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Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University, Tirupati


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  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    (Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University, TIRUPATI – 517 502,A.P, 2012-07) KRISHNA RAO, CHIRITHOTI.S; GANGA RAJU, G (Major); RAVINDRA REDDY, Y; PUNYA KUMARI, B
    ABSTRACT : An attempt has been made in the present study to find out the sheep production practices in Prakasam district of Andhra Pradesh. A total of 225 sheep farmers were selected from 15 mandals in three revenue divisions. The average age of shepherd was 41.43 ± 0.74 years. Majority of shepherds were illiterates (52.89%) followed by primary (24.89%), secondary (16.89%) and college (5.33%) level education. Nearly 65 per cent of the shepherds belonged to Backward Communities and 23.56, 9.78 and 2.22 per cent belongs to other castes, Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribes, respectively. The average family size in sheep farmers was 4.85 ± 0.32 with mean male and females of 1.37 ± 0.09, 1.36 ± 0.09 and 1.22 ± 0.08, 2.12 ± 0.14 in adult and young groups, respectively. The main occupation was sheep rearing (50.22%) followed by agriculture and animal husbandry (29.33%), agriculture (10.67%) and agricultural labourers (9.78%) in the study area. Only 13.33 per cent of the sheep farmers possessed leased land and 43.56 per cent had their own lands and remaining 43.11 per cent were landless. The mean wet and dry land possessed by the sheep farmer was 1.74 ± 0.13 acres and the land holding sheep farmers belongs to marginal farmers (73.44%), small farmer (16.41%) and semi medium farmer (10.16%) categories, respectively. The other livestock holding by the sheep farmers includes cattle 2.08 ± 0.42, buffaloes 1.93 ± 0.42 and goats 7.13 ± 0.47. Sheep production system followed in study area was extensive management type. Based on category of sheep the flock consists of 1.35 ± 0.45 rams, 44.34 ± 1.10 ewes, 7.11 ± 0.48 young male and 12.52 ± 0.52 young female stock and with an overall flock size of 64.91± 1.66. The overall mean of sheep in the flocks was 48.98 ± 1.47 Nellore Jodipi and 15.95 ± 1.00 Nellore crosses type. The Housing pattern with sheep farmers was permanent (13.33%), temporary housing (86.67%) and houses were open type (52.44%) and with gravel flooring. Sixty per cent farmers followed soil replacement. Majority of the sheep farmers (86.77 %) were using thatched roofs. Most of the farmers (83.11%) followed continuous grazing and 16.89 per cent followed split grazing. Sheep were allowed for grazing in summer months for 7.48 ± 0.06 hrs and in other seasons 6.24 ± 0.03 hrs. Only 28.44 per cent of sheep farmers were feeding with concentrate to their rams. Tree leaf feeding to young lambs was observed in 50.67 per cent of sheep flocks. Majority of sheep farmers (88.44%) followed migration and traveled an average distance of (65.83%) less than 50 Km, (17.59%) of 50-100 km and (16.58%) of more than 100 Km. The migration period of sheep flocks was (78.39%) upto three months and (21.61%) above 3 months. The average number of breeding rams was 1.35 ± 0.04 and majority was 4 teeth. Majority of farmers (40.0%) purchased the rams from other sheep flocks and (28.44%) used their own rams. Majority (61.78 %) of shepherds followed replacement of rams while (32.37%) with seasonal frequency. The lifetime lambings per ewe was 6.40 ± 0.05. The mean breedable female sheep available in farmer flocks was 34.00 ± 0.81. Among the female breeding stock, lambings were ranged from 18.97 ± 0.81 to 28.53 ± 0.88. The average Age at First Mating and Age at First Lambing in ewes was 15.60 ± 0.11 and 23.07 ± 0.11months, respectively. The prolificacy in the ewes was 96.00 per cent as single births and 4.00 percent twin births. Mean lambings were observed in winter (38.96 ± 0.32) followed by summer (15.93 ± 0.46) and rainy (13.04 ± 0.17) seasons. The mean body weights in Nellore cross rams was 35.80 ± 0.88, 43.87 ± 0.67, 50.39 ± 0.59 and 56.01 ± 1.56 kg at age of 2 teeth, 4 teeth, 6 teeth and 8 teeth and in ewes at corresponding ages were 28.68 ± 0.49, 31.20 ± 0.36, 35.68 ± 0.41 and 41.35 ± 0.28 kg, respectively. In young lambs the overall mean body weights were 2.99 ± 0.05, 13.22 ± 0.19, 19.16 ± 0.21, 22.62 ± 0.34 , 27.07 ± 0.46 kg and 2.63 ± 0.05, 12.52 ± 0.14, 18.92 ± 0.24, 21.81 ± 0.29 and 25.73 ± 0.35 kg in male and females at birth, 3 months, 6 months, 9 months and 12 months age groups, respectively. The average body weight in Nellore jodipi rams was 33.29 ± 0.63, 40.00 ± 0.71, 46.00 ± 0.89 and 51.25 ± 0.59 kg and 26.03 ± 0.54, 30.02 ± 0.53, 33.68 ± 0.55 and 39.20 ± 0.64 kg in adult ewes at 2 teeth, 4 teeth, 6 teeth and 8 teeth age groups, respectively. In young lambs the overall mean body weights were 2.95 ± 0.07, 12.93 ± 0.28, 18.45 ± 0.45, 20.96 ± 0.75 , 25.11 ± 0.56 kg and 2.59 ± 0.06, 12.05 ± 0.18, 15.72 ± 0.23, 18.57 ± 0.41 and 23.08 ± 0.51 kg in male and females at birth, 3 months, 6 months, 9 months and 12 months age groups, respectively. Most of the shepherds were not vaccinating (39.56%) and deworming (22.67%) their sheep. Sheep were vaccinated against the diseases viz. Entero Toxaemia (23.96%), Haemorrhagic septicemia (22.19%), Foot and Mouth Disease (4.44), Pestis des Petitis Ruminantis (23.37 %) and sheep pox (26.04 %). Majority (77.33%) of the sheep farmers expressed the problem with ticks and fleas (19.56 %). Only 19.56 per cent sheep farmers were carried out deticking. Disposal of sheep was in the frequency of monthly (29.91%), quarterly (6.00%), half yearly (16.44%) and annually (19.32%). The average number of sheep disposed was 11.81 ± 3.71 in all category of age. The sale price of sheep followed by the shepherds was by age, sex and live weight of the animals with 100.00, 68.44 and 31.56, per cent respectively. The mean sale price of different age group of sheep was Rs. 6286.96± 689.12, Rs. 