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Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University, Tirupati

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  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    OF COTTONSEED MEAL BASED DIETS ON THE PERFORMANCE OF CULTIVABLE FISH
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY , TIRUPATI - 517 502 , A.P, 2010-09) PAVAN KUMAR, B; CHAMUNDESWARI DEVI, B ( Major); RAVINDRA KUMAR REDDY, D; BALASUBRAMANIAN, A
    ABSTRACT: Fish nutrition has advanced dramatically in recent years with the development of new, balanced commercial diets that promote optimal fish growth and health. Feed accounts for a major part (30-70%) of the total operation cost of an average fish farm. Traditionally, animal protein sources, particularly fishmeal have been the major ingredient of aqua feeds. Fishmeal is one of the most expensive ingredients in formulated fish feeds. Due to increasing demand, decreasing supply and the high cost of fish meal, fish nutritionists have concentrated their efforts to find alternative protein sources to substitute fish meal in the diet of fish. Thus, cottonseed meal (CSM), a by-product of the cotton fibre and cottonseed oil industries, has been used to replace fish meal partially or totally in fish diets. The present studies were conducted on “Effect of cottonseed meal based diets on the performance of cultivable fish” at College of Fishery Science, Muthukur. Cottonseed meal was used in the diets at four different levels 5%, 10%, 15% or 20%. Control diet was prepared with soybean meal (SBM), groundnut cake (GNC) and deoiled rice bran (DOB). All the formulated diets were isonitrogenous with 30% crude protein. Proximate composition and mineral composition of diets were analyzed by AOAC (1995) methods. Each diet was fed to catla and rohu in triplicate aquaria twice daily at 5% average body weight of the fish for three months for determination of growth response and survivability. Fortnightly sampling was done for the estimation of the water quality parameters and growth parameters [growth, percentage of survival, feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and condition factor (K)]. Specific growth rate (SGR) and Hepatosomatic index (HSI) were estimated at the end of the experiment. Histopathological studies on liver of experimental fishes were conducted at the end of the experiment. Fishes were analyzed for proximate and mineral composition at the beginning as well as at the end of the experiment Significant difference was observed in growth, FCR, PER and K in both rohu and catla. Mortality was observed in catla. However, no mortality was observed in survival of rohu. Inclusion levels of CSM at 15 or 20% resulted in histopathological changes in the liver of both rohu and catla. Carcass composition was observed to be better at CSM10 and CSM5 in rohu and catla respectively. Better growth performance was observed at 5% CSM level of inclusion in catla. However, no significant differences were observed in the growth, survival and condition factor at inclusion level of 5% and 10% CSM in catla. Better performance was observed at 10% CSM level in rohu. Hence, it can be recommended that CSM can be included at 10% level in the diets of catla and rohu. Further inclusion of CSM results in growth depression.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    IMPACT ON GROWTH AND SURVIVAL OF LITOPENAEUS VANNAMEI FED ON BIOFLOC GROWN WITH DIFFERENT CARBON SOURCES
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY , TIRUPATI - 517 502, Andhra Pradesh, 2015-08) PAMANNA, DASARI.; CHANDRASEKHARA RAO, A (Major); RAVINDRA KUMAR REDDY, D; MADHAVAN, N
    ABSTRACT: The present study : “Impact of growth and survival of Litopenaeus vannamei fed on biofloc grown with different carbon sources’’ was conducted in the Wet Laboratory of the Department of Aquaculture, College of Fishery Science, Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University, Muthukur Impact of L. vannamei rearing with biofloc by using different carbohydrate materials ( wheat flour, tapioca flour and molasses) as a carbon source to boost the production by improving the conversion of nutrients into harvestable products while maintaining good water quality. The carbohydrate sources for this study were selected based on easy availability and economic viability. In the present study it has been evaluated to identify the efficient carbon source to develop the quality biofloc which play significant role in growth and survival of L. vannamei. Experiments were conducted with three biofloc treatments and one control in triplicate in 1000 ltr capacity indoor tanks and water level filled up to 600 ltr. Different carbohydrate sources addition for biofloc rearing played significant impact on water quality of shrimp rearing tanks. Water quality parameters were in the acceptable level for L. vannamei cultured in all the biofloc treated tanks. Enhanced shrimp growth was noticed in biofloc treatment tanks. There was a significant difference in the final average body weight of (15.92±0.07g) in the wheat flour treatment than those treatments