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Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University, Tirupati

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  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    EVALUATION OF DIETS CONTAINING DELIGNIFIED PADDY STRAW ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF BUFFALO BULL CALVES
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY, TIRUPATI - 517 502. (A.P.) INDIA, 2024-01) MOUNICA KOLLI; Ravi Kumar .M (MAJOR); Raja Kishore .K; Venkata Seshaiah .Ch; Baswa Reddy .P
    In a completely randomized design (CRD), 24 Murrah buffalo bull calves were randomly allotted to three dietary treatments (T1 to T3) comprising of green fodder viz., Hybrid Napier, concentrate mixture and paddy straw viz. normal paddy straw-NPS (T1; control), delignified paddy straw (DPS)-50% (T2) and delignified paddy straw -100% (T3), respectively. A concentrate mixture of 20% CP was prepared by using feed ingredients like maize, DORB, soybean meal. Weighed quantities of paddy straw and concentrate mixture were mixed every day and offered to calves in TMR form. All the three diets were evaluated for their effect on growth, nutrient utilisation, carcass characteristics and cost economics in growing buffalo bull calves. The percent DM, OM, CP, EE, CF, NFE, TA, NDF, ADF, hemi cellulose, cellulose and ADL were 94, 86.54, 5.57, 2.77, 33.55, 44.65, 13.46, 72.2, 49.34, 22.80, 38.1 and 5.43; 92.73, 91.41, 3.38, 2.97, 55.08, 29.98, 8.59, 81.32, 56.04, 25.28, 29.36 and 4.12 per cent in normal paddy straw and DPS, respectively. The calcium and phosphorous content in normal paddy straw and DPS were 0.42 and 0.105; 0.46 and 0.07 per cent, respectively. Feeding delignified paddy straw to growing buffalo bull calves had no effect (P>0.05) on DM, CP, EE and ADF digestibility as compared to control. However, digestibility of OM, CF, NFE, NDF, cellulose and hemicellulose were significantly higher (P<0.01) in T3 group as compared to the control group. The dry matter intake (kg/day) was significantly higher (P<0.01) in T2 group followed by T3 and T1. Inclusion of delignified paddy straw in the diet had no effect (P>0.05) on DMI expressed as % BW and g/kg W 0.75 among the different dietary treatments. Higher (P<0.05) water intake (L/day) in T2 and water intake (L/kg DMI) in T3 was observed in the calved fed delignified straw as compared to control. Further, better dung score (2.50) was recorded in T2 compared T1 (3.45) and T3 (1.50). The present study indicated that feeding of delignified paddy straw in buffalo bull calves had no effect on the body weight gain (kg), ADG (g/d) , feed efficiency and cost of feed/kg gain among the different dietary groups. However, there is a numerical increase in body weight gain (kg), ADG (g/d), better feed efficiency and decreased cost of feed/kg gain in T2 group compared to the T1 and T3 group. The cost of feed /kg gain decreased by ₹ 24.00 and 12.81 in T2 and T3, respectively, as compared to T1. Feeding of delignified paddy straw had no effect (P>0.05) on DCP content expressed as % in diet consumed and intake (kg). However, the TDN content expressed as % in diet consumed was higher in T3 group compared to T1 and T2. The carcass studies in buffalo bull calves fed delignified paddy straw at different levels had no effect (P>0.05) on the slaughter weights, wholesale cuts expressed as percent of carcass weight, yield of visceral organs expressed as percent of pre-slaughter weight. Thus, it was concluded that replacement of normal paddy straw with delignified paddy straw at a rate of 50% found to be superior with increased body weight gain, nutrient utilisation and decreased cost of feeding compared to 100% replacement in buffalo bull calves.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    EFFECT OF DIETARY INCLUSION OF DRIED MUSHROOM (Agaricus bisporus) WASTE POWDER ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF JAPANESE QUAILS
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY, TIRUPATI - 517 502. (A.P.) INDIA, 2024-01) HIMASREE KANCHARAPU; Kavitha .P (MAJOR); Anil Kumar .C; Nagaraja Kumari .K