4590 ± 965.51, Rs.1722.38 ± 106.35 and Rs.1546.85 ± 103.84 for rams, ewes, ram lambs and ewe lambs, respectively. Majority of the marketing sheep were reached to the shandies by walk (65.78%) and by different type of transport vehicles (34.22 %). About 56.88 per cent of the sheep farmers were using the sheep manure for agricultural purposes. The average sale price of manure per cart load and truck load was Rs.163.98 ± 2.77 and Rs. 572.92 ± 10.84, respectively. The overall manure disposal frequency was 3.17 ± 0.09 for cart and 6.50 ± 0.52 for truck loads. Majority of the farmers (16.02%) expressed financial problems. Markapur division shepherds (15.51%) were facing water scarcity in summer months. The other problems were lack of grazing resources (12.30%), Veterinary services (11.33%), Housing (10.94%) and Drinking water resources (10.55%), while the other less intensity problems were limited/non availability of breeding rams, diseases, marketing, migration and labour with the percentages of 10.16, 8.98, 7.81, 6.84 and 5.08, respectively.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    (Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University, TIRUPATI – 517 502,A.P, 2012-01) SURESH RATHOD; SARJAN RAO, K (Major); RAVINDRA REDDY, Y; SHARMA, G.R.K; PUNYA KUMARI, B
    ABSTRACT : The present study aimed to investigate the impact of dairy cooperative societies in the empowerment of women by taking the success story of “Mulukanoor Women Cooperative Dairy” situated at Mulukanoor village of Bheemdevarpally mandal, Karimnagar district in Andhra Pradesh by adopting Ex. post–facto design. The study was conducted in 40 villages, 50 each from 40 villages equal to 2000 members and 850 non members selected randomly and the data was collected by pretested interview schedules developed for a detailed study on the perceptions of members about dairying from both members and non members. The study also emphasized the problems faced in cooperatives, technical know how on the feeding, breeding, health care management of dairy animals. The successful factors attributed to socio economic upliftment of the women members in the areas of input services and marketing provided by MWCD were identified and analyzed. The milk production, consumption and disposal pattern among the member groups Vs non member groups and cost economics of milk production were calculated. Required information was also collected from Mulukanoor Dairy Cooperative Society (union) Annual Administrative and Financial Reports from 2002-2010. The data obtained were analyzed by suitable standard statistical procedures, Cobb-Douglas production function for analyzing optimal resource use efficiency, qualitative methods to measure the Standard Plate Count (SPC), Coliform and MBRT both at society level and union level. Final conclusions were drawn and suggestions were given in a module for further improvement of MWCD. The profile study on MWCD showed that the membership enrollment of 8426 at its establishment in 2002 has been enhanced to 19616 in 2010-11. A 2.5 fold increase in the milk procurement was recorded in a decade (2002-2010) from 10.68 (‘000) Lt. to 26.06 (‘000) Lt. during 2010-2011. The per day milk sales (Lt) varied from 4.3 (‘000) in 2002 to 55.42 (‘000) during 2010 showed thirteen folds of growth. The financial turnover during 2010-11 was Rs.198.34 crores. The asset value increased from Rs.4.16 crores in 2002 to Rs.20.39 crores in 2011. The financial position of union is strong and showed 13.29 percent growth in share capital and 19.80 per cent growth in Vikasa Podupu (savings scheme) by clearing all the debts. The employment generation has been increased from 28 in 2003 to 70 by 2011 at the society level and from 122 in 2003 to 180 by 2011 at union level. The higher net profit ratio and returns on total assets indicate the profitability. On the other hand, the gross profit margin ratio rose to its peak in the early years of establishment with 1:16.1 ratio, there after noticed a decline trend (1:6.23). The employees perceptions were drawn towards the work nature and satisfaction level at MWCD. 80 percent employees were trained in dairy activity and they were quite satisfied with the work and 62 percent expressed that the treatment of higher authorities towards them is very good. The special efforts put in by the employees in the success of the dairy included, “reporting the defects to the authorities, hard work and regular and prompt advises to the farmers on their problems related to dairying”. The respondents in study were 50.65 and 46.94 percent of marginal farmers from member and non member groups respectively. Similarly, 54.25 and 54.82 percent belonged to backward class in member and non member groups, respectively. Middle age group were predominant (62.30 Vs 83.53%) with medium size family (46.40 Vs 50.82%), followed by small family size (32.25 Vs 21.53%) when compared member Vs non member group. Among the tested respondents, higher number of members group were possessing the educational status of primary education (49 Vs 38.88%) than non members. More number (62.12%) of respondents were illiterates in non member respondents category. According to annual income, majority of respondents belonged to medium level income groups (72.30). The animal holdings of respondents were maximum upto two in members group, where in 14.4 per cent of respondents posses four and above animals and no non member posses more than three animals. The buffalo is the dominant species in both the categories. The total milk production, family consumption, per capita consumption, animal holdings and income from milk values per day were 3.38 Lt, 0.32 Lt, 58.2 ml, 0.63 and Rs.97.43 which were significantly (P<0.01) higher in members group when compared to non members. The milk production recorded was higher in the members group than non member group (9.76 Vs 6.38 Lt per day). In this study, it was observed that as the herd size increased the milk production also increased. The