATION TO THYROTOXICITY IN PERINATALLY EXPOSED RATS
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY , TIRUPATI – 517502. (A.P.) INDIA, 2010-06) KALA KUMAR, B. D. P; GOPALA REDDY, A (Major); RAVI KUMAR, P; KONDAL REDDY, K; ANAND KUMAR, A
    ABSTRACT : Thyroid hormone is essential for neuronal and glial genesis and also the time specific migration of neurons. Any change in the sequential neurodevelopment of foetus or the neonate would be manifested as behavioural abnormality in the adult life. In utero exposure to xenobiotics would interfere with the availability of maternal thyroid hormone to the foetus. Pesticides and heavy metals form a major chunk of the environmental pollutants that affect the behaviour of animals and human beings. Monocrotophos a widely used pesticide and lead a ubiquitous heavy metal are known neurotoxicants. The role of these two substances in thyroid disruption and subsequent developmental neurotoxicity was studied. Thirty pregnant female rats were divided into five groups. Group I was Sham. Methimazole (II), monocrotophos (III), lead acetate (IV) were administered singly and in combination (V) to assess the interaction. AChE, thyroid profile (TSH, T3 and T4), maternal behaviour, litter size, neonatal mortality, neurodevelopmental (brain wet weights, DNA, RNA and protein), neurobehavioural (auditory startle response, rope descent, mid air righting reflex, elevated plus maze, photoactometry and morris water maze) and neurochemical (acetyl choline and glutamate content of the brain) parameters were studied. Histopathology of thyroid and brain were conducted. Inhibition of AChE was < 20% in III and V. Thyroid profile decreased in II and T4 increased in IV. Maternal behaviour was significantly (p<0.01) interfered in III and V. Neurodevelopmental and neurobehavioural parameters did not reveal significant changes. Glutamate content was highest in group V indicating excitotoxicity. Thyroid was affected significantly in II, III and IV but not in V. Cerebral cortical layers were affected in groups II through V. The three layers of cerebellum either had abnormal arrangement or decreased cellularity in all treated groups. Thus, it is concluded that monocrotophos and lead acetate could act as thyroid disruptors and might have interfered with neurodevelopment during the perinatal exposure. Group V also affected neurodevelopment but did not affect thyroid histology suggesting other mechanisms could have contributed to the neurotoxicity.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    PHARMACOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF ACETYL-11-α-KETO-β-BOSWELLIC ACID MEDIATED NANO SILVER IN EXPERIMENTAL MURINE MASTITIS
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY , TIRUPATI – 517502. (A.P.) INDIA, 2013-03) MURALIDHAR, Y; ADILAXMAMMA, K (Major); SRINIVASARAO, G; SRILATHA, Ch
    ABSTRACT : Acetyl-11-α-keto-β-Boswellic acid mediated nanosilver (AKBANS), was synthesized, characterized and evaluated in Staphylococcus aureus induced murine mastitis model. The characterization of AKBANS by UV visible absorption spectrum showed a maximum absorption around 200 nm and SEM images showed that AKBANS with irregular and spherical morphology of size 363 to 574 nm. The size of the particles measured by DLS technique was 262 nm. The results of FT-IR analysis for AKBANS showed the involvement of hydroxyl, carboxyl, amines, keto and nitrile groups in the synthesis of AKBANS. The MIC of the compound was found to be 3.6 ng/ml against Staphylococcus aureus showed an in vitro spleenocyte viability of more than 95% at the highest concentration of 87.5 ppm. No toxicity was found in the oral dose even at the limit dose. A total of 40 female mice of 10-15 days post partum were utilized for the study. The animals were divided into five groups of eight animals each. Group I served as lactating control, groups II to V were inoculated