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Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University, Tirupati

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  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    DEVELOPMENT AND QUALITY EVALUATION OF LOW-FAT CHICKEN NUGGETS INCORPORATED WITH BROWN RICE FLOUR
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY, TIRUPATI - 517 502. (A.P.) INDIA, 2024-02) AJAY KUMAR KAKANI; SAI DILIP GUPTA .R (MAJOR); SURESH K. DEVATHKAL; ESWARA RAO .B; SUBHASHINI .N
    A study was conducted to investigate the effect of brown rice flour on the quality and storage stability of chicken meat nuggets. During first phase six trails were conducted by incorporating brown rice flour at three different levels viz., 2, 4 and 6 per cent. Among different treatments 6 per cent brown rice flour incorporated chicken nuggets showed higher physical (percent moisture, per cent crude protein, per cent crude fiber and total ash), physico-chemical (water holding capacity %, emulsion stability %) and sensory scores than control and other treatments. During second phase chicken nuggets incorporated with 2%, 4% and 6% brown rice flour along with control were selected to evaluate the quality and shelf-life of chicken meat nuggets at refrigeration (4±1°C) storage. Storage studies revealed that Physico chemical properties such as pH, 2- TBARS and free fatty acid value had significantly (P<0.05) higher values in 6% brown rice flour incorporated chicken nuggets when compared to other treatments and control and its values also increased significantly (P<0.05) as the refrigeration (4±1°C) storage period progressed from 0 to 9 days. Sensory evaluation revealed a progressively decreasing trend in all sensory quality parameters in control and treatments during refrigeration storage period. Based on the result obtained in the study it might be concluded that chicken meat nuggets could be prepared satisfactorily on addition of up to 6% level of brown rice flour and can be stored up to 9 days without adversely affecting the quality of the products under refrigeration storage.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    OPTIMIZATION OF CHICKEN MEAT BISCUITS WITH DIFFERENT OLEOGELS
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY, TIRUPATI - 517 502. (A.P.) INDIA, 2024-02) SONIA BANISETTY; NAGA MALLIKA .E (MAJOR); ESWARA RAO .B; SRINIVASA RAO .T; SURESH K DEVATKAL
    Omega-3 fatty acids are of increasing interest due to their health benefits but face various physical limitations because of their liquidity. Using these omega fatty acid rich oils with selected gelator substance can yield oleogels that are solids at room temperature. Oleogels of both olive oil and flaxseed oil with 5 per cent carnauba wax out performed in their physical characteristics. These oleogels were used as saturated fat replacers in chicken meat biscuits. The developed formulations had significantly (P<0.05) higher baking yield, better texture profile, lower saturated fat content, higher PUFA/SFA and h/H ratios with good organoleptic quality. In the second phase of the study, the developed chicken meat biscuits with flaxseed oil oleogel were subjected to both ambient (28±1℃) and refrigerated (4±1℃) storage temperatures for a period of 45 days. Though both the treatments had exhibited healthier fatty acid profile, flaxseed oil oleogel incorporated chicken meat biscuits were chosen for shelf-life evaluation study due to their significantly lower (P<0.05) saturated fat content compared to their counterparts. The pH values were in decreasing trend, whereas, 2-Thiobarbituric acid values were in increasing trend during the storage period. The total plate count (log cfu/g) and yeast and mould count of chicken meat biscuits were not detectable during initial days, but later on, counts were significantly increased (P<0.05). The organoleptic study throughout the storage period showed a considerable decline in all sensory attributes. The biscuits did, however, meet panellists acceptable limits till 40 days of both ambient and refrigeration storage.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    EFFECT OF NANO ENCAPSULATED CINNAMON (CINNAMOMUM ZYLANICUM) ESSENTIAL OIL ON QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF PORK SAUSAGES
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY, TIRUPATI - 517 502. (A.P.) INDIA, 2024-02) MOUNIKA DUGGINENI; ESWARA RAO .B (MAJOR); BABJI. Y; AMBEDKAR .Y.R; SRINIVASA RAO .T