young age members group produced higher quantity of milk (9.52 Lt) when compared to middle age (9.16 Lt). The average milk production per day was 2.41 Lt which was higher in member group when compared to non members based on their social status. The scheduled caste and scheduled tribe farmers also produced more milk in comparison to other castes. The landless members produced more milk (11.77 Vs 5.53 Lt) when compared to other categories (marginal farmers) on land holding basis. The large family size group produced more milk (10.44 Vs 7.24 Lt) when compared to the small and medium sized family respondents. Respondents with higher secondary educational level have produced more volume of milk with more consumption and sales. The per capita consumption observed was more (353 Vs 255 ml /day) in members group than non members due to increase in herd size and inturn total milk production. The consumption was higher in marginal farmers in members group (305 ml/day) and small farmers (302 ml/day) in non members group, who are meeting the ICMR recommendations. Large family size respondents were consuming more milk when compared to small and medium family size, where as in case of SC, ST, BC and OC social status members higher level of milk consumption was noted against non members. Surplus milk was recorded more with non members group showed the trend that as the number of animals increased, the surplus also got increased. Marketable surplus was more in landless farmers i.e. 2.17 Lt followed by 1.71 Lt in small farmers in members group, whereas in non members group marginal farmers possessed (2.39 Lt) more surplus milk. According to social status, SCs and BCs have lower quantity of surplus milk when compared to ST and OCs in member and non members. The higher secondary educated respondents in members group and illiterates in non member group were unable to market and retaining more milk as marketable surplus. The maximum share of milk (80-85%) in members group was channelised through market infrastructure created by cooperative dairy and in non member group through milk vendors and private dairies (75-85%). Two and above animal holders sold milk to societies, one animal holders (24.48%) supplied to private agencies. Average price offered for milk by cooperative is lower when compared to the other agencies in study area (Rs.29.72 Vs 30.19 Lt). Profit gain from milk production was also more in members compared to non-members (Rs.10.39 Vs 8.60 Lt) establishes the fact that, as the number of animals increased the profit also get increased. The farmers belonging to other castes have earned more profits (Rs.6.87/Lt milk) when compared to weaker sections (Rs.4.08/Lt of milk). Similar trends in profit gain for large family size and higher educational level respondents were recorded. Price paid for milk was more in non member group when compared to member group, irrespective of their socio economic variables. The cost of milk production (Rs/Lt) was less in the members group with higher education (12.8), large animal holders (14.25) and those belonging to other castes (18.70). The net return per day was Rs.51.76, noted as higher in the members than non members. The average man days of employment gain was comparatively more in the members group (0.45 Vs 0.36) than non members. The farmers of the member group followed regular deworming (34.2%) and vaccination (89.20%) of animals but could not follow the ideal managemental practices for the calf management, feeding, breeding and housing of dairy animals. The variables responsible for socio economic upliftment of members as perceived by them were in the order of respectful treatment from family members (98.9%), knowledge about dairy cooperative organization (98.85%), participation in the management and administration of cooperative affairs (97.75%), meeting the financial crisis confidently (97.7%) talking only if asked (96.35%), improvement in child education (95.95%), reduction in domestic violence (94.2%), improvement in good and clean food habit (82.6%) and improvement in purchase of household articles as goods (79.3%).The major constraint as perceived by the respondents was regarding the shortage of feeding resources and the pricing policy adopted by the cooperative dairy. The correlation coefficients of independent variables such as educational status, herd size and landholding were positively correlated with milk production. The inputs were positively correlated with total milk production and income from milk in both member and non members groups. The coefficients of cost of dry fodder, concentrate and labour cost showed a positive and significant (P<0.01) relationship with cost of milk production, whereas cost of green fodder, showed negative sign in member and non member groups. The percent increase in dry fodder and labour cost resulted in increase of the cost of milk production by 0.1319 and 0.0926 percent, respectively and about 0.73 percent of variation in cost of milk production was explained by the independent variables in members whereas in non member it was 0.32 percent. The resources utilization in member and non member groups was more than optimum level for the milk production. The estimated coefficients of cost of green fodder (0.1579), labour (0.4918), land holding (0.0847) and cost of insurance (0.8960) were positive and significantly (P<0.01) correlated with net profit, by keeping other estimates constant and negative. One percent increase in green fodder, labour cost and land holding increased the net profit by 0.1579, 0.4918 and 0.0847 percent, respectively. About 0.64 percent of the variation in net profit were due to independent variables. The fat percentage and SNF of milk at society level prior to collection was 6.66 to 8.83 percent. The processed milk of the union showed standards of good quality and graded as “very good” with minimum level of SPC, E coli MBRT and acidity.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    (Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University, TIRUPATI – 517 502,A.P, 2010-12) POORNACHANDRA RAO, K.N; SURESH, J (Major); SARJAN RAO, K; VEERABRAHMAIAH, K
