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Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University, Tirupati

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  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    GROSS, HISTOLOGICAL AND HISTOCHEMICAL STUDIES ON THE OVIDUCT OF ADULT RAJASRI FOWL
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY, TIRUPATI - 517 502. (A.P.) INDIA, 2024-02) VAMSI KRISHNA .P; DhilleswaraRao .S (MAJOR); RAJU .N.K.B; SAMATHA .V
    The present study was conducted on thirty six(36) apparently healthy laying Rajasri fowls. The study was carried out in laying birds of same age group ranging from 26 to 28 weeks. The average lengths and weights of oviduct and its five major divisions like infundibulum, magnum, isthmus, uterus and vagina were individually measured. The histomorphological and histochemical characteristics of the oviduct was studied by using light microscope. The wall of oviduct composed of tunica mucosa, lamina propria sub mucosa, tunica muscularis and tunica serosa from inside to outside. The length of mucosal fold and height of epithelium and lamina propria submucosa and thickness of tunica muscularis of different segments were measured by using ocular and stage micrometer under light microscope. The tunica mucosa of funnel part of infundibulum was projected into mucosal folds which were lower in height when compared to posterior part of infundibulum in laying Rajasri fowl. The luminal epithelium was lined by simple columnar epithelium and consists of non ciliated cells, ciliated cells and goblet cells. The lamina propria sub mucosa was extended into the core of mucosal folds, but the tubular glands were absent. The tunica muscularis was well represented with inner circular and outer longitudinal smooth muscle layers. The tunica serosa which was outermost layer was comprised of loose connective tissue and it was lined by simple columnar epithelium. The mucosal folds in magnum were leaf like in shape and are longer in length when compared to infundibulum. It was lined by pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium along with non ciliated cells. The lamina propria submucosa was packed with long branched tubular glands. These mucosal folds of isthmus were lower in height when compared to magnum. The thickness of tunica muscularis was almost similar to that of magnum and it contained nerve fibres and blood vessels in between the layers of muscle fibres. The lamina propria submucosa of uterus was consisted of highly vascularized loose connective tissue with branched tubular glands. The tubular glands were densely packed and were separated from each other by collagen, reticular and nerve fibres. The tunica muscularis of uterus was thicker than the other parts of oviduct in laying Rajasri fowl. The tunica mucosa of vagina was raised into numerous longitudinal mucosal folds and these are narrow when compared to other parts of oviduct in laying Rajasri fowl. The sperm host glands were observed in uterovaginal junction and the cytoplasm of this sperm hostage glands was vacuolated with lipid inclusions. The inner circular smooth muscle layer of vagina was strongly developed and forms the vaginal sphincter at the opening of cloaca. The apices of lining epithelium of mucosal folds in infundibulum, magnum, isthmus, uterus and vagina of oviduct showed the PAS strong +VE reaction indicating the presence of mucopolysaccharides in laying Rajasri fowl. They also showed the positive for alcian blue and indicated the presence of acid mucopolysaccharides. The glycogen content was observed at the apical regions of the non secretory cells in the lining epithelium of mucosal folds of oviduct in laying Rajasri fowl.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    GROSS AND HISTOLOGICAL STUDIES ON OVARY, OVIDUCT AND UTERUS IN INDIAN DOMESTIC CAT (Felis catus)
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY TIRUPATI - 517 502. (A.P.) INDIA, 2023-03) TULASI DEEPTHI .K; TOMAR .M.P.S (MAJOR); KISHORE .P.V.S; Sudha Rani Chowdary .CH; Vivekanand Kattimani