    The current study was undertaken for a period of 35 days to assess the impact of dietary inclusion of dried mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) waste powder (MWP) on growth performance, serum biochemical profile, antioxidant status, digestibility of nutrients and carcass characteristics of Japanese quails. A total of one hundred and fifty day-old quail chicks were distributed among five groups, each containing three replicates with ten birds allotted randomly to one of the dietary treatments which were iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous (NRC,1994). Experimental diets were formulated with inclusion of MWP at 0, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5 and 6.0 per cent in T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5 groups, respectively with precise adjustments to other feed ingredients. Results illustrated significant (p<0.05) improvement in body weight gain in the groups fed MWP when compared to control. Significantly (p<0.01) better FCR, PI and PER were observed in T2 and T3 groups when compared to other dietary treatments. Additionally, increased feed intake (p<0.05) is observed in 6% MWP fed groups. The serum biochemical profile of the quails demonstrated that inclusion of MWP up to 6% in the diet had no effect (p>0.05) on serum total protein, globulin, A/G ratio, glucose, AST, ALT, creatinine and calcium content as compared to the control group. However, estimated values showed significant increase in serum phosphorus (p<0.05) and HDL-C (p<0.01) along with significant reduction (p<0.01) in serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-C and VLDL-C content in MWP fed groups when compared to the control group. Serum albumin and BUN levels exhibited a significant (p<0.05) increase in T5 group when compared to other treatments. The antioxidant profile of quails depicted significant increase in SOD (p<0.05) and catalase (p<0.01) activity as well as decrease in MDA content (p<0.01) with the level of MWP inclusion up to 6% level in the diet. The digestibility coefficients for OM, EE and NFE remained non significant (p>0.05) with the inclusion of MWP in the diet. DM digestibility was decreased significantly (p<0.01) at 4.5 and 6.0 per cent levels of inclusion. However, there was a significant (p<0.01) increase in CP digestibility in the T2 and T3 groups and CF digestibility in T2 group. Furthermore, the level of inclusion of MWP up to 6% in the diet had no effect on per cent calcium and phosphorus retention. Inclusion of MWP in the diet up to 6% level did not result in any significant (p>0.05) impact on carcass yield, dressing percentage, ready to cook yield or the per cent weight of heart, liver, gizzard and giblet when compared to the control group. The feed cost/kg gain exhibited a significant (p<0.01) decrease in T3 group and increase in T5 group. Our current research findings suggest that MWP in the diet can be included up to 3% level without affecting the performance by improving lipid profile and antioxidant status of the birds.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    EFFECT OF INCLUSION OF RICE DISTILLERS DRIED GRAIN WITH SOLUBLES IN THE CONCENTRATE MIXTURE ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF BUFFALO CALVES
    (2023-06) HANUMANTHA RAO CHALAMALA; Srinivas Kumar .D (MAJOR); Sudha Rani .K; ANANDA RAO .K
    In a 90-day growth trial, 18 Murrah buffalo bull calves were randomly allotted to three dietary treatments (T1 to T3) comprising of Super Napier green fodder and concentrate mixture containing RDDGS at 0 (T1), 15 (T2) and 30 (T3) percent levels to meet the nutrient requirements (ICAR, 2013). All the three diets were evaluated for their effect on growth, nutrient utilization, serum biochemical profile in buffalo bull calves. The per cent DM, OM, CP, EE, CF, NFE, TA, NDF, ADF, hemi cellulose, cellulose, ADL, and silica of RDDGS were 94.08, 93.97, 48.33, 5.15, 4.91, 38.18, 6.03, 41.29, 21.12, 20.17, 8.01 and 4.87, respectively. The percent calcium and phosphorous content of RDDGS were 0.96 and 1.37, respectively. The study indicated that feeding diets containing RDDGS up to 30% level in the concentrate mixture had no effect (P>0.05) on body weight gains, ADG, feed conversion ratio in buffalo bull calves as compared to the control. The cost of feed / kg gain decreased (P<0.05) by 6.61 and 7.18 in T2 and T3, respectively as compared to T1. Feeding diets containing RDDGS up to 30% level in the concentrate mixture had no effect (P>0.05) on DM, OM, CP, EE, CF, NFE, NDF, ADF, cellulose and hemi-cellulose digestibility as compared to the control. The average DMI of buffalo bull calves expressed as kg/d or as % body weight was similar among the treatments. Inclusion of RDDGS up to 30% level in the concentrate mixture had no effect (P>0.05) on DCP and TDN contents expressed either as intake (kg/d) or as % in the diet consumed. The DM, DCP and TDN intakes expressed as g/kg W075 and ME intake (M Cal / kg W075) were similar among all the treatments and were higher than the values recommended by ICAR (2013) standards. The study revealed that feeding diets containing RDDGS at 15 and 30% level replacing soybean and gingelly cake at 50 and 100% level in the concentrate mixture had no effect (P>0.05) on serum biochemical profile in buffalo bull calves as compared to the control. Thus, it can be concluded that RDDGS can be included up to 30% level replacing conventional protein supplements up to 100% level in the concentrate mixture for feeding buffalo bull calves to decrease the cost of feeding without any adverse effects.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    TO STUDY THE SERUM MINERAL STATUS OF PUNGANUR CATTLE OF LRS, PALAMANER AND TO SUGGEST BALANCED MINERAL SUPPLEMENTATION
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY TIRUPATI - 517 502. (A.P.) INDIA, 2023-04) VASUDHA KUNCHAM; Kavitha .P (MAJOR); Ramana .J.V; Jayasri .K; Venu .R
    The present study is undertaken to know the mineral profile of Punganur cattle at LRS, Palamaner. Initially a preliminary study was conducted to know the mineral profile of soil, water, feed, fodder and serum of Punganur cattle. Macro minerals viz., Ca, P, Mg, Na, K and Cl and micro minerals viz., Fe, Cu and Zn were assessed. A mineral mixture was prepared based on serum mineral analysis by selecting a total of 36 Punganur animals, twelve each from three different categories viz., calves (3-4 months age), heifers (one year age) and lactating cows. Mineral mixture supplementation was carried out for 90 days to know the effect of mineral mixture on serum biochemical profile. Six supplemented lactating cows were compared with six unsupplemented lactating cows for lactation performance and nutrient utilisation. Results indicated that the macro and micro mineral contents of soil were higher than their respective critical levels. Feed and fodder were deficit in zinc content and serum samples of Punganur cattle were deficit in calcium and zinc levels in comparison to critical levels. Supplementation of mineral mixture for 90 days showed significant (p<0.01) increase in serum calcium (mg/dl) and zinc (µg/dl) levels of calves (10.54 to 11.65 & 71.58 to 104.45), heifers (7.43 to 11.54 & 69.16 to 94.83) and cows (7.15 to 9.80 & 40.14 to 96.12). Serum phosphorous (mg/dl) levels increased significantly (p<0.01) in cows and no significant difference was observed in calves and heifers. Serum magnesium, sodium, potassium, chlorine, iron and zinc levels were not affected (p>0.05) with the supplementation of mineral mixture in calves, heifers and cows. Serum biochemical analysis upon mineral mixture supplementation revealed a significant (p<0.01) decrease in serum glucose (mg/dl) in calves (80.89 to 68.46), significant (p<0.01) increase in heifers (57.66 to 63.20) and non-significant effect in cows (57.43 vs 55.59). BUN (mg/dl) levels increased in calves (p<0.01), heifers (p<0.01) and cows (p>0.05). Serum creatinine (mg/dl) levels decreased significantly (p<0.01) in calves and non-significantly (p>0.05) in heifers and cows. The levels of SGPT (IU/L) showed a significant (p<0.01) decrease in calves (31.58 to 26.33), heifers (28.37 to 20.07) and cows (37.78 to 13.73). The serum total protein, albumin, globulin, A/G ratio and SGOT levels remained unaffected (p>0.05) in calves, heifers and cows. Serum lipid profile showed a significant (p<0.01) increase in triglyceride (mg/dl) levels in heifers (58.46 to 70.58), cows (57.31 to 75.59) and no significant (p>0.05) difference in calves (75.49 vs 74.84). There was no significant increase in serum cholesterol levels of calves, heifers and cows. The HDL-C (mg/dl) levels increased in calves (45.40 to 51.68; p<0.05), heifers (50.63 to 54.13; p<0.01) and cows (49.77 to 53.92; p<0.01). LDL-C (mg/dl) levels decreased in calves (56.27 to 43.28; p<0.01) and cows (48.90 to 39.55; p<0.05) and VLDL-C (mg/dl) levels increased in heifers (11.69 to 14.12; p<0.01) and cows (11.46 to 15.12; p<0.01). However, supplementation of mineral mixture had no significant effect on LDL- C levels in heifers and