    The Cinnamon essential oil was encapsulated by zinc oxide and surface morphology was studied under scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The SEM images demonstrated that the nano particles mediated by cinnamon essential oil were primarily spherical in shape, forming smooth, rounded structures with clearly defined morphology. In first phase, pork sausages were standardized with suitable level of CEO at concentrations of 0.025%, 0.05% and 0.075% compared with control. Addition of different concentrations of CEO significantly (P<0.05) affected the sensory scores of pork sausages. Pork sausages added with 0.05% CEO had significantly (P<0.05) higher colour and flavour, mouth coating and overall acceptability scores than control, 0.025% CEO and 0.075% CEO added pork sausages. The tenderness and juiciness scores of pork sausages was not significantly (P>0.05) affected by addition of different concentrations of CEO. Addition of different concentrations of nanoencapsulated CEO significantly (P<0.05) affected the sensory scores of pork sausages. Pork sausages added with 0.01% NCEO had significantly (P<0.05) higher colour and flavour, mouth coating and overall acceptability scores than control, 0.02% NCEO and 0.04% NCEO added pork sausages. The tenderness and juiciness scores of pork sausages did not significantly (P>0.05) affect by addition of different concentrations of NCEO. Pork sausages added with 0.05 % CEO and 0.01 % NCEO rated superior sensory scores a n d thus selected for further studies during refrigerated (4±1°C) storage. In the second phase, comparative anti-oxidant and anti-microbial efficacy of CEO, NCEO added pork sausages with control and synthetic antioxidant (BHT) added pork sausages were determined by evaluating physico-chemical, microbial and sensory qualities at 5 days regular interval up to 30 days stored in refrigeration (4±1°C) temperature. Pork sausages added with 0.01% NCEO had significantly (P<0.01) lower pH, 2 TBARS values (mg malonaldehyde/kg of product), per cent FFA values and water activity than control and pork sausages added with 0.01% BHT and 0.05% CEO. Control and pork sausages added with BHT spoiled after 15 and 20 days of refrigerated storage respectively. A significant (P<0.01) increase in pH, 2-TBARS values, and per cent FFA values were observed as progressing of the storage period progressed in both control and treated sausages. There is significant decrease found in water activity in treatments during storage and 0.01% NCEO has lower water activity compared to control, BHT and CEO. Pork sausages added with 0.01% NCEO had significantly (P<0.01) lower total plate counts, total staphylococcal count and total yeast and mold count than control and remaining formulations. Coliform counts were not detected up to 5th day in control and all treated sausages. From 10th day onwards total coliform counts were noticed except in 0.01%NCEO pork sausages. Beyond 15th day, coliform growth was observed in sausages with NCEO, but even then, they had significantly (P<0.01) lower coliform counts compared to the control and other formulations.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    QUANTITATIVE IDENTIFICATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND VALIDATION OF SPECIES SPECIFIC ANIMAL DERIVED GELATIN BY CONVENTIONAL AND MULTIPLE REACTION MONITORING MASS SPECTROMETRY APPROACHES
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY, TIRUPATI - 517 502. (A.P.) INDIA, 2023-12) BIDYUT PRAVA MISHRA; ESWARA RAO .B (MAJOR); NAVEENA .B.M; NAGA MALLIKA .E; SRINIVASA RAO .T; NARENDRA NATH .D
    Comprehensive analysis of gelatin extracted from water buffalo hide, pig, sheep, broiler chicken and spent hen skins using different acid and/alkali pre-treatment followed by thermo-hydrolysis was carried out. Highest (P < 0.05) gelatin yield was obtained from sheep skin (SSG, 9.55%) and water buffalo hide (BHG, 9.47%) relative to chicken (CSG, 6.06%), pig (PSG, 5.98%) and spent hen (SHSG, 5.98%) skins, respectively. The SSG showed highest transmittance (%) among all the gelatin samples. Buffalo hide presented the highest collagen solubility (75.76%), followed by chicken (68.95%), sheep (59.58%), spent hen (11.74%) and pig (5.23%) skin, respectively. The PSG gels showed lower L*, a* and b* values and higher (P < 0.05) viscosity relative to other samples. The SSG had higher (P < 0.05) gel strength, foaming capacity and foaming stability as compared to others. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analysis of gelatin exhibited the presence of amide-I peaks for all samples in the lower frequency range (1629.9-1647.26 cm-1), whereas, only SSG, BHG and PSG revealed amide-II peaks at lower frequency range (1500.67-1523.82 cm-1) indicating NH deformation. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed that BHG gel had a consistent network of thicker strands and medium-sized holes whereas, PSG and SSG gel showed a sheet-like appearance with no voids. The SDS-PAGE fractionation of extracted gelatin powder followed by MALDI-TOF MS analysis has identified the collagen alpha 1 (I) chain as a predominant component responsible for gelatin stability and detected unique species-specific peptides. Current study has demonstrated the potential of using water buffalo hide and sheep skin as an alternative to pig skin/bovine hides or bones for industrial production of gelatin with superior quality attributes. In the second phase of experiment, the binary mixture samples were prepared by spiking chicken meat patties (CMP) with 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.5% (w/w) of in-house derived pig skin gelatin (PSG)/water buffalo hide gelatin (BHG). Gelatin was extracted from these binary mixture samples by using cold acetone and were subjected to LC-MS/MS multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mass spectrometry for authentication of presence of bovine and or porcine gelatin in processed meat products. The current study has identified 2 unique bovine gelatin peptides of m/z 781.3364 (GETGPAGPAGPIGPVGAR) and m/z 852.7189 and 3 unique porcine gelatin peptides of m/z 774.570 (GETGPAGPAGPVGPVGAR), m/z 971.776 (VPAGECCPVCPEGEVSPTDQETTGVEGPK) and m/z 727.436 and the optimized MRM-MS method was successful in detecting BHG/PSG in chicken meat patties up to a 0.5% (w/w) of the total weight and these levels can be considered as the minimum level of detection (LOD) of BHG / PSG in gelatin containing processed products. By using calibration curves for bovine gelatin (certified reference material) peptide of m/z 781.3 (transition 781.3  127.1466) and porcine gelatin specific peptide of m/z 774. 570 (transition 774.570  70.1561), gelatin content of 10.03 nmol/ml and 45.88 nmol/ml were detected in gelatin samples extracted from cooked CMP spiked with 0.5% (w/w) of BHG and PSG, respectively. To screen the undeclared source of gelatin in commercial samples available in the market, 25 commercial food samples (marshmallows, commercial gelatin powder, jelly candies, chicken sausages, chicken meat balls, chewing gums and chocolate cookies) were procured from the local market of Hyderabad. The gelatin (if any) extracted using cold acetone and subjected to MRM mass spectrometry to authenticate the animal origin of gelatin in commercial samples. The findings revealed that 2 bovine gelatin peptides and 3 porcine gelatin peptides identified in the current study are highly unique and specific in detecting the species of gelatin and gelatin-containing foods and are able to identify the adulteration of processed foods with BHG and PSG. In the present study, out of 25 tested samples, 4 samples showed the presence of bovine gelatin and 6 samples showed the presence of porcine gelatin. The LC-MS/MS MRM method optimized in the present study was suitable in detecting the presence of animal derived gelatin in commercial samples.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    ISOLATION AND MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANT ESCHERICHIA COLI IN PORK PRODUCTION CHAIN IN HASSAN DISTRICT OF KARNATAKA
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY, TIRUPATI - 517 502. (A.P.) INDIA, 2023-06) SUDARSHAN .S; ESWARA RAO .B (MAJOR); WILFRED RUBAN .S; NAGA MALLIKA .E; SRINIVASA RAO .T; NARENDRA NATH .D
    The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the occurrence of AMR E. coli in pork production chain in and around Hassan. Initial survey indicated that majority of the pig farmers were marginal farmers (65%) and kitchen / hotel waste was the major source of feed. The major antibiotics used were enrofloxacin followed by streptopenicillin, tetracycline, fortified procaine penicillin sulphonamides (Co-trimazole) and antibiotics were administered by themselves (92%). A total of 280 samples (40 each from piglets, weaners and adults, 20 feed, 30 water and 20 hand swabs from 10 pig farms and 20 each from meat samples, cutting board, hand swabs and knives swab and 10 water sample from retail pork outlets ) were