    ABSTRACT : The study had a focus on the impacts of establishment of bulk milk cooling units both on quality of milk as well as socio-economic impact on the milk producer community in Chittoor and Prakasam districts of Andhra Pradesh. The research was conducted by adopting ex-post-facto design. Of the 56 units functioning in the Chittoor district, 9 units were randomly selected while only BMC functioning in Prakasam district was selected purposively. The list of milk producers supplying milk to the BMC unions was prepared and a uniform sample of 15 farmers comprising 10 female respondents and 5 male respondents were randomly selected. The ultimate sample for the study stood at 10 BMC’s and 150 respondents. The required information was collected by personal interview by the researcher with the respondents through a structured schedule. The data were subjected to statistical analysis employing means, standard deviation, percentages, Chi-2 test of significance, multiple regression analysis and correlation coefficients. To study the effectiveness of bulk milk coolers quantitative methods were employed to measure the standard plate count (SPC) and coliform count (CC) before and after cooling the milk in bulk milk coolers along with fat and SNF percentages. The study regarding the effectiveness of bulk milk coolers on the quality of milk revealed that there was substantial reduction in SPC and coliform count after cooling. The percentage reduction of SPC and CC was approximately 36% and 43%, respectively. However the quality of milk by grade remained fair as per BIS even after cooling with BMC units. There was a significant difference (P<0.01) with regard to SPC and CC before and after subjecting the milk through BMC’s both in terms of maximum and minimum counts. The annual milk collection through BMC units ranged from a minimum of 5,21,000 litres to a maximum of 16,91,000 litres. The mean quantity of milk collected through all BMC units was 10,35,000 litres. The BMC’s have approximately took away 17% of share of milk procurement from different channels like head loads, private dairies etc. This indirectly will strengthen the fact that quality milk of low bacterial load to the extent of 17% is now being supplied to the consumers compared to the earlier situation. X2 analysis indicated that the relation between milk yield with some of the socio-economic parameters like education, size of the farm, total household income and quality of concentrate feed offered to the animal were found to be significant (P<0.05). The multiple regression analysis carried out to study the influence of selected independent variables and dairy income due to establishment of BMC units revealed that in respect of pooled sample, the most powerful factors to influence the dairy income were caste, hand holdings, size of the farm, education level, household income and dairy farming experience. The coefficient of multiple determination was 0.67 duly indicating that 67% of the variation in dairy income was explained by the independent variables included in the function. The correlation coefficients between dairy income due to establishment of BMC units and selected socio-economic parameters pertaining to pooled sample revealed that size of the dairy herd had highest association with dairy income, very closely followed by farming experience and land holding. Household income and level of education also exhibited positive correlations with dairy income. The impact of BMC units as perceived by the respondents revealed that tie-up for bank loans has been an easy affair and this item obtained first rank. There has been a substantial increase in dairy income brought in due to BMC’s and it was offered second rank. Another important impact was fairer payment for the milk supplied which was ranked three. Spoilage of milk was averted to a great extent (rank IV). BMC’s enabled the farmers to demand for higher milk price which was ranked fifth. Increase in milk quality was yet another benefit of BMC. Other interesting impacts include society development, increased milk production improvement in health of the animals, increase in milk production, increase in herd size and improved extension contacts. Some important constraints faced by the beneficiaries were brought to the lime light and few of them required to be addressed immediately by the authorities. Irregular power supply which may pose a threat of spoilage of milk was the prime concern. Setting up of a generator as a back-up facility was the suggestion. Under-utilization of coolers to the fullest capacity of either 3,000 or 5,000 litres especially during lean months resulted in increased overhead charges. It was suggested that more number of milk producers be inducted into the BMC union and others are encouraged to divert their milk supply from head loads and private dairies to BMC’s. Further, the farmers are expecting more training programmes on production technologies, better extension services, organization of animal health camps and loan melas etc. to help them to produce more milk per unit animal.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    (Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University, TIRUPATI – 517 502,A.P, 2009-02) ANITHA, A; SARJAN RAO, K (Major); SURESH, J; MOORTHY, P.R.S; KOTI LINGA REDDY, Y
