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Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University, Tirupati


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  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    ABSTRACT: The present work was undertaken on six breeding season and twelve non breeding season male emu birds to study, Gross, histology and histochemistry of reproductive system. The male genital system of the emu consisted paired testes, epididymal region, ductus deferens and a copulatory apparatus. The testes were black in colour. The left testis was bean shaped and larger while right testis was round and smaller. The epididymal region was located on the dorsomedial aspect of the testis. The ductus deferens showed straight tube, receptacle, ejaculatory duct and a papilla in a sequence from epididymal region to urodeum. The copulatory apparatus of emu consisted of an intromittent phallus and its associated structures ejaculatory groove region, paired retractor penis cranialis and caudalis muscles and paired paracloacal vascular bodies. The phallus consisted of a base and a free part with a blind tubular cavity inside. The base was conical shaped and formed by smaller right and larger left basal fibrolymphatic bodies. The free part of phallus consisted of an evertable pars cavernosa and non evertable pars glandularis. The ejaculatory groove region was a triangular area supported by a fibrocartilage. It was continued as spiral ejaculatory groove between two basal fibrolymphatic bodies. The retractor penis cranialis muscle was larger while the retractor penis cuadalis was smaller in size. The paracloacal vascular bodies were ellipsoid lymphatic structures located below the base of the phallus. There was a significant increase in size and length of the different structures of male reproductive system of emu during breeding season (October – February) compared to Non-breeding season (March – September). Despite the presence of small amount of septa there was no distinct lobulation of the testis melanocytes scattered in the capsule and interstitial tissue were responsible for the dark coloration of the testes. The rete testis was composed of intratesticular, intracapsular and extra testicular portion. The intratesticular rete was lined by a single layer of cuboidal or columnar cells. The intracapsular and extra testicular rete lined by simple cuboidal epithelium. The ductules of the epididymal region were lined by pseudostratified columnar epithelium with ciliated and non ciliated cells. The ductus deferens was lined by pseudostratified nonciliated columnar epithelium. The surfaces of basal fibrolymphatic bodies were lined by stratified squamous cornified epithelium which was changed to pseudostratified columnar type in deeper parts of ejaculatory groove.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY TIRUPATI - 517 502. (A.P.) INDIA, 2006-12) ARCHANA, K; Pramod Kumar, D(MAJOR); Nagamalleswari, Y; Raghavender, K.B.P
    ABSTRACT: The antioxidant potential of certain poly herbal compounds namely, nephtone and immuplus were assessed for prophylactic and therapeutic management of an experimental model of oxidative stress induced by ochratoxin, at a toxic level of 2.5 ppm in feed. A total of one hundred and fifty sexed male broiler chicks (Cobb strain) of day old age were procured for the study. The chicks were randomly divided into ten groups, consisting of fifteen in each group. Groups 1, 2 and 3 were maintained as basal diet control, nephtone control and immuplus control, respectively. Group 4 was maintained on ochratoxin @ 2.5 ppm in feed throughout 6 wks as toxic control without any treatment. Group 5 was maintained on ochratoxin @ 2.5 ppm in feed for the first 4 wks (28 days) of study and thereafter, maintained on basal diet for the next 2 wks (29 -42 days). Group 6 was maintained on ochratoxin @ 2.5 ppm in feed along with nephtone (@ 0.8 ml / 10 birds during first 2 wks; 1.6 ml / 10 birds during third and fourth week; 3.2 ml / 10 birds during the last 2 wks) in water, while group 7 was maintained on ochratoxin @ 2.5 pp
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY TIRUPATI - 517 502. (A.P.) INDIA, 2006-12) RANJITH KUMAR, S; Nagamalleswari, Y(MAJOR); Pramod Kumar, D; Girish Kumar, V
    ABSTRACT: The lower respiratory tract, defined anatomically as the region of respiratory system including trachea, bronchi, bronchioles and alveoli, were studied in Indian goat by means of both scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The epithelium of trachea was comprised of ciliated, non-ciliated, brush and basal cells. Ciliated cells were columnar and contained numerous cilia, round and elongated mitochondria and many vacuoles. Non-ciliated cells or mucous cells were columnar with basal nucleus, irregular sized mitochondria, and mucous granules of varying density. Brush cells were columnar with short microvilli, mucous granules, mitochondria, golgi complex, granular endoplasmic reticulum (GER) and smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER). Basal cells