and control group of shrimp. The FCR differs significantly between biofloc treatment group and control (P<0.05). FCR lowest (0.5±0.07) was recorded in wheat flour as carbohydrate source biofloc treatment. Highest SGR (4.59) was observed in the wheat flour treatment than those treatments and control. Wheat flour utilization as carbohydrate source to biofloc development for rearing of L. vannamei was proved to be the best option among all treatments. The addition of carbohydrate for biofloc development affected the survival of L. vannamei. The highest survival of (73.36%) was recorded for wheat flour used as carbohydrate source in biofloc treatments. All the carbohydrate sources ( wheat flour, tapioca flour and molasses) utilized for biofloc treatments indicated highest growth and survival than control treatment.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    EFFECT OF AQUEOUS AND DIETARY MINERALS SUPPLIMENTATION ON GROWTH AND SURVIVAL OF LITOPENAEUS VANNAMEI IN LOW SALINITY WATER
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY , TIRUPATI - 517 502, Andhra Pradesh, 2014-12) NEHRU, E; CHANDRASEKHARA RAO, A (Major); RAVINDRA KUMAR REDDY, D; SUDHAKAR, O
    ABSTRACT: The present study : “Effect of aqueous and dietary minerals supplementation on growth and survival of Litopenaeus vannamei in low salinity water’’ was conducted in the Wet Laboratory of the Department of Aquaculture, College of Fishery Science, Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University, Muthukur. L. vannamei culture in inland low salinity water in currently being practiced various parts of the country. These environments are often deficient in key ions essential for normal physiological function of shrimp, which resulted in reduced growth and mortalities. In the present study it has been evaluated to identify the efficient source mineral supplementation for vannamei in low salinity waters. Aqueous and dietary mineral supplementations were tested for the efficiency on survival and growth of L.vannamei in low salinity water. Experiments were conducted at 3ppt salinity bore well water for throughout the period of 7 weeks. Dietary mineral supplementation source was proved to be the best option for mineral supply for L.vannamei in low salinity water culture. In the dietary mineral supplementation treatments highest growth performance of 3.92g and survival (80%) were recorded for potassium (K+10g and Na+ 20g per kg diet) supplementation. FCR lowest recorded in potassium dietary mineral supplementation treatment. Highest growth performance in vannamei was observed for magnesium (Mg+2 80mg l-1) addition to that water among all aqueous mineral supplementation treatment. The highest survival of 70% was recorded for potassium (30mg l-1) treatment among all aqueous mineral supplementation treatment. All the aqueous and dietary mineral supplementation treatments indicated highest growth and survival than control treatment.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    STUDIES ON THE EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT DIETARY PROTEIN SOURCES ON THE GROWTH, SURVIVAL AND CARCASS COMPOSITION OF RED-BELLIED PACU, PIARACTUS BRACHYPOMUS (CUVIER, 1818)
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY , TIRUPATI - 517 502 , A.P, 2014-07) JHANSI LAKSHMI BAI, T.Ch; Ravindra Kumar Reddy, D (Major); Haribabu, P; Sudhakar, O
    ABSTRACT: The present study “Studies on the effect of different dietary protein sources on growth, survival and carcass composition of red-bellied pacu [Piaractus brachypomus (cuvier, 1818)]. Experiment was conducted in the Wet Laboratory of the Department of Aquaculture, College of Fishery Science, Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University, Muthukur. Groundnut Cake (GNC), Fishmeal (FM) and Cottonseed meal (CSM) were used at three different protein levels (20%, 25% and 30%). Diets were prepared by mixing all the ingredients in required proportions, ground and sieved to the required size and made in to pellets. Studies were conducted to compare the performance of pacu fed on different experimental diets for growth, survival and proximate composition of Piaractus brachypomus. The experiments were conducted for 90 days in aquaria. Triplicates were maintained for each of the treatment. Feed was given two times a day. Sampling for every 10 days was done for water quality parameters viz., pH, Temperature, Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Total alkalinity and Total hardness. The growth, survival and feed conversion ratio were estimated by sampling the fish once in 10 days. At the beginning and after completion of the experiment, proximate composition of the animals was carried out. Regular monitoring of water quality parameters revealed that, the experimental diets with different ingredients had no influence on the quality of water. The DO was found to be in the range of 5.72ppm and 6.69ppm. The pH ranged from 7.6 to 8.1 during the period of experiment. There was no effect on total alkalinity. The range of total alkalinity varied between 260 mg/l to 271 mg/l. Total hardness of water ranged between 222 mg/l and 239 