VLDL-C levels in calves. A significant increase (p<0.01) was noticed in SOD (U/mg protein) and catalase (U/mg protein) activities upon supplementation of mineral mixture in calves (22.70 to 67.17 and 1.77 to 2.79), heifers (26.67 to 74.09 and 1.30 to 3.20) and cows (25.28 to 73.84 and 1.26 to 3.09). No significant effect was noticed in MDA concentration in calves, heifers and cows with the supplementation of mineral mixture. Supplementation of mineral mixture had no significant effect on milk yield, 4% FCM, SNF per cent, fat yield, SNF yield and DMI per kg FCM. However, A significant (p<0.05) increase in milk fat content in supplemented group cows was noticed when compared to control. No significant effect was noticed in digestibility (%) of crude protein, ether extract, crude fibre, ADF and hemicellulose. However, a significant increase in digestibility (%) of dry matter (p<0.01), organic matter (p<0.01), NFE (p<0.01), NDF (p<0.01) and cellulose (p<0.05) was noticed in treatment group. No significant difference (p>0.05) in CP intake (g/day), DCP intake (g/day), DMI (kg/day), DMI (% BW), TDN intake (g/kg W0.75), CP intake (g/kg W0.75) and DCP intake (g/kg W0.75) was observed between control and treatment groups. However, a significant (p<0.01) increase was noticed in TDN intake (kg/day) and TDN (% DM) in mineral mixture supplemented group compared to control. Based on the overall results of the study, it was concluded that supplementation of deficit minerals in the form of mineral mixture has positive effect on mineral status, health and nutrient utilisation of Punganur cattle.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    EFFECT OF SUPPLEMENTATION OF ASHWAGANDHA (Withania somnifera) ROOT POWDER AND SYNBIOTIC ON PERFORMANCE OF BROILERS
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY TIRUPATI - 517 502. (A.P.) INDIA, 2023-03) VOOHA PADALA; Anil Kumar .C (MAJOR); Kavitha .P; Susmita .T
    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplementation of ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) root powder and synbiotic at different levels in broiler diets on growth performance, serum biochemical profile, digestibility of nutrients, carcass characteristics and cost economics in broilers. One hundred and eighty, day old chicks were distributed randomly into six dietary groups each with three replicates of ten chicks and were offered broiler diets to meet the nutrient requirements (ICAR, 2013). Broilers were fed on maize-soya based pre-starter (0-2 weeks), starter (2-4 weeks) and finisher (4-6 weeks) diets. The six treatment groups were provided diets supplemented with various levels of ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) root powder and synbiotic (S) either alone or in combination as follows: Basal diet without antibiotics (T1) - as negative control, basal diet with antibiotics (T2) - as positive control, basal diet plus ARP at 10 g/kg feed (T3), basal diet plus S at 0.5 g/kg feed (T4), basal diet plus ARP at 10 g/kg feed plus S at 0.5 g/kg feed (T5), and basal diet plus ARP at 5 g/kg feed plus S at 0.5 g/kg feed (T6) which was iso-caloric and iso nitrogenous. Results indicated that supplementation of ashwagandha root powder and synbiotic either alone or in combination in the diet resulted in increased (p<0.01) body weight gain, improved (p<0.01) FCR, increased (p<0.01) performance index and improved (p<0.01) protein efficiency ratio while there was decrease (p<0.05) on overall feed intake of birds. The serum biochemical profile of broilers revealed that supplementation of supplementation of ashwagandha or synbiotic alone or in combination in the diet had no effect (p>0.05) on serum A/G ratio and creatinine levels. However, the serum total protein, albumin and globulin (p<0.01), HDL (p<0.05), serum calcium (p<0.05) and serum phosphorus levels (p<0.01) increased while the serum glucose, triglycerides (p<0.01), total cholesterol (p<0.05), LDL cholesterol (p<0.01), VLDL cholesterol (p<0.05), serum AST (p<0.01) and ALT (p<0.01) content decreased with supplementation of higher level of ashwagandha (10 g/kg feed) or (5 g/kg feed) plus 0.05% synbiotic in broilers as compared to the unsupplemented group. On the other hand, the serum urea levels increased linearly from T1 to T6 with combination of ashwagandha or synbiotic alone or in combination. The digestibility coefficients of DM, OM, CP, CF, EE and NFE