screened and 227 E. coli isolates were used for further characterization. The average E. coli count ranged from 6.104 to 6.464 log10cfu/g. The overall occurrence of E. coli from various samples from pig production system was 67.89 per cent (129/190). The highest per cent of AMR E. coli counts as proportion of total E. coli was observed in human hand swabs (83.90%) followed by water trough (30.56%) and piglets (22.06%) samples as compared to other samples in this study. The overall prevalence of tetracycline, fluoroquinolone, ESBL resistant and colistin resistant E. coli in the entire pork production chain irrespective of the samples was 52.11, 37.37, 17.89 and 13.16 per cent, respectively. Of the 208 isolates, 191 isolates (91.83%) carried either one or the other gene, whereas, only 8.17 per cent of the isolates did not harbor any of the genes screened. Majority of the isolates carried tetA (68.38%), followed by blaTEM (55.77%), qnrS (44.23%), and none of the isolates carried colistin resistance gene (mcr1 to mcr5). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing revealed that majority of the isolates showed resistance to tetracycline (86.96-100%) followed by extended-spectrum b lactamase inhibitors and fluoroquinolones and complete sensitivity to carbapenem followed by aminoglycosides. It was observed that 96.92 per cent of E. coli isolates were MDR. The occurrence of ESBL and colistin resistant E. coli was 17.89 and 0.714 per cent per cent, respectively.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    A STUDY ON EFFECT OF FINGER MILLET FLOUR AND DIFFERENT ANTIOXIDANTS ON QUALITY AND STORAGE STABILITY OF FUNCTIONAL PORK SAUSAGES
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY, TIRUPATI - 517 502. (A.P.) INDIA, 2023-05) VASU DWARAPUREDDY; AMBEDKAR .Y.R (MAJOR); ESWARA RAO .B; SUBHASHINI .N
    A study was conducted to investigate the effect of finger millet flour and different antioxidants on the quality and storage stability of pork sausages. During first phase six trails were conducted by incorporating finger millet flour at three different levels viz., 1, 2 and 3 per cent. Among different treatments, 3 per cent finger millet flour incorporated pork sausages showed higher physical (per cent moisture, per cent crude fiber and calcium level), physico-chemical (cooking yield) and sensory scores than control. So in the second phase natural antioxidants that are moringa leaf powder at 1% (T1), ponnaganti leaf powder at 1% (T2) and Butylated Hydroxy Toluene (BHT) at 0.01% (T3) levels were added separately to the 3 per cent finger millet flour incorporated pork sausages. The antioxidant treated samples along with control were stored at refrigeration (4±1°C) temperature and were analysed for a period of 11 days at 0, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 11thday interval. Storage studies revealed that pork sausages incorporated with 1% moringa leaf powder showed significantly (P<0.05) lower values in pH, 2-TBARS, tyrosine, total plate count and yeast and mould count than other treatments and its values increased significantly (P<0.05) as the refrigeration (4±1°C) storage period progressed from 0 to 11 days. There was a non-significant (P>0.05) difference in per cent cooking loss among the treatments, but there was a significant (P<0.05) increase in the per cent cooking loss as the refrigeration storage period progressed from 0 to 11 days. Sensory evaluation revealed a progressively decreasing trend in all sensory quality parameters in control and treatments during refrigeration storage period. Based on the result obtained in the study it might be concluded that pork sausages could be prepared satisfactorily on addition of 1% moringa leaf powder and can be stored upto 11 days without adversely affecting the quality of the products under refrigeration storage.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    STUDIES ON ENHANCEMENT OF NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF CHICKEN PATTIES BY ADDING PROSOMILLET AND DIFFERENT NATURAL ANTIOXIDANTS
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY, TIRUPATI - 517 502. (A.P.) INDIA, 2023-05) LOHITH KUMAR REDDY .L; AMBEDKAR .Y.R (MAJOR); ESWARA RAO .B; SUBHASHINI .N