mg/l. The growth performance of P. brachypomus was found to be best when fed with diet FM25 (126.50gm) and the least with GNC20 (117.13gm). P. brachypomus fed on diet CSM25 showed the highest average weight gain of 17.42gm by the 90th day, while the GNC20 recorded the lowest weight gain of all the treatments (10.561gm). Specific growth rate was highest (5.50) in pacu fed with diet FM30, and least (5.25) in the GNC20. Survival rates were best in pacu fed on all the treatment, which showed 100% survival rate at the end of the experiment except on GNC20 and CSM20 (90%). The pacu fed on CSM30 diet showed the best FCR of 3.89, followed by GNC30 with an FCR of 3.97. The pacu fed with CSM25 showed the least response with an FCR of 4.42. Carcass composition of P. brachypomus showed, the highest protein content in shrimps fed with FM30 diet (61.3%). Lowest protein was found in initial sampling (55.5%). Highest ether extract was recorded in initial sampling fed (19.58%). Lowest ether extract was found in FM30 (19.10%). Ash content was high in fish fed with FM20 and FM30 diet (17.3%) and low during initial sampling (17.08%). From the above studies, it can be concluded that Cottonseed meal and Groundnut cake can be included in the diets of P. brachypomus at an optimum level of 25%. Though survival and growth in Fishmeal fed fishes was good, it is not economically viable while comparing with cottonseed meal and groundnut cake for pacu fishes. The present study suggests that, during the juvenile stages of P. brachypomus culture, use of fishmeal improved the survival rate, showing good growth, with less FCR. But, in terms of cost, Fishmeal is costlier than Cottonseed meal and Groundnut meal. Therefore, it is suggested to use Fishmeal during early stages up to 40 days of fish culture for better survival rate and later the fish may be fed with cottonseed meal to increase the profits to the farmers.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF CATLA CATLA FRY RAISED ON DIFFERENT FEEDS AND EXPOSURE TO PATHOGENS IN FARMERS PONDS DURING WINTER SEASON
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY , TIRUPATI - 517 502, Andhra Pradesh, 2015-01) GOUTHAM CHOWDARY, M; Hari Babu, P (Major); Ravindra Kumar Reddy, D; Sudhakar, O
    ABSTRACT: The carp farming system of Nellore region was developed totally based on ‘Kolleru carp culture’. Nellore region depends on Kolleru area for its fish seed requirement. So in Nellore region also majority of farmers adopted a three tier culture system comprising nursery, rearing and grow-out production units. The principle aim of this nursery or rearing units is not to obtain large size or healthy seed, but rather to obtain the maximum possible numbers only. Mash feed was the most popular and widely used feed type. The poor quality of the mash feed ingredients especially the rice bran (RB), de-oiled rice bran (DORB), de-oiled groundnut cake (DOGNC) cake are issues of major concern to the farmers. Earlier published reports state that the prevalence of the diseases was more in winter season and that occurs in the same season every year. In addition a preliminary survey carried out before start of this experiment from 14 farmers revealed that poor survival of catla seed with large heads and gill infections having white nodules particularly during the winter season was noticed as an issue of mojor concern. Under the circumstances, the present experiment was designed and carried out in the Department of Aquaculture, College of Fishery Science, SVVU, Muthukur, Andhra pradesh, India for a period of 60 days to study the effect of Myxobolus sps. infection and its effect on catla fry comparatively with conventional mash and commercial pellet feed and discussed the results thus obtained. Catla fry was sourced from nearby fish farmer’s pond and acclimitized for 10 days before starting the experiment. Fibre Reinforced Plastic (FRP) tanks ( 12 no.) each with 500 liters water capacity was stocked with 10 numbers of fish in each tank. Experimental feed was given ( four types ) twice per day at ad libitum. The unconsumed feed and faecal matter was siphoned out daily in the morning. At the end of the experiment, the performance of formulated seed was significantly higher ( 76.67% and 53.34% ) than with conventional feeds ( 20% and 0% ). The duration of the experiment was in agreement with the published work i.e, winter season. Since the prevalence of Myxobolus infection was 100% in the experimental animals and the present study attempted in evaluating the nutritional efficiency. The formulated feed being the best with more than 50% survival contrastingly the mash feed (DORB) resulted in zero survival it may be appropriate to educate the fish farmers to use formulated feeds so that the enhanced catla fry survival from nursery ponds can help farmers till further improvements are attempted in making ‘fish seed healthy’.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    STUDIES ON DIETARY SUPPLEMENTATION OF PROBIOTICS IN CULTIVABLE FISHES
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY , TIRUPATI - 517 502 , A.P, 2014-03) GANAPATHI, CHELPURI; CHAMUNDESWARI DEVI, B(Major); RAVINDRA KUMAR REDDY, D; BALASUBRAMANIAN, A