    The female reproductive system in the Indian cats was composed of the paired ovaries, paired oviducts and the single uterus. The ovaries were located in the lumbar region and were suspended by the mesovarium and were enclosed in ovarian bursa. The oviducts of cats were convoluted and tortuous slender tubes suspended by mesosalpinx. Each oviduct was composed of three parts viz., the infundibulum, ampulla and isthmus. The uterus of the cat was “V” shaped with paired uterine horn and the single uterine body. The entire uterus was suspended by two ligaments, the broad ligament and the round ligament in the pelvic cavity. Microscopically, the ovaries consisted of surface epithelium, fibrous tunica albuginea and the ovarian parenchyma (cortex and medulla). The cortex was peripheral with many developing follicles. The primordial follicles had a primary oocyte surrounded by simple squamous epithelium and were in clusters. At some places, multiple oocytes surrounded by a common single layer of squamous epithelium formed giant primordial follicles. The primary follicles were composed of a primary oocyte surrounded by simple cuboidal epithelium while the secondary follicles had comparatively larger oocyte surrounded by 2 to 3 layers of polyhedral granulosa cells and zona pellucida surrounding it. The tertiary follicles showed an antrum, large eccentric oocyte surrounded by zona pellucida, stratified layer of granulosa cells (all together called as cumulus oophorous oocyte complex) and theca interna and externa. The atretic follicles showed degenerated cells and fibrous scar. Corpora lutea had large luteal cells, small luteal cells and non-steroidogenic cells. Corpora albicans were irregular connective tissue scars. The ovarian medulla had loose connective tissue with blood vessels, lymphatics and nerves. Oviduct in domestic cats was composed of three parts i.e., the infundibulum, the ampulla and the isthmus. The wall of oviduct was comprised of Tunica mucosa, Tunica submucosa, Tunica muscularis and Tunica serosa. The T. mucosa of all the segments were thrown into many folds and these folds were divided into primary and secondary folds. The lamina epithelialis had simple cuboidal/columnar epithelium at many places while it showed pseudostratified columnar epithelium in infundibulum. The propria submucosa was made of loose connective tissue. The tunica muscularis was composed of smooth muscle fibers arranged mainly in circular orientation. Tunica serosa was composed of a connective tissue layer which was lined by mesothelium. Uterus in Indian cat under present study had 2 parts viz., the uterine horn and the uterine body. Both the horn and body of the uterus were composed of three layers viz., the endometrium, the myometrium and the perimetrium from lumen to outer side. Endometrium was divided into functional and basal zones. The myometrium was composed of an inner circular layer, an outer longitudinal layer and in between them, the stratum vasculare was also observed. The perimetrium was composed of loose connective tissue. During proestrus, multiple subepithelial haemorrhages and epithelial sloughing were noticed. During pregnancy, the endometrial glands were larger and more in number. The stratum vasculare was largest and blood vessels were more in diameter. The germinal epithelium, tunica albuginea of the ovary showed mixed reaction for Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS) and alcian blue. The zona pellucida showed strong positive reaction for PAS. The apical portions of the lining epithelium in oviduct showed strong positive reaction for alcianophilic substance. The propria submucosa showed strong positive reaction for PAS. The endometrial epithelium showed PAS positive reaction with few alcianophilic cells. The connective tissue of functional zone showed PAS positive reaction. The muscle bundles of tunica muscularis showed intermittent PAS positive reaction while the connective tissue present between muscles was AB positive. The perimetrium showed positive reaction for PAS.
