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Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University, Tirupati

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Now showing 1 - 9 of 2029
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    STUDIES ON OCULOMETRY WITH REFERENCE TO SKULL CONFORMATION AND AGE IN DOGS
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY, TIRUPATI - 517 502. (A.P.) INDIA, 2023-03) CHATTALA, NAGA TRILOCHANA; MAKKENA, SREENU; N V V, HARI KRISHNA
    The present work “Studies on oculometry with reference to skull conformation and age in dogs” was carried by selecting the normal eyes after assessing the eyes with general and clinical ophthalmological examination. Transcorneal direct contact for A scan and immersion method for B scan was carried under topical anesthesia in 54 dogs and yielded in good data for oculometry. Based on skull conformation (Dolichocephalic, Mesaticephalic and Brachycephalic Breeds) and age (Young (0-9 months); Middle age (1-6 years) and Old: above 7 years) dogs were divided for analysis following oculometry. On A scan, anterior chamber depth, lens thickness, vitreous chamber depth and globe axial length of right and left eyes were 3.03 ±0.10 and 3.10±0.14 ; 2.62±0.21 and 2.32±0.22 ; 14.83±0.33 and 14.96±0.31 and 20.48±0.22 and 20.49±0.22 , respectively while the measurements on B scan were 2.92±0.08 and 2.84±0.09 6.87±0.08 and 6.84±0.09 ; 8.84±0.09 and 8.86±0.08 and 19.60±0.25 and 19.52±0.26 respectively. A and B-mode ultrasonography were easy, practical, safe and useful techniques for ocular biometry in dogs. There was a phase of growth of the ocular components in the age group of 0-9 months in all the breeds with different skull conformation. Skull size do not interfere with ocular biometry measurements in above one year aged dogs. There was no significant difference between the ocular biometric measurements of left and right eyes, at different age. Anterior chamber length and lens thickness increased as age advances with B scan however both the values are different in A and B mode scanning procedure. A scan reveals clear axial globe length and B scan measured lens thickness, vitreous chamber depth and globe axial length with more reliability. To conclude that the B scan procedure showed to be better as it recorded all the ocular components accurately with clear image. The A scan procedure was simple to perform and recorded globe axial length accurately and unable to record the values of lens thickness and vitreous chamber depth precisely. B scan can be a useful tool for ocular biometry due to its accuracy and the reliability with an advantage of effective role in recording the ocular components architecture for diagnosis.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    STUDIES ON THE HEPATOPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF SARDINELLA LONGICEPS FISH EXTRACT AND FLAVONOID QUERCETIN IN RATS
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY TIRUPATI - 517 502. (A.P.) INDIA, 2023-02) SIMRAN KOUR, S; SRIVIDYA, G(MAJOR); RAVI KUMAR, P; SUDHAKAR, K
    In recent years there has been an increased research interest to develop therapeutic agents from natural sources. Fish serve as natural sources of medicines for cardiac disorders due to their richness in polyunsaturated fatty acids. Exploring the therapeutic potential of plant sources such as volatile oils, herbs phytochemicals was studied but limited research reports are available on the therapeutic potential of the fish extract on liver damage. Hence, the present study was designed to determine the effect of Sardinella longiceps fish extract and flavonoid quercetin on liver damage produced by carbon tetrachloride in male albino Wistar rats. Fish possess high protein content and also omega fatty acids known to support good health. The Indian subcontinent harbors a rich fish biodiversity which markedly varies in their nutrient composition. The Indian Oil Sardine (Sardinella longiceps) is a species of ray-finned fish of the genus Sardinella and is the most common species that forms the mainstay of the pelagic fishes of India. It has the highest lipid value (38%) and PUFAs which significantly regulate cell proliferation, and fatty acid metabolism, and in reducing inflammation and oxidative stress. Quercetin (3, 5, 7, 3, 4-pentahydroxy flavon), is a flavonoid