with 20 μl of 24h broth culture of S.aureus containing 4.0 x 105 cfu/quarter (Log10 5.60 cfu/quarter) under ketamine ananestheisa using 33G blunt hamilton needle. After 6h post inoculation, groups III and IV received 20 μl of AKBANS through intramammary and intra peritoneal routes respectively. Whereas, group V received Cefepime & tazobactum combination @ 1mg/kg body weight through intraperitoneal route. After 24 h post inoculation, 0.5ml of whole blood was collected from tail vein and serum was separated for the estimation of CRP. Later, the mice were euthanized and L4 mammary gland was collected under asceptic conditions into sterile eppendorf tubes. The mammary weights were recorded and tissue samples for histopathology and ultrastructural studies were collected in 10% neutral buffered formalin and 5% glutaraldehyde respectively. A 10% homogenate of the mammary glands was prepared in 0.5M phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) and was utilized for the evaluation of bacterial load and antioxidant parameters like TBARS, GSH, SOD and CAT. All the groups inoculated with S.aureus showed significantly higher mammary weights, however, the bacterial load was found to be significantly higher in mastitis group II. Treatment with both AKBANS and antibiotic showed significantly reduced bacterial loads compared to mastitis control. Similarly, group II showed significantly elevated levels of CRP, which were significantly reduced in AKBANS treatment groups III and IV and antibiotic treated group V. However, AKBANS showed significant reduction compared to antibiotic treatment.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    IN VIVO AND EX VIVO STUDIES ON ANTISPASMODIC EFFECT OF QUERCETIN ON AIRWAY SMOOTH MUSCLE OF NORMAL AND OVALBUMIN INDUCED ASTHMATIC RATS
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY TIRUPATI – 517 502. (A.P) INDIA, 2012-11) VAMSI KRISHNA, B; SRINIVASA RAO, G (Major); BHARAVI, K; SRINIVASA PRASAD, CH; ANAND KUMAR, P; ANAND KUMAR, P V S
    ABSTRACT : Asthma is a chronic disease characterized by exaggerated airway smooth muscle contraction to various stimuli and manifested by symptoms viz. recurrent episodes of wheezing, breathlessness, chest tightness and coughing. Quercetin is a polyphenolic flavonoid substance present abundantly in red onions, apples, red wine and tea leaves with anti-inflammatory, anti-allergenic, and antioxidant properties. The present study was carried out to explore anti spasmodic effect of quercetin on rat tracheal smooth muscle in normal and ovalbumin sensitized rats. The study was conducted in four groups of wistar albino rats. Group I consisted apparently normal rats where as rats that are apparently normal in group II received quercetin (20 mg/kg, P.O) for 14 days. In group III rats were sensitized with ovalbumin for experimental induction of allergy and asthma. Where as in group IV rats were sensitized with ovalbumin and also received quercetin (P.O) for 14 days. Rats were sacrificed and tracheal rings were isolated for functional studies using polygraph. Both lungs and tracheal rings were collected and subjected to histological studies. Airway hyper responsiveness in ovalbumin sensitized rats was manifested by decreased EC50 value (4.57 х 10-8M) of carbachol cumulative dose contractile response compared to normal group (1.58 х 10-7M). The mean EC50 value for cumulative dose contractile response of carbachol on tracheal smooth muscle obtained from ovalbumin sensitized with simultaneously quercetin treated rats (1.9 х 10-7M) is significantly higher than ovalbumin sensitized group (4.57 х 10-8M) and almost similar to normal (1.58 х 10-7M) group. This showed the potent antagonizing effect of quercetin against airway hyperresponsiveness in asthmatic condition. Quercetin relaxed the tracheal smooth muscle of normal (IC50: 5.62 х 10-7M) and ovalbumin sensitized rats (1.99 х 10-7M) that were