  • ThesisItemUnknown
    GROSS, HISTOLOGICAL AND HISTOCHEMICAL STUDIES ON OVARY, OVIDUCT AND UTERUS IN INDIAN DOMESTIC DOG (Canis lupus familiaris)
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY TIRUPATI - 517 502. (A.P.) INDIA, 2023-03) SUSMITHA MARELLA; KISHORE .P.V.S (MAJOR); TOMAR .M.P.S; DEVI PRASAD .V; VIVEKANAND KATTIMANI
    The female reproductive system in the adult dog consisted of paired ovaries, oviducts and uterus. Each ovary was caudal to the kidney and hidden inside the ovarian bursa which opened into the peritoneal cavity by a foramen on the medial surface. The outermost covering of the ovary was the germinal epithelium of the simple cuboidal type. The tunica albuginea beneath it contained numerous cortical tubules. The ovaries showed an outer cortex and an inner medulla. Primordial follicles in the peripheral part of the cortex beneath the tunica albuginea had and oocyte surrounded by a single layer of granulosa cells. Primary follicles with the oocyte were lined by a simple cuboidal epithelium. Secondary follicles with the oocyte were lined by the stratified epithelium with a glycoprotein layer (zona pellucida) around it. Tertiary follicles had a large oocyte, zona pellucida, antrum, stratum granulosum and the theca. The corpus luteum and corpora albicans were also observed. The medulla was centrally located. The germinal epithelium, tunica albuginea, the zona pellucida and the cells of corpus luteum were positive for PAS. The tunica albuginea, cortex, membrana granulosa, theca interna, the capsule and septa of corpus luteum and medulla were positive for AB. The oviducts on the surface of the bursa were suspended by a thin mesosalpinx. Each oviduct contained three parts from cranial to caudal viz, infundibulum, ampulla and isthmus. The mucosa of the infundibulum formed numerous primary, secondary and tertiary folds which gradually decreased towards the isthmus. Some of the folds coalesced and formed cavities in the propria submucosa. The mucosal folds were lined by a stratified cuboidal epithelium. The tunica muscularis of infundibulum was thin compared to that in the ampulla and isthmus. Its thickness gradually increased towards the isthmus. The thin tunica serosa was composed of simple squamous cells and continued with the mesosalpinx. The epithelium of mucosal folds and propria-submucosa in infundibulum showed a positive reaction for AB. The luminal epithelium of the ampulla and isthmus showed a positive reaction for PAS. Mild PAS positive reaction was observed in the propria submucosa. The tunica muscularis and tunica serosa showed positive reaction both for PAS and AB. The uterus was a thick hollow muscular organ situated in the midline of the dorsal abdominal cavity. It had a very short body and extremely long narrow horns which diverged from the body and presented a‟V” shaped structure. The wall of uterine horn was made up of three layers; endometrium, myometrium and perimetrium from within outwards. The endometrium was lined by a simple columnar epithelium and had endometrial glands. The myometrium was composed of inner circular and outer longitudinal layers of smooth muscle cells with the stratum vasculare in between. The thickness of endometrium, number of endometrial glands and myometrium gradually increased from proximal to the distal end. The perimetrium was composed of mesothelium. The endometrium of the body of uterus was lined by a simple columnar epithelium. It was very thick and the glands were numerous and larger. The myometrium was also thick and the stratum vasculare was the largest among all parts. The luminal epithelium of the endometrium, its stroma and the uterine glands showed a positive reaction for PAS. The endometrial glands and myometrium showed a positive reaction for AB. The endometrium and perimetrium showed a positive reaction for bromo phenol blue indicating the presence of basic proteins.