considered one of the most prominent dietary antioxidants and occurs in a glycosylated form in French beans, broccoli, apples, and especially in onions. Male Wistar rats weighing 150-200 g, were randomly distributed into five groups, the first served as control and received 1% DMSO orally for 3 weeks and olive oil i.p. twice a week in the 2nd and 3rd week while groups II, III, IV, and V rats received carbon tetrachloride @ 1ml/kg body weight in olive oil (1:1) i.p. twice a week in the 2nd and 3rd week. The third and fourth groups were supplemented with Sardinella longiceps extract @ 300mg/Kg body weight and quercetin @ 30mg/Kg body weight orally daily for 3 weeks, respectively. Rats of group five were exposed to coadministration of Sardinella longiceps extract @ 300mg/Kg body weight and quercetin @ 30mg/Kg body weight orally daily for 3 weeks. Twenty-four hours after the last day of treatment blood samples were collected for estimation of indicators of hepatic damage and liver samples were collected for gross and histopathological examination. Administration of CCl4 for 21 days produced liver injury that was evident from elevated levels of serum enzymes such as ALT, AST, ALP, bilirubin, BUN, creatinine and histopathological alterations such as vacuolar degeneration of hepatocytes, and infiltration of inflammatory cells in sinusoidal space. The CCl4 treatment caused significant (p<0.01) changes in the cellular redox status as reflected by about a 79% decrease in the level of GSH, a marked decrease GPx, SOD, and catalase levels, and an increase in MDA in the liver. Sardinella longiceps extract (300mg/kg orally, daily ) markedly prevented the rise in serum enzyme levels elicited by CCl4. The histopathological alterations were also improved. Remarkably, there was a reversal of the changes to some extent in the levels of GSH and MDA, in animals receiving quercetin. The group receiving the coadministration of Sardinella longiceps extract and quercetin showed better protection against CCl4 and this was evident with improved body weight gain, decreased serum enzyme levels, and less severe histoarchitectural changes in the liver. In conclusion, the present study provided new insights into the use of fish as PUFA supplementation and the combination treatment was the most promising hepato protective formula among the different treatments.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    STUDY ON EFFECT OF ELECTRIC STUNNING AND DIFFERENT SCALDING METHODS ON QUALITY OF PORK
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY TIRUPATI - 517 502. (A.P.) INDIA, 2023-02) SUPRIYA, KUSAM; ESWARA RAO, B(MAJOR); GIRISH PATIL, S; NAGA MALLIKA, E; SRINIVASA RAO, T
    A study was carried out with an objective to investigate the efficiency of the simple electrical stunner developed by the NRCM with a constant voltage of 60V with the strength of 1A in phase I along with the effect of the different dressing techniques like steam scalding and singeing without scalding on physicochemical and organoleptic characteristics of pork in phase II. In phase I, a total of 20 pigs were slaughtered in two groups consisting of ten in each group and the pigs were subjected to stunning by simple electrical stunner and elthers apparatus respectively. Physical reflexes and bleeding efficiency were evaluated and no significant (P>0.05) difference was observed between the groups. For phase II, another total of 20 pigs were stunned by using simple electrical stunner and divided into two groups and the pigs were subjected to dressing techniques like steam scalding and singeing without scalding respectively. The results showed that drip loss percentage higher (P0.05) by dressing method employed. Singeing imposes higher (P0.05) significantly. The juiciness, flavor and overall acceptability values for scalded carcass had higher (P< 0.05) compared to singed meat. The results of the present study revealed the clear advantage of steam scalding before singeing with improvement in tenderness, palatability and aesthetic appearance of meat.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    DETECTION AND MOLECULAR TYPING OF TOXINS OF Clostridium perfringens ISOLATES FROM SMALL RUMINANTS
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY TIRUPATI - 517 502. (A.P.) INDIA, 2023-02) SAI MANI DEEPIKA, CHEDE; SRIVANI, M(MAJOR); ANAND KUMAR, P; ASWANI KUMAR, K