pre contracted with carbachol. Quercetin feeding in ovalbumin sensitized rats decreased the IC50 of quercetin on carbachol induced contraction than normal. Alterations in histological architecture of trachea and lung were observed in ovallbumin sensitized rats. In group IV that received quercetin along with ovalbumin sensitization the histological changes are minimized and protective lesions for epithelium were pronounced. It was apparent from the study that quercetin has antispasmodic effect on airway smooth muscle in normal and ovalbumin induced asthmatic rats and gives protection from allergic inflammatory conditions like asthma.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    EVALUATION OF AZADIRACHTA INDICA A. JUSS IN COMBINATION WITH SPIRULINA AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO ANTIBACTERIAL GROWTH PROMOTER IN BROILER PRODUCTION
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY TIRUPATI – 517 502. (A.P) INDIA, 2012-11) RAVI, K; BHARAVI, K (Major); RAVI KUMAR, P; ESHWARA RAO, B; NARENDRANATH, D
    ABSTRACT: The use of antibiotic growth promoters in poultry industry is under serious criticism by policy-makers and consumers because of the development of microbial resistance to these products and the potential harmful effects on human health. Hence, there is a trend towards using alternative growth promoters in poultry feeds, particularly natural herbs. In the present study, the performance of broilers fed with diet containing neem, spirulina and their combination was tested. Day old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to six groups each group consisting of 15 chicks. The experiment lasted for 6 weeks and the treatment of various groups consisted of basal diet (group I), 0.05% oxytetracycline (group II), 0.2% neem (group III), 0.2% neem and 1% spirulina (group IV), 0.05% oxytetracycline and 1% spirulina (group V) and 1% spirulina (group VI). All the birds were assessed for growth performance, antioxidant status, liver and kidney function and carcass quality. In vitro analysis showed that the neem leaf extract and twig extract possesses antibacterial property against Escherisia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The performance of birds fed on antibiotic plus spirulina was found to be the best. Neem, spirulina and their combination could not outperform compared to using antibiotic as feed additive. However, use of neem, spirulina or their combinations could perform well compared to the control group. The physicochemical properties of the meat also followed same trend. Neem and spirulina did not effect the functioning of liver and kidney as was indicated by unaffected serum biochemical profiles and histological architecture. Neem, spirulina and their combinations were found to show cholesterol lowering capacity when compared to antibiotics group or control group. The study concludes that neem and spirulina or their combinations can be used as an alternative to antibiotics as feed additive.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    ROLE OF INFLAMMATION AND CURCUMIN ON PHARMACOKINETICS OF PHENACETIN, A CYP1A2 SUBSTRATE IN RATS
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY TIRUPATI – 517 502. (A.P) INDIA, 2012-10) GANGADHARA. N. V. PRASAD, V; SRINIVASA RAO, G (Major); RAVI KUMAR, P; SRINIVASA PRASAD, CH; ANAND KUMAR, P