  • ThesisItemUnknown
    GROSS, HISTOLOGICAL AND HISTOCHEMICAL STUDIES ON THE UMBILICAL CORD AND FOETAL MEMBRANES OF GOAT (Capra hircus)
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY TIRUPATI - 517 502. (A.P.) INDIA, 2023-03) ANVESHINI MARADANA; RAJU .N.K.B (MAJOR); KISHORE .P.V.S; SRINIVASA PRASAD .CH; VIVEKANAND KATTIMANI
    The study was conducted on umbilical cord and foetal membranes collected from gravid uteri procured from 18 non-descript goat breeds with embryo or foetuses of age groups between 29 to 130 days of gestation. Umbilical cord was a tube like structure that connected embryo or foetus to the placenta. It was covered externally by amnion that contained white, irregular projections called as amniotic papillae from 66 to 130 days of gestation. It contained two umbilical arteries, two umbilical veins and allantoic duct embedded in mucous connective tissue called as Wharton’s jelly. Mucous connective tissue of umbilical cord was made of abundant collagen fibers, few elastic and reticular fibers and various cells like fibroblasts, fibrocytes, mesenchymal cells, mast cells, lymphocytes, macrophages and plasma cells dispersed in it. Chorion was the outermost layer and was thinnest compared to allantois and amnion. It contained cotyledons with intercotyledonary regions between them. In all the groups, the chorion was comprised of trophoblast layer lined by single layer of uni and binucleated cells underlying mesenchymal tissue. The chorionic villi were elongated structures that branch extensively with advancement of age. Allantois was a transparent fluid filled sac that contained two arms separated by band like structure called isthmus. Allantois was made up of simple squamous or cuboidal epithelium internally and mesenchyme externally at all ages. Cell density in mesenchyme of allantois was lesser than amnion. Amnion was the innermost extraembryonic membrane which was a thin, tough and transparent membrane during all stages of gestation that covers embryo and outer wall of umbilical cord. It extended from navel, surrounded the umbilical cord and then completely reflected over the foetus. Amnion was made up of simple squamous or simple cuboidal epithelium internally and mesenchyme externally. Mesenchymal tissue of chorion, allantois and amnion contained mainly collagen fibers with few elastic and reticular fibers with undifferentiated mesenchymal cells, fibroblast cells, fibrocytes and Hofbauer cells. Placentome was formed by intimate contact between caruncle from maternal endometrium and cotyledon from the chorion of the foetus. The number of placentomes ranged from 68 to 166 with more number of placentomes concentrated in pregnant horn compared to non pregnant horn. Synepitheliochorial form of placentation was seen as the binucleate cells of trophoblast epithelium of chorion migrate and fuse with maternal caruncular epithelial cells and form symplasmic plaques. Amniotic epithelium, amniotic papillae, tunica intima and smooth muscles in tunica media and tunica externa of umbilical vessels and epithelium lining the allantoic duct in umbilical cord and also epithelium of chorion, allantois and amnion showed PAS positive reaction for neutral mucopolysaccharides whereas connective tissue fibers of tunica media and mucous connective tissue and mesenchyme of chorion, allantois and amnion showed AB positive reaction for acid mucopolysaccharides in all age groups. Amniotic epithelium, mucous connective tissue, connective tissue surrounding allantoic duct and tunica externa of umbilical vessels in umbilical cord, epithelial lining of chorion, allantois and amnion and cells in the mesenchyme exhibited bromophenol blue positive reaction for basic proteins.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    GROSS, HISTOLOGICAL AND HISTOCHEMICAL STUDIES ON THE MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF WISTAR RAT (Rattus norvegicus)
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY TIRUPATI - 517 502. (A.P.) INDIA, 2022-04) PRAVEENA, NELATURI; KISHORE, P. V. S. (MAJOR); TOMAR, M.P.S.; HARI KRISHNA, N.V.V.