    ABSTRACT: Body Condition Score (BCS) system is a subjective scoring method of evaluating the energy reserves of dairy animals which provide the better understanding of biological relationship between body fat, milk production and reproduction that helps in adopting the optimum managemental practices to derive maximum production and maintain better health status. In the present study new BCS system was developed for Murrah buffaloes. The skeletal check points were identified by spotting out the anatomical features which enabled to assess the fat reserves easily and by measuring the amount of fat reserves in slaughtered animals. The scores were assigned in a 1 to 5 scale based on the amount of fat reserves in slaughtered animals. The skeletal check points identified were kept in order based on the amount of carcass fat reserves and scores assigned to prepare preliminary BCS chart in a 1 to 5 scale using 0.25 increments. The BCS chart was further modified by correcting the demerits and a new BCS chart in a 1 to 5 scale using 0.5 increments examining eight skeletal check points was developed. BCS was assigned using the chart developed and the new BCS system developed was found to be precise and consistent. The new BCS system developed was subjected for precision in 10 buffaloes for each point of the 1-5 scale by ultrasonographic measurements of body fat reserves. The ultrasonographic measurements showed that the fat reserves were higher at the point between tail head to pins and as the BCS increased the amount of fat reserves also increased indicating that BCS adequately reflected in the amount of actual fat reserves. BCS was significantly correlated (0.86) with the carcass fat reserves as well as ultrasonographic fat reserves (0.85) and ultrasonography has the potential to determine fat thickness with a high degree of accuracy. The effect of BCS at calving on the reproductive performance studied in 24 buffaloes in a 4 x 6 CRD showed that increase in body weight of 80.33 kg was observed for every one unit increase of BCSc between BCSc groups of 2.5 – 2.99 and 3.5 – 3.99 and 82.34 kg between BCSc groups of 3.0 – 3.49 and 4.0 – 4.49. Buffaloes of BCSc above 3.5 with significantly (P < 0.01) higher body weights showed better reproductive performance compared to buffaloes of BCSc groups below 3.5 with less body weights. The prepartum and weekly postpartum changes in BCS studied showed that the buffaloes gained a BCS of 0.57 from 3 months prepartum to one week prepartum, lost 0.17 BCS due to calving, further showed a decline in BCS upto 9 weeks of postpartum and then started regaining BCS gradually until 18 weeks postpartum. The mean LBCS over the period of 18 weeks postpartum was comparatively higher (0.75 ± 0.05) than BCS restored in the early lactation which was shown as GBCS (0.34 ± 0.02). The difference of 0.41 units between LBCS and GBCS was observed over a period of 18 weeks postpartum. Buffaloes of BCSc group 3.5 – 3.99 showed the best reproduction performance among the four BCSc groups with less postpartum estrus period (46.66 days), service period (58.83 days), number of service per conception (1.50) and high rate of 1st service conception (66.66%) followed by the BCSc groups of 4.0 – 4.49, 3.0 – 3.49 and 2.5 – 2.99. Buffaloes should have the target condition scores of minimum BCS of 3.25-3.5 at three months prepartum, 3.5-3.99 at calving, 2.75 to 3.0 at around 8 weeks postpartum and 3.0 to 3.25 by 18 weeks postpartum so that they can show good reproductive performance. The resumption of ovarian activity was observed at mean values of 47.25 ± 2.39, 42.0 ± 2.91, 29.33 ± 3.33 and 39.33 ± 4.21 days for the BCSc groups of 2.5 – 2.99, 3.0 – 3.49, 3.5 – 3.99 and 4.0 – 4.49 respectively. Buffaloes of BCSc group 3.5 – 3.99 showed significantly (P < 0.05) earlier resumption of ovarian activity. The breeding efficiency was significantly (P < 0.01) higher for buffaloes of BCSc group 3.5 – 3.99. The monthly postpartum changes in BCS showed that BCS decreased from calving to two months of lactation and then gradually increased. Inverse relationship was observed between monthly BCS and milk yield. The lactation curve characteristics studied in relation to BCSc in 40 buffaloes in a 4 x 10 CRD, showed that the milk production increased from calving until two months of lactation, reaching peak production and then gradually showed a decline for all the BCSc groups of the test herd. The total milk yield upto 18 weeks of lactation was higher for the BCSc group of 3.5 - 3.99. For every one unit increase in BCSc, an increase of 395.27 kg in the 18 weeks lactation yield was observed. But as the BCSc exceeded 3.99 a decrease in milk yield was noticed. The predicted lactation yield was higher for the BCSc group of 3.5-3.99. For every one unit increase in BCSc an increase of 759.55 kg was observed in the predicted lactation yield. But as the BCSc exceeded 3.99 the predicted yield showed a decline. The peak milk yield was higher for the BCSc group 3.5-3.99. For every one unit increase in BCSc, an increase of 4.57 kg of peak yield was noticed. Further, the peak yield and persistency index showed a decrease as BCSc exceeded 3.99. For every one unit increase in BCSc an increase of milk fat per cent of 1.8 and 2.0 was observed at 6-8 weeks and 16-18 weeks after calving, respectively. For every one unit increase in BCSc an increase of milk protein / SNF of 0.55 and 0.54 was observed at 6-8 weeks and 16-18 weeks after calving respectively. As the BCS increased from 6-8 weeks after calving to 16-18 weeks after calving the milk components i.e., fat, protein and SNF showed an increasing trend. Buffaloes of BCS below 3.5 were more prone to mastitis, anoestrum and retained placenta indicating that thin buffaloes in negative energy balance were more susceptible to health disorders.