    ABSTRACT: Role of inflammation and curcumin on the activity of CYP1A2 (a cytochrome P 450 isozyme) were investigated in the present study by determining alterations in the pharmacokinetics of phenacetin and formation of metabolite paracetamol in wistar albino rats, weighing about 200-250g that were randomly divided into four groups consisting six in each group. Rats in group I (control) received phenacetin alone (150 mg.kg-1, PO). Group II received phenacetin 12 h after induction of inflammation using turpentine oil (0.4 mL, i.m). Group III received curcumin (400 mg.kg-1, PO) 60 min prior to administration of phenacetin and Group IV received phenacetin after induction of inflammation followed by curcumin pretreatment. Blood samples were collected from retro orbital sinus at predetermined time intervals prior to and at 0.166, 0.33, 0.67, 1.5, 2, 4, 8 and 12 h after administration of phenacetin. Plasma was separated and stored at -200C until analyzed for phenacetin and its metabolite paracetamol by HPLC assay. Based on plasma concentrations, the pharmacokinetic parameters were determined by compartmental methods. Mean Cmax of phenacetin in group I was 38.13 }2.20 μg.mL-1. There was significant decrease in mean Cmax of phenacetin in rats with inflammation (Group II: 19.50 }2.74 μg.mL-1), curcumin pretreated rats (Group III: 22.23 }2.70 μg.mL-1) and rats with inflammation receiving curcumin pretreatment (Group IV: 17.29 }2.62 μg.mL-1). Means of important pharmacokinetic parameters obtained for phenacetin after its oral administration in group I (control) were: elimination rate constant (β) 0.76 }0.2 h-1; elimination half-life (t.β) 1.22 }0.24 h; area under plasma concentration time curve (AUC0-∞) 90.82 }15.79 μg.h.mL-1; area under first moment curve (AUMC0- ∞) 204.98 }66.96 μg.h2.mL-1; volume of distribution at steady state (Vdss) 2.87 }0.37 L.kg-1; total body clearance (ClB) 1.88 }0.27 L.kg-1.h -1; and mean residence time (MRT) 2.00 }0.32 h and, For the metabolite paracetamol, Cmax, AUC0-∞, and t.β were 8.55 }1.64 μg.mL-1, 41.46 }6.36 μg.h.mL-1 and 2.75 }0.76 h respectively. In group II the mean pharmacokinetic parameters for phenacetin in rats with experimentally induced inflammation were : β, 0.38 }0.07 h-1; t.β, 2.23 }0.48 h; AUC0-∞, 59.53 }7.17 μg.h.mL-1; AUMC0-∞, 13207.76 }58.11 μg.h2.mL-1; Vdss, 8.03 }1.26 L.kg-1; ClB, 2.71 }0.33 L.kg-1.h-1; MRT, 3.26 }0.69 h. It was found that there was a significant (p<0.001) increase in the volume of distribution in rats with inflammation. For the metabolite paracetamol, mean Cmax, AUC0-∞, and t.β were 5.74 }0.87 μg.mL-1, 35.72 }9.61 μg.h.mL-1 and 4.58 }2.32 h respectively. In group III mean pharmacokinetic parameters for phenacetin in curcumin pretreated rats were: β, 0.79 }0.21 h-1; t.β, 1.45 }0.52 h; AUC0-∞, 52.01 }8.54 μg.h.mL-1; AUMC0-∞, 144.61 }63.84 μg.h2.mL-1; Vdss, 5.37 }1.09 L.kg-1; ClB, 3.35 }0.58 L.kg-1.h -1 ; MRT, 2.30 }0.70 h. and, For the metabolite paracetamol, mean Cmax, AUC0-∞, and t.β were 4.82 }1.00 μg.mL-1, 27.19 }3.05 μg.h.mL-1 and 3.57 }0.62 h respectively. In group IV pharmacokinetic parameters for phenacetin in rats with inflammation followed by curcumin pretreatment were: β, 0.55 }0.08 h-1; t.β, 1.42 }0.21 h; AUC0-∞, 47.57 }10.26 μg.h.mL-1; AUMC0-∞, 119.64 }36.16 μg.h2.mL-1; Vdss, 7.01 }0.73 L.kg-1; ClB, 3.88 }0.74 L.kg-1.h -1; MRT, 2.28 }0.29 h and, For the metabolite paracetamol, Cmax, AUC0-∞, and t.β were 5.39 }0.91 μg.mL-1, 29.84 }8.52 μg.h.mL-1 and 2.56 }1.04 h respectively. A significant (P<0.01) decrease in AUC0-∞, while increase in Vdss and clearance for phenacetin was found in rats with inflammation which received curcumin pretreatment. There were no significant alterations in either plasma concentrations or pharmacokinetic parameters of paracetamol (metabolite of phenacetin) in all the four groups. Thus results of the present study indicated that inflammation increased the rate of absorption with shorter half-life for phenacetin. Either inflammation or curcumin pretreatment or both have no role on the activity of CYP1A2 in rats which was indicated by unaltered paracetamol (metabolite) concentrations and pharmacokinetic parameters among all the four groups.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    STUDIES ON THE PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF SARACA INDICA Linn BARK ON FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF RATS SUBJECTED TO SUBCHRONIC PREPUBERTAL CADMIUM INTOXICATION.