    ABSTRACT: Fish nutrition has advanced dramatically in recent years with the development of new, balanced commercial diets that promote optimal fish growth and health. Feed accounts for a major part (30-70%) of the total operation cost of an average fish farm. Traditionally, animal protein sources, particularly fishmeal have been the major ingredient of aqua feeds. Fishmeal is one of the most expensive ingredients in formulated fish feeds. Due to increasing demand, decreasing supply and the high cost of fish meal, fish nutritionists have concentrated their efforts to find alternative protein sources to substitute fish meal in the diet of fish. There are reports of growth promotion and improved health when probiotic were used. The present studies on “Studies on Dietary Supplementation of Probiotics in cultivable fishes” was carried out at Fisheries Research Station, Kakinada. Probiotics containing Bacillus spp. and Lactobacillus spp. was used in the diets at four different levels 0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6% and 0.8%. Control diet was prepared with soybean meal (SBM), groundnut cake (GNC) , de oiled rice bran (DOB), fish meal and maize. All the formulated diets were is nitrogenous with 30% crude protein. Proximate composition and mineral composition of diets were analyzed by AOAC (1995) methods. Each diet was fed to Mullet and rohu in triplicate tanks twice daily at 5% average body weight of the fish for three months for determination of growth response, survivability and health. Fortnightly sampling was done for the estimation of the water quality parameters and growth parameters [growth, percentage of survival, feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER), Specific growth rate (SGR); gut microflora were estimated at the end of the experiment. Isolation of gut probiotics in the intestine of experimental fishes was conducted at the end of the experiment. Fishes were analyzed for proximate composition at the beginning as well as at the end of the experiment. Significant difference was observed in growth, FCR and PER in both Mullet and Rohu. Good survival rate was observed in mullet . No mortality was observed in Mullet and Rohu . Inclusion levels of Probiotic at 0.2% , 0.4%,0.6% and 0.8% effected microflora in the intestine of only Mullet . Carcass composition was observed to be better at Probiotic 0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6% and 0.8% in Mullet and Rohu respectively. Better growth performance was observed at 0.8% of Probiotic level of inclusion in Mullet. However, no significant differences were observed in the growth, and survival at inclusion level of 0.4% and 0.8% Probiotic in Mullet. Better performance was observed at 0.2% and 0.4% level in Rohu. Hence, it can be recommended that Probiotic can be included at 0.8% and 0.4% level of probiotic in the diets of Mullet and Rohu respectively.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    STUDIES ON THE GROWTH AND SURVIVAL OF IMPORTANT ORNAMENTAL ANGEL FISH (PTEROPHYLLUM SCALARE) AND THREE SPOT GOURAMI (TRICHOGASTER TRICHOPTERUS) FED WITH FORMULATED AND NATURAL FEEDS
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY , TIRUPATI - 517 502 , A.P, 2011-11) DIVYA, BHOGI; CHAMUNDESWARI DEVI, B (Major); RAVINDRA KUMAR REDDY, D; SUDHAKAR, O
    ABDTRACT: The present study was conducted on “Studies on Growth and Survival of Important Ornamental Angel Fish (Pterophyllum scalare) and Three Spot Gourami (Trichogaster trichopterus) Fed with Formulated and Natural Feeds” in the wet laboratory of the Department of Aquaculture, College of Fishery Science, Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University, Muthukur. Present study was conducted in two sets of experiments. First set of experiment (experiment A) was conducted for a period of 60 days fed with formulated feed prepared with inclusion of Acetes at different levels 5%, 10%, 20% and 30%. This experiment revealed formulated feed with 20% Acetes gave the best results. Next set of experiment (experiment B) was conducted with formulated diet as a control feed while the other two were Cyclop-eezee and Mysid. The second set of experiment was conducted for a period of 90 days, for observing on growth and survival of angels and gouramies. In this experiment the fallowing diets were used formulated diet as a (control), mysid alone (T2), 50% formulated + 50% mysid (T3), cyclop-eezee alone (T4) and 50% formulated + 50% cyclopeezee (T5) . A significant effect of feed on fishes was observed. Among different feeds cyclop-eeze + formulated feed (T5), followed by mysid + formulated feed (T3) gave better results. Least in mysid fed group (T2), due to its large particle size and chitin. Co-feeding was given better results due to the availabity of nutrients in balanced proportions. Visual score assessment of Gourami by randomly recruited panelists revealed that among the different diets cyclopeezee was recorded highest score. Sampling was done once in 15 days for water quality viz., pH, Temperature, Dissolved Oxygen (D.O), Total Alkalinity and Total Hardness. The growth, survival and feed conversion ratio were estimated by sampling the fish once in 15 days. Regular monitoring of water quality parameters revealed that the experiment diets with different ingredients had no influence on the quality of water. From the above studies, it can be concluded that Acetes meal can be included in the diets of Angels and Gouramies at an optimum level of 20%. Use of Acetes indicus supplemented formulated feed, mysids and cyclop-eeze meal improve survival and growth, less FCR but when compared with the cost of the feeds mysid meal and cyclop-eeze are costlier than that of formulated feed. The present study concludes that by using a combination of feeds gave better growth and also more economical.