    The male reproductive system in the laboratory rat consisted of paired testes enclosed in the scrotal sacs, epididymis, ductus deferens, urethra and penis. The accessory sex glands were the ampullary glands, seminal vesicles, prostate, bulbourethral, coagulating and preputial glands. The paired testes located within the scrotum were two bulges on either side of the medial aspect of the hind limbs under the skin. The testicular parenchyma showed numerous convoluted seminiferous tubules of variable sizes composed of stratified germinal epithelium with various stages of spermatogenetic cycle viz., spermatogonia, primary and secondary spermatocytes, round and elongated spermatids and spermatozoa from the basal to the ad luminal side. Sertoli cells were found on the basement membrane. Myoepithelial cells were also observed between the basement membrane and the basal layer of germinal epithelium.Leydig cells were large polymorphous cells in the intertubular area. The epididymis was paired and located at the postero-dorsal aspect of each testis. Histologically, it was composed of three portions viz., caput, corpus and cauda. The epididymal ducts lined by a pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium consisted of principal tall columnar cells with prominent stereocilia, peripheral basal cells, apical and clear cells. The lumen of each duct was filled with spermatozoa. The ductus deferens were paired structures arising from the tail of the epididymis. At the urethral end each formed a bulged structure, the ampulla which opened at the level of colliculus seminalis. The urethra had two parts viz., pelvic and penile. The pelvic urethra extended from the urinary bladder to the pubis and thereafter continued as penile urethra which extended up to the tip of penis. At the neck of the urinary bladder, the ductus deferens, prostate, seminal vesicles and coagulating glands opened into the pelvic urethra. The secretions from the accessory sex glands formed the large coagulum in the lumen. The penis consisted of root, body and glans covered on its surface by the preputial skin. It comprised the penile urethra, vascular erectile tissue and orifice of penis. The ampullary glands were paired glandular outpouchings of ductus deferens on either side. The seminal vesicles were located on the dorsolateral aspect of the urinary bladder. The paired vesicular glands were compound tubular or tubuloalveolar. The prostate gland was divided into three lobes viz., ventral, dorsolateral and anterior. The bulbourethral glands were located near the base of the penis. The coagulating glands (anterior prostate) were attached to the inner surface of the seminal vesicles and situated in the craniodorsal aspect of the prostate. Its single duct opened separately into the urethra. The preputial glands were located in the caudal subcutaneous tissue on either side of the penis. Each gland had a duct which opened into the area between the inner surface of the prepuce and glans penis. The various components of the testis and the germinal cells showed a spectrum ofpositive reaction for PAS, AB and bromophenol blue. The ductular epithelium of epididymis, ductus deferens and urethra was AB positive. The secretions of all the glands were positive for PAS and bromophenol blue.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    GROSS, HISTOLOGICAL AND HISTOCHEMICAL STUDIES ON THE URINARY SYSTEM OF MALE WISTAR RAT (Rattus norvegicus)
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY TIRUPATI - 517 502. (A.P.) INDIA, 2022-04) SAMANVITHA, NEELA; RAJU, N.K.B. (MAJOR); TOMAR, M.P.S.; SREENU, MAKKENA
    The present study was conducted to elucidate the morphology, histology and histochemistry of the urinary system of adult male Wistar rats. Twenty rats were used in the study. The urinary system of Wistar rat comprised of a pair of kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder and a urethra of which the ureters, urinary bladder and urethra constituted the lower urinary tract. The paired unilobar kidneys were smooth and bean shaped located retroperitoneally with concave medial border and convex lateral border. Each kidney was covered by thin connective tissue capsule with predominant collagen fibres in it. The right kidney weighed more than the left kidney and was placed more cranial in position. The cortex was reddish brown coloured whereas the medulla was lighter coloured and continued by papilla in the sagittal section. The functional unit of the kidney was nephron which included renal corpuscles, proximal and distal convoluted tubules along with descending and ascending limbs of loop of Henle of which the proximal and distal convoluted tubules along with collecting tubules and ascending limb were lined by simple cuboidal epithelium whereas the descending limb was lined by low cuboidal epithelium. The cytoplasm was eosinophilic