significantly (p<0.01) increased with supplementation of ashwagandha or synbiotic either alone or in combination in the basal diet of broilers as compared to the unsupplemented group. Further, supplementation of ashwagandha root powder and synbiotic in broiler diets had no significant effect (p>0.05) on calcium, phosphorus and nitrogen retention when compared to control. Supplementation of ashwagandha (10 g/kg feed) + 0.05% synbiotic in the diet had increased (p<0.05) carcass characteristics parameters viz., carcass yield, ready to cook yield, breast meat yield, weight of heart and dressing percentage while there was no effect (p>0.05) weight of drumstick, breast meat %, giblet % and relative organ weights viz., weights of liver, gizzard, spleen and giblet among the treatment groups in broilers. Further, significant reduction in mortality is observed in ashwagandha and synbiotic supplemented groups. The feed cost/kg gain decreased by ₹ 6.23 in T2, ₹ 0.62 in T3, ₹ 3.20 in T4, ₹ 7.27 in T5 and ₹ 4.64 in T6 groups of broilers fed diets supplemented with ashwagandha root powder and synbiotic at varying levels as compared to the control (T1). Thus, based on the results it can be concluded that ashwagandha root powder up to 10g/kg feed, combined with synbiotic at 0.5g/kg feed as feed supplement, can be used as an alternative to antibiotic growth promoter duly optimising feed cost and ensuring enhanced production performance in broilers.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT SOURCES OF OILS / FATS IN THE DIET OF BROILER CHICKENS
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY TIRUPATI - 517 502. (A.P.) INDIA, 2023-03) SHUBHAM DILIP SURADKAR; Ramana .J.V (MAJOR); Raja Kishore .K; Naga Raja Kumari .K
    The present trial was carried out to study the effect of inclusion of various oils / fat sources on growth performance, serum biochemical profile, digestibility of nutrients and carcass characteristics in broilers. Three hundred, day-old chicks were distributed randomly to five dietary groups each with six replicates of ten chicks per replicate and were offered broiler diets to meet the nutrient requirements as per ICAR, 2013 standards. During the experiment, various oils/ fat sources viz., T1: Soybean oil, T2: Palm oil refinery byproduct, T3: Palm oil, T4: Rice bran oil and T5: Lard, were added to the basal diet in pre starter, starter and finisher phases as follows: Basal diet + 3.00% oil/fat, Basal diet + 5.00% oil/fat, and Basal diet + 5.00% oil/fat, respectively. Results indicated that birds in T5 group had highest (p<0.05) body weight gains and better FCR, which were followed by T2 and T1 groups. Increased (p<0.01) performance index was seen in T5 group. Data related to protein efficiency ratio revealed that birds in T1 group had the best (p<0.05) protein efficiency ratio, followed by T5 and T2 groups. Results during entire growth phase showed significantly higher (p<0.01) feed intake values for T2, T4 and T5. The serum biochemical profile of broilers revealed that birds in T5 group had significantly highest (p<0.01) levels of serum total protein and albumin. Data related to HDL cholesterol showed non-significant difference between the treatments, however, lowest (p<0.01) LDL cholesterol concentration was found in T2 followed by T1 and T3. Serum urea, creatinine, calcium and phosphorous contents differed non significantly (p>0.05) across the dietary treatments. Serum glucose, AST and ALT levels differed non significantly (p>0.05) across the dietary treatments. Significant increase in serum triglycerides (p<0.05) and total cholesterol (p<0.01) levels was seen in T5 and T4 as compared to other dietary treatments. Inclusion of various oils / fat sources had no effect (p>0.05) on digestibility of OM and CF while the DM, CP digestibility increased significantly (p<0.05) in T1, T2 and T5 groups, respectively. EE digestibility however, decreased significantly (p<0.01) in T2 group as compared to other dietary treatments. NFE digestibility was significantly higher (p<0.01) in T1, T2, T3 and T5 groups as compared to T4. Further T1, T2 and T5 groups had significantly higher carcass yield (p<0.05), dressing yield (p<0.05) and breast meat yield (p<0.01). Dressing percent showed significantly (p<0.01) higher values for T2 as compared to other dietary treatments. Weight of heart and liver was significantly (p<0.01) higher in T4 and T5 groups