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    ABSTRACT : The present study was intended to probe into the economic aspects of contract broiler farming relevant to the changes that have taken place in Chittoor district. Three stage sampling technique was followed for the selection of the ultimate broiler farms. The ultimate sample constituted 75 contract and 75 non-contract broiler farms. The percentage of family workers on the contract broiler farms was 67.83, while the same on non-contract broiler farms was 30. The non-contract farmers had greater percentage of college education compared to contract farmers. The assets on contract farms was valued at Rs.5,02,447 while the value of the same on non-contract farms was Rs.7,74,744. The proportion of family labour on contract farms was 67.8 per cent, while the same on non-contract farms was 30 per cent only. In respect of contract broiler farms, the total costs per 1000 birds varied from Rs.3,221 to Rs.3,252 for the five batches with an average of Rs.3,231. In the case of non-contract broiler farms, the total costs per 1000 birds varied from Rs.41,296 to Rs.46,042 for five batches with an average of Rs.43,801. The feed conversion ratios of broilers maintained in contract farms were less over non-contract farms. The percentage of mortality in the boiler maintained was less on both contract and non-contract farms. Gross income was distinctly higher on non-contract farms over contract farms. On the whole the contract farmers were found to receive a net income of Rs.9,691 per 1000 birds per year. As against this the non-contract farmers made a net income of Rs.17,555 per 1000 birds per annum. The average break-even point on contract farms was 1,087.6 kg, while the same on non –contract farms was 738 kg.. The production function analysis revealed that medicines in first batch, flock size in third batch, medicines in fourth batch and feed in fifth batch exhibited potential for their further use. There were relatively more specific problems on non-contract farms over contract farms
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    ABSTRACT : Egg and poultry meat are providing high amount of protein and fat with high biological value. Increased awareness of dietary fats on development of coronary heart disease, research has now been directed to reduce the cholesterol levels of egg and poultry meat by manipulating diets fed to the birds. Amaranth seed has already proven to be hypocholesterolemic agent in humans and experimental animals. Hence, this study was taken up with an aim to see the effects of Amaranthus Leaf Meal (ALM) (A. tricolor) on cholesterol levels in both egg and poultry meat. The experimental diets were formulated to contain 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10 per cent ALM. The experiments were conducted in both layers and broilers. Zero per cent was considered as control diet. In the first experiment sixty layers of 45 weeks age were randomly grouped to contain 4 birds in each replicate and 3 replicates for each treatment. Effect of supplementation of ALM on feed intake, feed efficiency, egg production, egg quality traits, cholesterol, livability and economics were studied during the experimental period of 6 weeks. Birds were fed on control diet for 3 weeks before and 3 weeks after the experimental period and the egg cholesterol levels in both pre and post experimental periods were also estimated. Supplementation of ALM did not effect the feed intake, egg production, feed efficiency, body weight, egg weight and egg equality studies when compared with control. However, inclusion of ALM diets in layers when compared with control have significantly (P < 0.01) decreased egg cholesterol and improved the yolk color. But a significant increase in cholesterol level during post experimental period (Birds were fed on control diet). In experiment-II, one hundred and fifty, day old broiler chicks were randomly allotted into 5 treatment groups, each with 3 replicates and each of which contain 10 female broilers. Effect of the supplementation of ALM on feed intake, body weight, feed efficiency, carcass yield, giblet yield, serum biochemical profile and meat biochemical profile were studied during the experimental period of 6 weeks. Supplementation of ALM did not effect the feed intake, feed efficiency, carcass yield, giblet yield, serum protein, Albumi, Globulin A:G ratio, serum HDL-C and Triglyecrides; breast muscle VLDL-C and fat; thigh muscle protein, HDL-C, LDL-C. The lowest body weight gain was observed in the 10 per cent ALM inclusion. However, the inclusion of ALM in broiler diets have significantly decreased serum cholesterol and LDL-C, breast muscle cholesterol, LDL-C and triglyceride; thigh muscle cholesterol, LDL-C, triglyceride and thigh muscle fat values, but a significant increase in serum VLDL-C, breast muscle HDL-C and breast muscle protein values were observed.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    ABSTRACT : In the present study an attempt was made to study the migratory pattern of Nellore sheep and their performance in Nellore and Prakasam districts of Andhra Pradesh. A benchmark survey was conducted on 108 migratory sheep farmers from the identified eight major (above 90 kms path) and ten minor (below 90 kms path) migratory tracts of the two districts (shown in 7 maps) to assess the reasons and problems during migration and impact of migration on their socio-economic conditions. The major reasons for migration of sheep flocks were lack of water and feeding resources (83.33 to 85.18%), traditional practice (78.70%), successive drought (76.85%), disease out breaks (75.90%) etc. Migration in major tracts had commenced from January 15th upto the end of July with a mean duration of 131.25 ± 11.78 days covering 125.25 ± 10.43 kms and in minor tracts from March to the end of June for a distance of 42.90 ± 2.22 kms in a period of 51.50 ± 4.30 days. The average duration (days) of migration in the identified tracts of the study was 91.38 ± 8.04 to cover a distance of 84.08 ± 6.33 kms. The average flock size was 64.38 ± 2.97 for migratory flocks against 29.92 ± 1.38 for non-migratory flocks in the study area. The total per cent of life stages retained from migration were 22.07 ± 4.92, 8.87 ± 2.94, 31.28 ± 2.37 and 11.92 ± 2.89 for the pregnant, lactating, suckling and weaners, respectively. The mean grazing time, mastication rate / mt and rumination rate / hr observed were 6 hrs. 39 mts, 75.06 ± 1.92 and 64.11 ± 0.86 respectively. Out of 108 each migratory and non-migratory farmer groups studied 71.30 and 57.41 percentage belonged to AL, 12.96 and 12.04 SF, 6.48 and 10.21 MF and 9.26 and 20.34 LF groups, respectively. The