in all tubules with brush border in proximal convoluted tubules except collecting tubules as it was of basophilic type. The cytoplasm of the renal tubules along with brush border were PAS positive whereas the basement membrane of glomerulus was AB positive. The glomerulus and all the components of renal tubules stained positive with bromophenol blue. The basement membrane of the glomerulus and renal tubules stained intensely with Jones methanamine silver stain. The length of the right ureter was longer than that of the left extended from hilus to the dorsal border of urinary bladder. The apical border of transitional epithelium was positive for AB and bromophenol blue whereas the smooth muscle cells were positive for PAS. The urinary bladder was pear shaped with rounded blind end and narrow neck on either side. The apical border of transitional epithelium was AB and bromophenol blue positive whereas the smooth muscle cells were PAS positive. The urethra was divided into two parts i.e., pelvic urethra and penile urethra. Pelvic urethra was fibromuscular and tubular organ extended from the urinary bladder till the pelvic girdle and continued as penile urethra in the ventral furrow of ospenis. The epithelium was of transitional type near the dorsal neck of bladder and transitioned into pseudostratified columnar type in posterior half of the pelvic urethra and continued as transitional type in the penile urethra. PAS positive diffused littre or periurethral mucous glands were observed in both dorsal and ventral view in the lamina propria. The periurethral or littre glands in the lamina propria of pelvic urethra were PAS positive with AB positive granules in it. The coagulum in the lumen was positive for bromophenol blue.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    HISTOMORPHOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF HYDROXYAPATITE OF DIFFERENT ORIGIN FOR BONE REGENERATION IN THE CALVARIAL DEFECTS OF WISTAR RATS (Rattus norvegicus)
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY TIRUPATI - 517 502. (A.P.) INDIA, 2021-02) SRI SAI ANUSHA, PANNIRU; KISHORE, P.V.S. (MAJOR); RAJU, N.K.B; SREENU, M
    A comparative histomorphological evaluation of hydroxyapatite of different origin as bone graft material was conducted using 60 adult male Wistar rats divided into three groups; A, B and C each consisting of 20 animals. Two symmetrical bilateral 6 mm critical parietal defects were created. Apart from the control (unfilled), others were filled with the graft material. Sacrifice was done at 10th, 30th, 60th, 90th and 120th day post-surgery. In Group A, a collagen membrane was used to cover the defect. The left side defect (AD1) was unfilled while the right side defect (AD2) was filled with eggshell derived hydroxyapatite (eHA). In both AD1 and AD2, the new bone formation was initiated from the margins of the defect and a continuous table of bone was observed at 90th day. In AD1, mature bone was evident but the centre of the defects was not completely healed. In AD2 the defect mostly healed. In Group B, a collagen membrane was used to cover the defect. The left side defect (BD1) was filled with synthetic hydroxyapatite (sHA) while the right side defect Name (BD2) was filled with eHA. In both BD1 and BD2, the woven bone was observed throughout the defect. At 120th day, thick mature bone almost healed as a thick continuous table in the defect. In Group C the defect was not covered with a collagen membrane. The left side defect (CD1) was unfilled while the right side defect (CD2) was filled with eHA. Greater amount of regenerated bone with maximum defect filling was observed in CD2 at 120th day compared with CD1. In a comparison of the control groups with (AD1) and without collagen membrane (CD1), the new bone formation was mostly observed at the margins of the defect in CD1. The new bone foci at the centre of the defect were more in AD1 than in CD1 at 60th day. The centre of the defects was not completely united; instead; the gap was filled with connective tissue. The thickness of the matured bone was more in AD1 than in CD1 at 120thday. In a comparison of eHA with (AD2 and BD2) and without collagen membrane (CD2) the initial new woven bone growth was seen at both margins and in the centre of the defect in both AD2 and BD2 but it was seen only at the margins of the defect in CD2. At 120th day in all the subgroups, a thick continuous table was observed on both surfaces of the bone. For histomorphometric analysis, CD1 was taken as baseline. The bone growth observed was more between the 30th and 60th day. For total bone formation, AD1 and AD2, BD1 and BD2 were not statistically significant (p<0.05). CD1 and CD2 were statistically significant (p<0.05). For total fibrous connective tissue, there was no statistical significance in any of the groups (p<0.05). The thickness of the bone, the density of the matrix and the total bone formation progressively increased whereas the total fibrous connective tissue progressively decreased in all the groups throughout the healing process during the experimental period. Both eHA and sHA showed osteoconductive property. Collagen membrane acted as a scaffold for cell migration and contributed to the connective tissue and woven bone formation.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    MORPHO, HISTOLOGICAL AND HISTOCHEMICAL STUDIES ON OVARY AND OVIDUCT OF SOW (Sus scrofa domesticus)