    A study was conducted to investigate the effect of natural and synthetic antioxidants on the quality and storage stability of chicken meat patties incorporated with prosomillet. Trials were conducted to incorporate prosomillet at two different levels 1.5 and 3 percent to select a binder at its optimum desirable level. Among different treatments, chicken meat patties incorporated with prosomillet at 3 percent possessed superior physico-chemical and organoleptic qualities, hence prosomillet at 3 percent level was selected for further studies. In the next phase, chicken meat patties standardized with prosomillet at 3 percent level were treated with dried mint leaf power at 1 percent(T1), dried ponnaganti leaf powder(T2) at 1 percent and BHA(T3) at 0.01 percent separately to evaluate the quality and shelf life of chicken meat patties at refrigerated (4 ± 1℃) temperature. Chicken patties incorporated with mint leaf powder showed significantly (p<0.05) lower values for pH, cooking loss, 2-tbars, tyrosine values and microbial counts and significantly (p<0.05) higher values for various attributes in organoleptic evaluation under refrigeration than control and other treatments. Therefore, it is concluded that mint leaf powder could be successfully added to chicken meat batter to function as natural antioxidant with additional health benefits and increasing consumer appeal.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF CELLULOSE FILM WITH NANO EMULSIONS OF GINGER AND TURMERIC FOR PACKAGING OF CHICKEN NUGGETS
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY TIRUPATI - 517 502. (A.P.) INDIA, 2023-03) ROSHNI; NAGA MALLIKA .E (MAJOR); ESWARA RAO .B; SRINIVASA RAO .T
    In the present research work, an attempt was made to develop nano carboxy methyl cellulose based edible active films incorporated with turmeric and ginger nano emulsions and to evaluate their effect on the quality of chicken meat nuggets. Different films i.e., nano carboxy methyl cellulose film without turmeric and ginger extract nano emulsions (C), nano carboxy methyl cellulose film with nano turmeric extract emulsions with 3 per cent (T1), 6 per cent (T2), 10 per cent (T3) and nano carboxymethyl cellulose film with nano ginger extract emulsions with 1 per cent (T4), 2 per cent (T5) and 5 per cent (T6) were developed. Among all these films, two best films were selected from each turmeric and ginger groups along with control and chicken meat nuggets were packaged in the above films. The efficacy of these films in preserving the quality and extending the shelf-life of chicken meat nuggets was studies under refrigerated (4 ± 10C) storage period for 20 days. The film characteristics like film Thickness, Grammature, Tensile strength, per cent elongation at break, Water vapour permeability, Water sorption kinetics, Opacity, Antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and Scanning electron microscopy were studied. The mean film thickness values differed non-significantly (P≥0.05) among T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6 and control films. The mean grammature was significantly (P≤0.05) higher in T4 film compared to other formulations. The mean tensile strength and per cent elongation at break values of T5 was significantly (P≤0.05) higher than the rest of the formulations. The set of T5, T4, T3 and T2 and the set of T5, T1, T4 and T6 films had recorded a decreasing order of tensile strength and percent elongation at break respectively. The mean water vapour permeability and opacity values was significantly (P≤0.05) higher in nano turmeric incorporated films compared to nano ginger extracts incorporated films and control films. The mean water sorption kinetics of T4 was significantly (P≤0.05) lower than the other treatment formulations. The mean antioxidant activity values were significantly (P≤0.05) higher in T2 and T3 films compared to control and other treatment formulations. The antimicrobial activity of the films were not evident against E.coli but was evident against S. aureus. The films were rather bacteriostatic than bactericidal. Depending on the quality of above films, T2 and T4 films were selected among each turmeric and ginger groups and were studied for their ultrastructure along with control film. Further the efficacy of these films was evaluated in terms of quality maintenance and shelf-life extension of chicken meat nuggets at refrigerated (4 ± 10C) storage. The Fourier transform infrared spectrum wavenumbers of T2, T4 and control films were non-significantly (P≥0.05) different.The scanning electron microscopy had revealed more homogenous and compact structure in T2 and T4 films as that of control with slight difference. The pH values of chicken meat nuggets wrapped in turmeric extract nano emulsion incorporated film (T2) were significantly (P≤0.05) lower than the nuggets that were wrapped in T4 and control films. The pH values of chicken meat nuggets wrapped in T2 film ranged from 6.03 to 7.12 which were well within the limits during storage period. 