comparison of the involvement of social groups based on land holdings in both systems of sheep rearing was non-significant. However, social groups based on community, about two thirds of sheep farmers belonged to BC's (popular community was 'Yadavas') followed by SC and ST (17.59%) and the rest (15.47%) from FC, whereas the FC farmers involvement was better than SC and STs in non-migratory system. Out of the family size of 10.25 ± 0.70 and 7.13 ± 0.45, the male and female members ratios were 1.5:1 and 1.4:1 in migratory and non-migratory farmer households of major tracts identified in the study. The family members mostly, male vs female members utilization pattern was significantly (P < 0.01) higher in major tracts (66.23 ± 2.20 Vs 37.27 ± 2.98). The family labour utilization pattern in minor tracts was also significantly (P < 0.01) higher for migratory households. The impact of migratory pattern was amply reflected in low literacy rates in males (39.39 ± 3.31) than females (43.91 ± 2.81) in major migratory tracts. The overall literacy rate of 40.48 ± 2.91 was significantly (P<0.01) lower in migratory household against the non-migratory households (62.71 ± 3.01). The migratory sheep farmers in the major tracts were supported by other livestocks including 2.69 ± 0.42, 2.60 ± 0.40 and 3.08 ± 0.42 number of buffaloes, cattle and goats with an estimated value of Rs. 9,943.75, Rs. 8320.00 and Rs. 2152.50, respectively and the value of sheep flocks was double (2.03:1) than the value of other supported species where as the non-migratory sheep farmers were supported by 3.59 ± 0.95, 3.68 ± 0.50 and 3.65 ± 0.41 number of buffaloes, cattle and goats with the overall estimated value of Rs. 18,603.75 (0.70:1). The mean gross income and per capita income per annum from migratory sheep flocks were significantly (P < 0.05) higher due to higher flock asset value and hire service charges. Higher percentage (80.55) of sheep farmers responded for the problem related to the gastrointestinal parasitism followed by non-availability of vaccines (77.77%), diseases onset (75.92%), presence of diseases in the villages of migratory path (72.22%) and lack of veterinary facilities (70.37%). The influence of migratory phase on certain biochemical constituents and haematological values was observed as significantly higher values for calcium, Phosphorus, glucose, total protein, globulin, albumin, creatinine, urea SGOT and SGPT and lower levels of cholesterol during active migratory phase. Hb, RBC, PCV and WBC values were significantly (P<0.01) increased during active migratory phase. These variations were not beyond the normal ranges of species specific. Migratory phase had a positive influence on number of ewes on standing heat and their rate of conception, birth weights of the lambs, serving capacity of rams and a negative influence on prenatal and neonatal mortality, number of lambs born and weaning weight. The incidence of parasitic diseases i.e., Amphistomiasis (63.89% Vs 16.67%), Monieziasis (22.22 Vs 30%), Fascioliasis (58.33% Vs 19.44%), Strongylosis (38.89% Vs 19.44%) and Babesiosis (8.33 Vs 0) was observed in migratory Vs non-migratory flocks. The incidences of infectious diseases like ET, Blue tongue, Anthrax, FMD, Foot rot, sheep pox and PPR were observed more for migratory compared to non-migratory flocks.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    ABSTRACT : Three groups of piglets with a number of 24 piglets from 3 farrowed sows having similar litter size in each group were weaned at 28, 42 and 56 days (control) of age used in a completely randomized design for the post-weaning behaviour and growth studies of piglets. The group difference in exhibition of playing and tail biting was observed, where the early weaned piglets had spent significantly (P < 0.01) more time than other test group and control group. All the piglets had exhibited the behavioural traits of playing, fighting, tail biting, standing and locomotion mostly between 8 AM to 4 PM where as lying was mostly exhibited during early morning and late evening. There exists a significant (P < 0.01) difference in growth rates between test groups in comparision to control group, where the piglets weaned at 28 days in group 1 had shown the least growth rates. No significant difference was observed in the DM intake, ADG and FCR. The FCR was marginally lower in early weaned piglets compared to group 2 and control. Significantly (P < 0.01) lower digestibility co-efficients of DM, CP, EE, CF and NFE were observed for the early weaned piglets than the piglets weaned at 42 days which were comparable with the control group. The TDN and DE intakes were significantly (P < 0.01) lower in group I. Group 2 piglets were comparable in per cent TDN and DE intake with the conventional 56 days of weaned piglets. The protein : energy ratios were 1:17, 1:18 and 1:18 for group 1, 2 and control respectively. The DCP and DE intakes and its ratio was much inferior than the requirements of NRC (1998). Three groups each consisting of 3 cross bred (LWY x desi ) sows of 2nd farrowing with similar body weights were selected and the study was conducted in a Completely Randomized Design to assess the farrowing behaviour and certain maternal behavioural traits due to the effect of weaning. The mean time spent by the farrowed sows for resting, lying on stomach, standing, locomotion and vocalization were 277.10, 72.22, 44.33, 16.99 and 11.33 mts, respectively. Significantly (P < 0.01) more time was spent by the 2nd test group on vocalization than group 1 and comparable with the control group. Significantly (P < 0.01) more time was spent by the farrowed sows on ventral recumbency a day before farrowing and on lateral recumbency after farrowing. The mean litter size was 9.99 and the time taken for the birth of litter was 46.55 ± 5.5 mts. The birth interval was not significantly influenced either by litter size and birth weights and the mean birth interval time recorded was 4.61 ± 0.46 mts. The