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY TIRUPATI - 517502. (A.P.) INDIA, 2019-11) SIVA RAMA KRISHNA, NELAPATI; RAJU, N.K.B (MAJOR); NAGAMALLESWARI, Y; DEVI PRASAD, V
    The present study was conducted on six healthy adult female pigs of Large White Yorkshire aged between 12 months to 18 months. The ovaries and oviducts were collected from these pigs that are slaughtered in Department of Livestock Products Technology, NTR College of Veterinary Science, Gannavaram. The morphology of the ovaries revealed that the average length and width were 2.93±0.22 cm and 2.33±0.19 cm of left and 3.00±0.25 and 2.36±0.24 of right respectively. The average weight of ovary was 3.22±0.38 gm and 3.17±0.53 gm in left and right respectively. The average length of the oviduct was 30.58±1.63 and 30.63±2.28 cm in left and right oviducts respectively. The surface of the ovary lined by germinal epithelium, which was not continuous and had intermittent gaps. The tunica albugenia underlying the epithelium mostly consisted of collagen fibers and sparsely distributed elastic fibers. The primary follicles consisted of ovum surrounded by a layer of squamous cells while the secondary follicles were lined by two layers of cuboidal cells. The tertiary follicles were surrounded by many layers of polyhedral cells which contained spherical nuclei at the center of the cell. The average diameters of primary follicle, secondary follicles and tertiary follicles were 70.65±1.8μm, 295.82±29.3μm and 725.71±90.8μm respectively. In the Graafian follicles the antrum was filled with liquor folliculi. Average diameter of Graafian follicle was 1152.47±74.5μm. In the infundibulum mucosa thrown into several longitudinal primary folds which in turn gave several secondary and tertiary folds. The mucosa of ampulla was lined by pseudostratified ciliated and non ciliated columnar epithelium. The non ciliated cells called peg cells possessed basophilic granules at their apical ends and they were secretory in nature. The ciliated cells consisted of long kinocilia at their apical ends. The mucosa of the isthmus was thrown into 7 to 9 longitudinal folds indicated that reduced number of folds. Most of the folds does not show secondary and tertiary folds. In the ovary, the germinal epithelium, tunica albuginea, cortical stroma, primordial follicles and secondary follicles showed mild positive reaction for periodic acid Schiff (PAS). The cumulus oophorus, corona radiate and cytoplasm of ovum were negative for PAS reaction. The zona pellucida showed intense positive reaction for PAS. Membrana granulosa and theca interna showed mild positive reaction for Alcian blue (AB) while there was intense AB reaction in theca externa. The primary, secondary and tertiary follicles, the basal cells of membrane of granulosa and the cells of the theca interna showed intense lipid droplets in the follicular cells. In the oviduct, lining epithelium of mucosal folds in infundibulum and ampulla revealed strong AB positive reactions. In isthmus the apical portions of the lining epithelium of folds observed intermittent AB positive reaction.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    STUDY ON AGEING CHANGES IN THE CORNEA AND RETINA OF BUFFALOES (Bubalus bubalis)
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY TIRUPATI - 517502. (A.P.) INDIA, 2019-08) PRASANTH BABU, A; JAGAPATHI RAMAYYA, P (MAJOR); NAGAMALLESWARI, Y; SREENU, MAKKENA; LAKSHMI KAVITHA, K
    The present study was conducted on age related changes in the cornea and retina of buffaloes. A total of 63 samples from three age groups of buffaloes irrespective of their sex were used in this study. The corneal epithelium of buffaloes was nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium with 6 to 7 layers at early age and 12-14 layers of cells in adult animals. There were three types of cells noted in the cornea without any distinct boundaries viz., basal cells, intermediate or wing cells and superficial cells. The Bowman’s membrane was a homogenous and acellular layer and its thickness was increased with advancement of age. The stroma of cornea consisted of uniform collagen fibrils and they were loosely arranged in young animals and tightly packed in aged animals. The keratocytes were interposed between the collagen fibers, which were elongated and