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    STUDIES ON THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT DIETARY PROTEIN SOURCES ON GROWTH, SURVIVAL AND CARCASS COMPOSITION OF LITOPENAEUS VANNAMEI (BOONE, 1931)
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY , TIRUPATI - 517 502, Andhra Pradesh, 2010-09) BHANU PRAKASH, Ch; RAVINDRA KUMAR REDDY, D (Major); HARI BABU, P; RAMANA, T.V
    ABSTRACT: The present study “Studies on the effect of different dietary protein sources on growth, survival and carcass composition of Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931)” was conducted in the Wet Laboratory of the Department of Aquaculture, College of Fishery Science, Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University, Muthukur. Soybean meal (SBM) and Cyclop-eeze (CE) meal were used at three different protein levels (25%, 30% and 35%). The all plant protein sourced diet prepared with groundnut oil cake and de oiled rice bran was used as control. Shrimp diet was prepared by mixing all the ingredients in required proportions, ground and sieved to the required size and made in to pellets. Studies were conducted to compare the performance of shrimp fed on different experimental diets with the control for growth, survival and proximate composition of Litopenaeus vannamei. The experiments were conducted for 56 days in aquaria. Triplicates were maintained for each of the treatment. Feed was given three times a day. Weekly sampling was done for water quality parameters viz., pH, Temperature, Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Total alkalinity and Total hardness. The growth, survival and feed conversion ratio were estimated by sampling the shrimp once in a week. At the begining and after completion of the experiment, proximate composition of the animals was carried out. Regular monitoring of water quality parameters revealed that, the experimental diets with different ingredients had no influence on the quality of water. The DO was found to be in the range of 5.23ppm and 8.42ppm. The pH ranged from 8.3 to 8.5 during the period of experiment. There was no effect on total alkalinity. The range of total alkalinity varied between 160 mg/l to 340 mg/l. Total hardness of water ranged between 226 mg/l and 237 mg/l. The growth performance of L. vannamei was found to be best when fed with diet CE30 (7.75gm) and the least with control diet (5.90gm). L. vannamei fed on diet CE30 showed the highest average weight gain of 0.81gm by the 56th day, while the control recorded the lowest weight gain of all the treatments (0.50gm). Specific growth rate was highest (1.863) in shrimps fed with diet CE30, and least (1.382) in the control. Survival rates were best in shrimps fed on CE30, which showed 75% survival rate at the end of the experiment. This was followed by shrimps fed with diet SBM30 which showed 70% survival rate. The shrimps fed with control and SBM35 diets showed the least survival rate (50%). The shrimps fed on SBM30 diet showed the best FCR of 3.28, followed by CE30 with an FCR of 3.34. The shrimps fed with SBM25 showed the least response with an FCR of 4.14. Carcass composition of L. vannamei showed, the highest protein content in shrimps fed with SBM30 diet (76.9%). Lowest protein was found in initial sampling (69.8%). Highest ether extract was recorded in shrimps fed with CE30 diet (2.5%). Lowest ether extract was found in initial sampling (1.8%). Highest crude fibre content was found in shrimps fed with CE30 (4.6%), lowest crude fibre (3.7%) was found in initial sampling. Ash content was high in shrimps fed with CE35 diet (9.3%) and low during initial sampling (3.7%). From the above studies, it can be concluded that Soybean meal and Cyclop-eeze meal can be included in the diets of L. vannamei at an optimum level of 30%. Though survival and growth in Cyclop-eeze meal fed shrimps was good, it is not economically viable. The present study suggests that, during the juvenile stages of L. vannamei culture, use of Soybean meal and Cyclop-eeze meal improved the survival rate, showing good growth, with less FCR. But, in terms of cost, Cyclop-eeze feed is costlier than Soybean meal. Therefore, it is suggested to use Cyclop-eeze feed during early stages (Larval to Juvenile) of shrimp (L. vannamei) culture for better survival rate and later the shrimp may be fed with Soybean meal to increase the profits to the farmers.