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY TIRUPATI – 517 502. (A.P) INDIA, 2011-08) SREE VENKAT SATISH KUMAR, C; BHARAVI, K (Major); RAVI KUMAR, P; RAMA DEVI, V
    ABSTRACT : Cadmium is one of the most toxic heavy metal naturally occurring in the environment. Cadmium affects female reproductive organs and its action may be either direct, affecting the gonads and accessory organs or indirect via interference with the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis. Majority of the deleterious effects of cadmium are related to its potential to induce oxidative damage within the cells. Thus supplementation of antioxidants during cadmium intoxication would have beneficial effect. Ashoka tree, universally known by its binomial latin name Saraca indica (SI) belonging to family Caesalpinaceae is found throughout India. The bark of Ashoka is reported to have antioxidant properties. Hence, the protective effect of methanolic extract of bark of SI was assessed in prepubertal rats administered with subchronic dose of cadmium. Sixty Wistar strain female rats aged about 21-24 days were randomly assigned into 6 equal groups. Group I was maintained as control, while groups II, III and IV rats received cadmium @4.4mg/kg b.wt. as CdCl2 orally by gavage daily for 60 days. In addition, group III rats were administered with SI extract @ 200mg/kg b.wt. orally for 60 days while group IV rats received vitamin E @ 75mg/kg b.wt. orally for 60 days. Group V rats received SI extract @ 200mg/kg b.wt. orally by gavage daily for 60 days. Group VI rats were administered with vitamin E @ 75mg/kg b.wt. by oral gavage daily for sixty days. Cadmium toxicity in group II rats was manifested as a decrease in body weight gain, prolongation of diestrus phase, decrease in ovary weight, increase in uterus weight, decrease in antioxidant markers viz., SOD and GSH, increase in peroxidation markers viz., TBARS and protein carbonyls and decrease in ALP, AchE, cholesterol in ovary. Alterations in histological architecture and increased cadmium concentration were also observed in female reproductive system of prepubertal rats following cadmium administration. In groups III and IV that received SI and vitamin E supplementation along with cadmium, a reversal in the biochemical alterations induced by cadmium was observed. This trend was in agreement with improved body weight gain and less severe histological changes in ovary, oviduct and uterus and reduced cadmium load in the ovary. It was apparent from the study that methanolic extract of SI has protective effect in cadmium induced oxidative damage in female reproductive system of prepubertal rats.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    STUDIES ON THE EVALUATION OF THE PROTECTIVE EFFCT OF TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS IN CADMIUM INTOXICATED RATS
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY TIRUPATI – 517 502. (A.P) INDIA, 2010-12) DHANA LAKSHMI, G; RAVI KUMAR, P; BHARAVI, K; ANNAPURNA, P
    ABSTRACT : Cadmium is one of the most toxic heavy metal naturally occurring in the environment. Cadmium has a tendency to accumulate in vital organs like liver and kidney for many years. Majority of the deleterious effects of cadmium are related to its potential to induce oxidative damage within the cells. Thus supplementation of antioxidants during cadmium intoxication would have beneficial effect. Tribulus terrestris (TT), a flowering plant belong to the family Zygophyllaceae, and widely prevalent locally is reported to have antioxidant properties. Hence, the protective effect of ethanolic extract of whole plant of TT was assessed in cadmium intoxicated rats. Forty Wistar strain male rats aged about 60 days were randomly assigned to 4 equal groups. Group I was maintained as control, while groups II, III and IV rats received cadmium @3mg/kg body weight s/c once a week for 4 weeks. In addition, group III rats were administered with TT extract @ 5mg/kg body weight per os daily for 6 weeks while group IV rats received vitamin E @ 75mg/kg body weight per os daily for 6 weeks. All the rats were sacrificed at the end of 6th week. Cadmium toxicity in group II rats was manifested as a decrease in body weight gain, decrease in antioxidant markers viz., SOD, GSH and CAT, increase in peroxidation markers viz., TBARS and protein carbonyls, in liver and kidney, decrease in total proteins, albumin and globulin in serum and increase in ALT, BUN and creatinine in serum. Alterations in histological architecture and increased cadmium concentration were also observed in livers and kidneys following cadmium intoxication. In groups III and IV that received TT and vitamin E supplementation along with cadmium, a reversal in the biochemical alterations induced by cadmium was observed. This trend was in agreement with improved body weight gain and less severe histological changes and reduced cadmium load in liver and kidneys. It was apparent from the study that ethanolic extract of TT has protective effect in cadmium induced oxidative damage in liver and kidney tissues.