thick in young animals and thin in old animals. The Descemet’s membrane was a homogenous non cellular fibrous band with dark anterior band zone and light posterior band zone. The corneal endothelial cells were small and firmly adherent to each other in young buffaloes, but they were enlarged and increased in size in old buffaloes. The age related pigmentation was noticed in epithelium and stroma in aged animals. Numerous sub basal nerve plexuses observed in stroma i.e. between the basal cells, wing cells and superficial cells in all age group of animals. All layers of cornea showed moderate to strong reaction for neutral and acid mucopolysaccharides in buffaloes. In scanning electron microscopy study, no apical microvilli on superficial epithelial cells were noted. The Bowman’s layer was consisted of anterior clear zone lamina lucida and posterior dense zone lamina densa. The immunohistochemical reactivity of cytokeratin 3 was noted in the basal cells of corneal epithelium. The reactivity of CD 31 was increased with age in corneal endothelial cells. In the peripheral portion of retina the retinal pigment epithelium was cuboidal and they were packed with melanin pigment. The thickness of RPE was increased and quantity of melanin pigment was decreased with age advancement. In the photoreceptor layer two types of cells were noted i.e. rod and cone cells. They were tightly packed in young age, whereas loosely arranged in older animals. The number of cones progressively increased in number with advancement of age. The nuclei of outer nuclear layer were displaced into outer plexiform layer in the retina of old animals. The outer limiting membrane was continuous throughout the life in the present study. The thickness of outer plexiform layer was increased with advancement of age due to enhancement of synaptic fibers density. The number and density of horizontal, bipolar and amacrine cells were decreased from young to old buffaloes. The thickness of inner plexiform layer was increased with advancement of age due to increased cystoid spaces and thickening of retinal blood vessels between the synaptic fibers of bipolar, amacrine and ganglion cells. The large α and small β ganglion cells were observed in the retina of buffaloes. The number of α ganglion cells were progressively increased with advancement of age. The corpora amylacea and thickened blood vessels were observed in the nerve fiber layer of retina of old buffaloes. The inner limiting membrane was loose and interrupted in young animals whereas, thick and uninterrupted in old buffaloes. The total thickness of retina was decreased form young to adult animals in the present study. The increased number of cone cells, formation of cystoids spaces in the inner plexiform layer, increased size of ganglion cells, hyalinization and thickening of blood vessels in inner plexiform and nerve fiber layers were noticed with advancement of age in buffaloes. In the present study SEM revealed that RPE were tightly packed with rod to spherical and elongated melanin pigment granules in young animals and loosely packed in old buffaloes. Numerous capillaries were observed in the inner nuclear layer. Numerous cystoid spaces were also observed in outer plexiform and nerve fiber layers of retina in old animals. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that PAX6 activity on RPE was decreased with advancement of age in buffaloes. The activity of recoverin on photoreceptor cells and their nuclei and binucleate cells of retina was decreased in old animals. The activity of calbindin was strong to moderate in horizontal and amacrine cells and it’s activity decreased with advancement of age in buffaloes. Retina macula was appeared as strip like and pale in color located dorsal to the optic disc in buffaloes. In the present study macula contained large RPE cells with tightly packed melanin pigment, relatively more number of cone cells, cells of inner nuclear and less cystoid degeneration in inner plexiform and nerve fiber layers was observed when compared to peripheral retina. Further, there was less degenerating changes in the macula when compared to peripheral retina with advancement of age in buffaloes. The ora serrata was a nonsensory portion of the retina which includes pars ciliaris retina and pars iridica retina that cover ciliary body and iris. This region consisted of less number of rod cells, more number of horizontal and amacrine cells and few large ganglion cells were observed when compared to the peripheral retina in the present study. Optic disc was round to oval in shape and in this all retinal layers were gradually disappeared near the optic disc. At the junction of pars optica retina and optic disc RPE cells were small and devoid of melanin pigment. The blood vessels were large near optic papilla and they were small and tiny away from the papilla in buffaloes.