were arranged in two rows with few mitochondria, secretory vesicles and endoplasmic reticulum. Bronchial epithelium was lined with ciliated cells, mucous cells and basal cells. Characteristics of these cells were similar to trachea. But ciliation was less when compared to trachea. Epithelium of terminal bronchiole consists of two cell types. Ciliated cells were cuboidal contained short cilia, round mitochondria and many vacuoles. Non-ciliated cells or clara cells were protruded into lumen. Numerous large mitochondria and membrane bound inclusions were notable in non-ciliated cells or clara cells. Respiratory bronchioles were characterized by low cuboidal epithelium. The cells in this region contained large mitochondria, well developed golgi apparatus and unusual tubular structures. The epithelium of alveolar duct and alveoli was composed of type I and type II pneumocytes. Classical type I pneumocyte was squamous and had scanty cytoplasm which showed absence of cellular organelles. Type II pneumocytes were characterized by the presence of lamellar bodies and numerous mitochondria.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY TIRUPATI - 517 502. (A.P.) INDIA, 2006-10) SANTHI LAKSHMI, M; Chandrasekhara Rao, T.S(MAJOR); Pramod Kumar, D; Raghavender, K.B.P; Girish Kumar, V
    ABSTRACT : The present work was undertaken on 509 embryos and fetuses of Buffalo belonging to 112 age groups starting from 26 d to 310 d to study the prenatal development of facial and cranial bones and also the relationship of the developing skull with other structures of the head at different stages. Developmentally the bones of the buffalo skull were divisible into four groups i.e. Cartilaginous neurocranium, Membranous neurocranium, Membranous viscerocranium and Cartilaginous viscerocranium. The bones of the chondrocranium consisted of lower part of squamous occipital, exoccipital, basioccipital, petrous temporal, tympanic bulla, basisphenoid, presphenoid, ethmoid and turbinates. The frontal, parietal, interparietal and upper part of squamous occipital formed the desmocranium. The premaxilla, maxilla, palatine, pterygoid except its hamulus, malar, squamous temporal, tympanic ring, lacrimal, nasal, vomer and mandible except its condyle constituted membranous viscerocranium. The Meckel’s cartilage and its derivatives malleus and incus, mandibular condyle, Reichert’s cartilage and its derivatives including stapes, tympanohyoid, hyoid, styloid process of temporal and hamulus pterygoideus formed the cartilaginous viscerocranium. The chondrocranium was divisible into basal plate, prechordal part and paired otic and nasal capsules around sensory epithelia. The basal plate cartilage formed the basioccipital, exoccipital and lower part of the squamous occipital. The otic capsule formed petrous temporal bone and tympanic bulla. The prechordal part formed basisphenoid caudally and presphenoid cranially. The nasal capsule formed the ethmoid, turbinates, nasal septum and nasal cartilages. The bones of the cartilaginous neurocranium and cartilaginous viscerocranium were formed by endochondral ossification while intramembranous bone formation was seen in the bones of the membranous neurocranium and membranous viscerocranium. The bones of floor of the cranium except basioccipital were ossified from multiple centers. Most of the facial bones except mandible, vomer and hyoid as well as calvarial bones were ossified from single centers. Most of the chondrocranium was cartilaginous at 45 d. The ossification of skull first appeared in mandible, maxilla and malar at 45 d. Early ossification of lacrimal, squamous temporal and tympanic ring was evident at 49 d. The ossification of palatine was first observed at 53 d while premaxilla and vomer showed ossification at 56 d. The ossification of nasal bone was observed at 61 d. The ossification of desmocranium first appeared in frontal at 49 d. Parietal and interparietal bones showed ossification at 60 d and 64 d respectively. The ossification of chondrocranium first appeared in occipital and sphenoid at 62 d. The last bone of the skull to ossify was the dorsal turbinate. The maxillary sinus appeared first at 92 d among the sinuses of the skull. Five fontanelles in total i.e. unpaired anterior fontanelle, paired mastoid and sphenoidal fontanelles were observed. Wormian bones were observed at frontonasal junction in a few cases. The craniofacial index of skulls of 98 d to 310 d was ranged from 4.3: 1.8 to 13.7:13.5. The otic and optic vesicles were evident at 26 d. The enamel organs of premolars of upper jaw and incisors and premolars of lower jaw were evident at 62 d. The formation of choroid plexuses of ventricles was evident at 43 d while development of pituitary was observed at 41 d.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Morphological,Histological And Histochemical Studies Of Ovary And Oviduct In Non-Pregnant Adult Goat(Capra hircus)
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY TIRUPATI - 517 502. (A.P.) INDIA, 1991-07) Veeranandi, K; Singh, U.B(MAJOR); Padmanabha Iyyangar, M; Joshi, M.R