mean value of 91.22 ± 7.14 mts was recorded for the shedding of placenta after farrowing and the mean total farrowing time was 137.77 ± 11.34 mts by the 9 sows. No significant effect on the farrowing behavioural traits was observed due to the increase in litter size or weight. All the piglets have shown their priority to the anterior teat of sows. The mean body weight loss of 11.39 kg which included 10.85 kg of mean litter weight and 500 g of placental membranes along with fluids. . The changes in maternal behavioural traits in response to the weaning effect was significantly (P < 0.01) observed in group I for standing and group 2 in locomotion. The response to the weaning on the other maternal behavioural traits like resting, lying on stomach and vocalization was non-significant among the days of observation and within groups. The 42 days weaned sows had lost 4.04 kg and control group sows had lost 13.7 kg body weights which were higher than the early weaned sows, (group 1). The weight loss up to weaning had increased with the higher litter size. The onset of oestrus in early weaned sows was 17 days against 14 days for 2 and control groups. The time taken for the onset of oestrus after farrowing was significantly (P < 0.01) lower (45 days) in group 1 than 2 (56 days) and control group (70 days). The early weaning had much beneficial effects with least adverse effects on the behavioural aspects of sows and growth rates of piglets and within the test groups, weaning at 42 days of age was found to be superior
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    ABSTRACT : Body Condition Score (BCS) system is a subjective scoring method of evaluating the energy reserves of dairy cows which provide the better understanding of biological relationship between body fat, milk production and reproduction that helps in adopting the optimum managemental practices to derive maximum production and maintain better health status. In the present study the system of body condition assessment developed by Edmonson et al. (1989) was used to score body condition of the crossbred Jersey and HF cows in F1 and F2 generation. The chart suggested by Edmonson et al. (1989) described eight important areas of check points on the cow in assigning an overall BCS in a 1 to 5 scale, using 0.25 increments functioning as a 17 point scale. After each area was examined by vision and palpation, score is recorded and a general average BCS was assigned to the cows. The relationship between BCS and physical parameters studied in 150 crossbred cows showed that 148 cows were in the BCS range of 2.75 to 4.25. Cows of below 5 years of age showed 0.1 unit higher BCS (P < 0.05) than cows of 5 and above 5 years of age. Correlation coefficients indicated that as the BCS increased, heart girth measurements and body weights were increased whereas, wither height, hook height, sternum height and intercostal space measurements decreased. However, these relationships were statistically non-significant. The postpartum changes in BCS studied in 30 crossbred Jersey and HF cows showed a mean ± SE BCSc of 3.67 ± 0.07. The DMI / Kg B.Wt reduced by 10 and 12.8 g with an increase of one unit BCSc for the BCSc ranges of 3.25 to 3.75 and 3.75 to 4.25 respectively. The cows had lost their body condition until 10 weeks postpartum and later on gradually started recouping their body condition. Cows in all the 5 series of lactation have maintained a minimum BCS of above 2.5 during early lactation. The range of minimum BCS recorded was 2.5 to 3.5 with a mean of 3.16 ± 0.07. The mean LBCS and GBCS values observed over the period of 18 weeks postpartum were 0.62 ± 0.04 and 0.35 ± 0.02, respectively. Cows of BCSc of below 3.5 had regained their loss in condition one week prior to the cows of BCSc of above 3.5. The mean weekly postpartum BCS change was significantly higher (P<0.01) for cows of BCSc of above 3.5 than for cows of below 3.5 during the 18 wks postpartum. Rank correlation between BCS and milk yield / day at 4, 19, 34, 49, 64, 79, 94, 109 and 120 days of milking showed that BCS and milk yield were positively correlated (P<0.01) at 49 days of lactation and non-significant correlation was observed during the remaining test days. For every one unit increase in BCS a decrease of 3kg milk yield and an increase of 3.7 kg FCM were recorded. However, these values were statistically non-significant and BCS had no significant effect on mean peak and daily milk yield. Cows with BCSc of 3.00 to 3.49 have taken more number of days (33) to reach the peak milk yield when compared to cows with BCSc of 4.00 to 4.49. The slope to peak was higher (0.79 ± 0.16) at BCSc of 3.00 to 3.49 which had declined (0.64 ± 0.13) at BCSc of 4.00 to 4.49. The persistency (slope from peak) was more for cows with BCSc of 3.00 to 3.49 (0.93 ± 0.12) compared to cows with BCSc of 4.00 to 4.49 (0.63 ± 0.23). The 305 day predicted milk yield at 30 days of lactation was reduced in the subsequent month prediction by 675.74, 621.20 and 198 kg for 3rd, 4th and 5th lactations, respectively. Cows with higher milk yield of 3500-4500 kg in previous lactation had comparatively a low BCSc (3.39) in the present lactation than medium (2500-3500 kg) and low (1500-2500 kg) yielders, which were assigned the BCSc of 3.69 and 3.78, respectively. For every one unit increase in BCS there was an increase of 22.39g fat and decrease of 14.53 g of protein per kg of milk yield. The service period was 94, 90 and 82 days for cows with BCSc of 3.00 to 3.49, 3.5 to 3.99 and 4.00 to 4.49, respectively and it was observed that BCSc had no significant effect on service period. Cows with BCS of below 3.5 were more affected with Clinical Mastitis (23) than cows with BCS of above 3.5(15). Hence, based on the results obtained it was concluded that the BCS system is an economic tool of determining the body condition of dairy cows more accurately which helps us to monitor the plane of nutrition to achieve the optimum performance of crossbred data.