2-TBARS and Per cent cooking loss values of chicken meat nuggets wrapped in ginger extract nano emulsion incorporated film (T4) were significantly (P≤0.05) lower than the nuggets that were wrapped in T2 and control films. The 2-TBARS and Per cent cooking loss values of chicken meat nuggets wrapped in T4 film ranged from 0.41 to 1.63 mg of malonaldehyde per kg of the sample and 6.59 to 23.98 per cent, respectively which were well within the limits during storage period. The total plate count were significantly (P≤0.05) lower in nuggets wrapped in treatment films than nuggets wrapped in control film and the yeast and mould count were significantly (P≤0.05) lower in the T4 film packaged nuggets when compared with nuggets packaged with control and T2 film. Sensory scores were significantly (P≤0.05) higher in nuggets packaged in treatments films than nuggets wrapped in control films.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    STUDIES ON PREVENTION OF WARMED-OVER FLAVOUR IN PRECOOKED CHICKEN MEAT
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY TIRUPATI - 517 502. (A.P.) INDIA, 2023-03) GIRIJA SRAVANI. V; NAGA MALLIKA .E (MAJOR); SEN .A.R; ESWARA RAO .B; SRINIVASA RAO .T
    In the present research work an attempt has been made to prevent the occurrence of warmed-over flavour in precooked chicken meat. In first part of the study different meat products like chicken breast pieces, chunks, patties and sausages were cooked by various cooking methods. In this, chicken breast pieces were subjected to barbequing and charcoal grilling, chicken chunks were subjected to conventional oven cooking and charcoal grilling, chicken patties were subjected to conventional oven cooking and electric grilling and sausages were subjected to steam cooking and steam cooking coupled with electric grilling. Grilled chicken chunks, breast, patties and sausages had significantly (p<0.05) lower 2-TBARS, FFA, peroxide values, total plate count and yeast and mould count values than steam cooked sausages and conventional oven cooked chunks. At the end of storage period warmed-over flavour was experienced in steam cooked sausages and conventional oven cooked chunks. In the second part of study, based on intensity of the warmed-over flavour from part 1 samples (steam cooked sausages and conventional oven cooked chunks) were selected and different preventive methods like marination (T1), marination and vacuum packaging (T2) and marination, vacuum packaging with addition of polyphosphates (T3) were applied. T3 sausages and chunks had significantly lower 2-TBARS, free fatty acid, total plate count, total psychrophilic count and yeast and mould count values compared to other treatments and control. T3 chunks and sausages had significantly (p<0.05) higher sensory scores. In sensory evaluation, warmed over flavour did not develop in T3 and T2 whereas it was noticed in control by 28 days and in T1 by 35 days. In the third part of the study the possible preventive method (vacuum packaging) was validated with commercial precooked products such as peri-peri chunks, sausage chunks and chicken keema available in the Hyderabad market. Vacuum packaged peri peri chunks, sausage chunks and keema had significantly (p<0.05) lower 2-TBARS, free fatty acid, microbial count values and higher sensory scores than aerobically packaged peri-peri chunks, sausage chunks and keema at up to 8th day of storage period. Aerobic samples were spoiled by 4th day of storage period whereas vacuum samples didn’t show any off- flavours up to 8th day of storage. Warmed-over flavours were developed in in keema samples towards the end of storage period under refrigeration. It was concluded from the products stated that warmed-over flavour was developed in steam cooked sausages and conventional oven cooked chunks after one month of frozen storage with intermittent thawing, reheating followed by one week of refrigerated storage. The combination of hurdles viz. marination, addition of polyphosphate and vacuum packaging exerted the considerable preventive effect during storage of products. In the validation study, the vacuum packaging proved to be efficient in preventing the warmed-over flavour generation when coupled with addition of spices and polyphosphates.