respectively, as compared to other dietary treatments. The data on sensory evaluation of broiler meat viz. color, flavor, juiciness, tenderness and overall acceptability of meat revealed non-significant difference (p>0.05) across the dietary treatments. Based on the results, it can be concluded that incorporation of all the oils/fats in the diets of broilers have shown improved performance of broilers from day one onwards till the time of marketing. Even though the diets containing lard have shown better performance in terms of FCR and Protein Efficiency Ratio, the cholesterol and fat deposition were more in the meat of these birds. Among the vegetable oils compared soybean oil was found to be a better oil source for broilers followed by palm oil refinery byproduct, palm oil and rice bran oil in that order.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    EFFECT OF INCORPORATION OF ONION (Allium cepa) POWDER AS FEED ADDITIVE IN THE DIET ON PERFORMANCE OF JAPANESE QUAILS
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY TIRUPATI - 517 502. (A.P.) INDIA, 2022-03) SRAVANI, BOMMI REDDY; Kavitha, P (MAJOR); Srinivas Kumar, D; Nagaraja Kumari, K
    The present investigation was carried out to study the effect of incorporation of onion (Allium cepa) powder as feed additive at different levels on growth performance, serum biochemical profile, anti-oxidant profile, digestibility of nutrients, carcass characteristics and cost economics in Japanese quails. One hundred and fifty, day old quail chicks were distributed randomly to five dietary treatments each with three replicates of ten chicks each and were offered experimental diets to meet the nutrient requirements (NRC, 1994). During the experiment, onion powder was incorporated at 0 per cent (T1; Control), 0.5 per cent (T2), 1 per cent (T3), 1.5 per cent (T4) and 2 per cent (T5) levels in iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous broiler quail diets. Results indicated that incorporation of onion powder from 0 to 2 per cent level in the diet had no effect (p>0.05) on feed intake and protein efficiency ratio in quails as compared to the control. Whereas, the study indicated that the body weight gain (p0.05) on serum total protein, albumin, globulin, A/G ratio, glucose, AST, ALT, BUN, creatinine, serum calcium and phosphorous content as compared to the control. Whereas, the serum triglycerides (p0.05) on catalase activity. However, the SOD activity (p0.05) with increase in the level of incorporation of onion powder up to 2 per cent in the diet of Japanese quail as compared to the control. Further, onion powder incorporation in quail diets significantly improved calcium retention (p0.05) on carcass yield, dressing percentage, ready to cook yield and per cent weight of, liver, gizzard and giblet as compared to the control and there was increased in weight of heart (p<0.01) with increase in the level of incorporation of onion powder up to 2 per cent in the diet of Japanese quail as compared to the control. The feed cost ()/kg gain was numerically increased with increase in the level of onion powder from 0 to 2.0 per cent in the diet, but the difference was not significant.Thus, based on the overall results of the study, it was concluded that onion powder can be incorporated up to 2 per cent level in quail diets without any adverse effect on Japanese quail performance.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    EFFECT OF FEEDING BIO-FORTIFIED VARIETIES (DRR DHAN 45 AND 48) OF RICE STRAW ON GROWTH AND NUTRIENT UTILIZATION IN BUFFALO CALVES
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY TIRUPATI - 517 502. (A.P.) INDIA, 2022-03) RAVITEJA KUMAR, KAVURI; Srinivas Kumar, D (MAJOR); Raja Kishore, K; Venkata Seshaiah, Ch
    In a 90-day growth trial, 18 Murrah buffalo bull calves were randomly allotted to three dietary treatments (T1 to T3) comprising of Super Napier green fodder, concentrate mixture and rice straw viz. local variety (T1; Control), DRR Dhan – 45 (T2) and DRR Dhan – 48 (T3). All the three varieties of rice straws were ground using chopper cum grinder, mixed with concentrate mixture and offered to bull calves in respective groups in TMR form to meet the nutrient requirements (ICAR, 2013). All the three diets were evaluated for their effect on growth, nutrient utilization, serum biochemical and mineral profile in buffalo bulls. The per cent DM, OM, CP, EE, CF, NFE, TA, NDF, ADF, hemicellulose, cellulose, ADL and silica were 93.11, 85.63, 3.19, 2.66, 37.09, 35.8, 14.37, 76.19, 52.15, 24.04, 26.83, 14.40 and 10.96; 93.98, 86.39, 5.78, 2.41, 34.94, 37.24, 13.61, 71.17, 46.14, 25.03, 24.80, 12.18 and 9.26; 93.90, 87.69, 5.62, 2.86, 35.80, 37.31, 12.31, 71.40, 45.34, 26.06, 24.26, 13.07 and 8.06 percent in control, Dhan - 45 and Dhan – 48 varieties, respectively. The calcium and phosphorous content in control, Dhan - 45 and Dhan – 48 varieties were 0.51 and 0.10; 0.56 and 0.12; and 0.58 and 0.13 percent, respectively. In vitro parameters studied viz. IVGP (ml/200 mg DM), IVDMD (%), IVOMD (%), ME (MJ/kg DM), PF (mg/ml), MBP (mg), FE (mg DM) and SCFA (mM) revealed no significant differences (P>0.05) between biofortified varieties of rice straw as compared to the control. The study indicated that feeding zinc biofortified varieties of rice straw increased significantly (P0.05) on feed efficiency and cost of feed / kg gain in buffalo bull calves as compared to the control. The cost of feed / kg gain decreased (P>0.05) by 11.04 and 6.52 in T2 and T3, respectively as compared to T1. Feeding zinc biofortified rice straw varieties in the diet had no effect (P>0.05) on DM, OM, CF, NFE, NDF, hemi-cellulose and cellulose digestibility as compared to control. However, digestibility of CP and EE were significantly higher (P0.05) on TDN (kg/d), DE and ME intakes (M Cal/d) as compared to the control. The study revealed that feeding of zinc biofortified varieties of rice straw had no effect (P>0.05) on serum biochemical profile in buffalo bull calves as compared to the control. Further, feeding zinc biofortified varieties of rice straw had no effect (P>0.05) on serum calcium and phosphorous content while it increased significantly (P<0.01) the serum zinc content as compared to those fed control straw diet. Thus, it is concluded that zinc biofortified varieties of rice straw viz. Dhan-45 and Dhan-48 can be fed to buffalo bull calves for increased body weight gains and decreased cost of feeding without any adverse effects ensuring profits to the farmers / dairy entrepreneurs.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    EFFECT OF INCLUSION OF CASHEW NUT KERNEL MEAL IN THE DIET ON PERFORMANCE OF JAPANESE QUAILS
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY TIRUPATI - 517 502. (A.P.) INDIA, 2022-02) SUCHARITHA KATHYAYINI, CHINDUKURI; Raja Kishore, K (MAJOR); Srinivas Kumar, D; Narendranath, D
    The present investigation is carried out to study the effect of inclusion of cashew nut kernel meal at different levels on growth performance, serum biochemical profile, digestibility of nutrients, carcass characteristics and cost economics in Japanese quails. One hundred and fifty, day old quail chicks were distributed randomly to five dietary groups each with three replicates of ten chicks and were offered experimental diets to meet the nutrient requirements (NRC, 1994). During the experiment, cashew nut kernel meal was ground and was included at 0% (T1; Control), 5% (T2), 10% (T3), 15% (T4) and 20% (T5) levels in iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous broiler quail diets. Results indicated that inclusion of cashew nut kernel meal from 0 to 20% level in the diet had no effect (P>0.05) on feed intake, feed conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio in quails as compared to the control. Whereas, the study indicated that the body weight gain (P0.05) on serum albumin, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, AST, ALT, urea, serum calcium and phosphorous content as compared to the control. Whereas, the glucose, creatinine levels (P0.05) linearly from T1 to T5 with increased level of inclusion of cashew nut kernel meal from 0 to 20% in the diet as compared to the control. Further, inclusion of cashew nut kernel meal up to 20% level in the diet had no effect (P>0.05) on carcass yield, dressing percentage, ready to cook yield and per cent weight of heart, liver, gizzard and giblet as compared to the control. The feed cost ( )/kg gain decreased by 1.30 in T2, 3.67 in T3, 7.21 in T4 and 11.5 in T5 groups of quails fed diets containing cashew nut kernel meal at 5, 10, 15 and 20% levels in the diet as compared to the control. Thus, it is concluded that inclusion of cashew nut kernel meal up to 20% level in the diet without any adverse effect on production performance of Japanese quail.