    A study was carried out on the isolation, biochemical, molecular characterization and toxin typing of C. perfringens isolated from healthy and diarrhoeic sheep and goat. The antibiotic resistance pattern was studied in representative samples. A total of 158 samples (rectal swabs and intestinal tissues) were collected from healthy and diarrhoeic sheep and goat, from which 34 (21.51%) C. perfringens isolates were obtained. A higher isolation rate was obtained from intestinal content samples (67.65%) than faecal samples (32.35%). The samples that exhibited characteristic cultural and biochemical characters were subjected to PCR, which revealed 34 samples were positive for C. perfringens. The sugars like galactose, cellobiose and raffinose were used to differentiate toxin type A, D and F from other toxin types, respectively. Out of 34 positive samples, a high prevalence rate was observed among diarrhoeic lambs (50.0%) followed by diarrhoeic sheep (44.12%) and healthy sheep (5.88%). Multiplex PCR for six toxin genes (alpha, beta, epsilon, iota, entero and beta2) of 34 isolates revealed the production of four toxins namely alpha, epsilon, entero and beta2 toxins belonging to three toxin types i.e., type A, D and F. Out of these isolates, 30 (88.23%) isolates were characterized as C. perfringens type A, one (2.94%) isolate was characterized as C. perfringens type D and three (8.82%) isolates were characterized as C. perfringens type F. In the present study, C. perfringens type A was found to be predominant among all the toxin types. Among diarrhoeic sheep, 86.67% and 13.33% of C. perfringens type A and type F were detected, respectively. The isolates obtained from healthy sheep were detected as type A and among diarrhoeic lambs, 88.24%, 5.88% and 5.88% of type A, D and F were detected, respectively. Antibiogram of randomly selected isolates showed resistance to sulphamethizole (66.67%) followed by co-trimoxazole (58.33%), enrofloxacin (41.67%) and tetracycline (33.33%) and high sensitivity observed against gentamicin (91.67%) followed by cefotaxime/clavulanic acid (91.67%), norfloxacin (91.67%) followed by chloramphenicol (83.33%), cefotaxime (75.0%) and streptomycin (66.67%). Sequencing results of selected isolates showed 100% homology with corresponding published toxin genes confirming the amplicons as C. perfringens (481 bp), alpha (324 bp) and epsilon (376 bp) toxin genes of C. perfringens. The present study concluded that the most of the isolates were characterized as C. perfringens type A. Therefore, it may be recommended to include C. perfringens type A anaculture in the existing vaccine, to prevent C. perfringens infections in this geographic region (Krishna and West Godavari districts of Andhra Pradesh).
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    EVALUATION OF NATURAL RESISTANCE STATUS OF SHEEP AGAINST HAEMONCHUS CONTORTUS INFECTION
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY TIRUPATI - 517 502. (A.P.) INDIA, 2023-02) RAJESHWARI; SREEDEVI, C(MAJOR); JYOTHI SREE, CH; RAVI KUMAR, P; SUDHAKAR, K
    Anthelmintic resistance is a major concern throughout the world, especially for the control of Haemonchus contortus. Selection of genetically resistant animals is one alternative to control infection that minimize herd use of anthelmintics. The aim of the current study was to explore associations between phenotypic traits for H. contortus and polymorphisms in the DRB1 region of major histocompatibility complex and GALNT6 gene involved in gastrointestinal mucus production in a Nellore (n=95), Deccani (n=28) and Kenguri (n=34) sheep naturally infected with H. contortus. Blood and faecal samples were collected to evaluate faecal worm egg counts (FEC), packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin (Hb), eosinophilia and for DNA isolation. Animals were grouped into high FEC (susceptible) and low FEC (resistant) group based on EPG counts. FEC and circulating eosinophilia were higher in susceptible group. Log FEC was negatively correlated (P < 0.01) with PCV, and Hb estimates. The second exon of DRB1 and intron variant of GALNT6 genes were amplified by polymerase chain reaction from DNA samples of resistant and susceptible sheep. PCR products were characterized by the restriction fragment length polymorphism technique using restriction enzymes. Two genotypes (‘bb’ and ‘ab’) were observed following digestion of Ovar-DRB1 with PstI. Genotype frequencies were 0.78 for ‘bb’ and 0.22 for ‘ab’. The frequency of ‘a’ and ‘b’ alleles were 0.11 and 0.89, respectively. The genotype frequencies differed significantly between both the groups (P<0.05). A generalized linear model was used to test effects of genotype on FEC, Hb and PCV. The ‘bb’ genotypes had higher (P<0.05) log FEC value than ‘ab’ genotypes and ‘b’ allele was linked with susceptibility to haemonchosis in sheep. The mean FEC of Nellore sheep was high (P<0.01) indicating susceptibility of the breed and also in which the frequency of ‘b’ allele was more compared to other two breeds. Ovar-DRB1 genotypes associated to FEC did not affect PCV and Hb. Digestion of GALNT6 amplicons with AluI revealed undigested single fragment referred to ‘aa’ genotypes. Since monomorphic no further association studies could be conducted for this gene. In conclusion, Ovar-DRB1 could be a reliable marker for selecting sheep resistant against H. contortus.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    DETECTION OF ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE PROFILES AND ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE GENES (ARGs) IN Escherichia coli ISOLATES FROM MASTITIS MILK SAMPLES OF BUFFALOES AND THE ENVIRONMENT
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY TIRUPATI - 517 502. (A.P.) INDIA, 2023-02) RATNAMRUTHA, NUNNA; ANAND KUMAR, P(MAJOR); SRIVANI, M; SUBHASHINI, N
    The present study is undertaken to investigate the antibiotic resistance patterns in E. coli isolates from mastitis milk samples of buffaloes and environment (water) samples in the vicinity of the same dairy animals and to know the distribution of the selected genetic determinants of antibiotics in these isolates. Based on cultural, biochemical and molecular (PCR test) tests, 52 samples out of 79 mastitis milk samples and 31 samples out of 54 water samples were confirmed as E. coli. For isolation of E. coli presumptively producing ESBL/AmpC, the mastitis milk samples and water samples were cultured on 1 mg/L of cefotaxime (CTX) supplemented MacConkey agar (MCA) and Tryptone Bile Glucuronic (TBX) agar, respectively. A total of 27 mastitis milk samples and 14 water samples were identified as ESBL/AmpC producing E. coli by cultural, biochemical and molecular tests. With regard to antibiotic resistance pattern of E. coli isolates (including ESBL/AmpC producing E. coli) from mastitis milk samples in in vitro disc diffusion based antibiotic sensitivity test (AST) with primary panel of nine antibiotics, majority of isolates were resistant to cefotaxime followed by ampicillin, cotrimoxazole, imipenem, enrofloxacin, amoxyclav, tetracycline, chloramphenicol and gentamicin. The E. coli isolates (including ESBL/AmpC producing E. coli) from water samples also showed maximum resistance to cefotaxime followed by ampicillin, imipenem, cotrimoxazole, tetracycline, amoxyclav, enrofloxacin, chloramphenicol and gentamicin. Further, AST with secondary panel of five antibiotic discs for presumptive ESBL/AmpC producing E. coli isolates from mastitis milk samples and water samples showed that all the isolates were ESBL/AmpC producers and showed highest resistance to ceftazidime followed by cefoxitin and meropenem. In PCR test for detecting the genetic determinants of antibiotic resistance genes, 91.9% of the E. coli isolates (including ESBL/AmpC producers) from mastitis milk samples and water samples possessed AmpC gene followed by SHV, NDM-1, TEM and OXA genes. In the present study, AmpC gene was detected in all E. coli isolates that were showing resistance to third generation cephalosporins in AST except three E. coli isolates from water samples (W41, W48 and W52). In some (A6, A9, A16, A25, A34, A49 and A64) of the E. coli isolates, although AmpC gene was detected in PCR test, phenotypically it was not correlated in ASTs as these isolates have shown only sensitivity/intermediate resistance to third generation of cephalosporins. Further, some of the E. coli isolates that were detected with AmpC gene also didn’t show resistance to clavulanic acid. This might be due to the lack of expression of AmpC gene in those isolates.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    IDENTIFICATION OF SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMS AFFECTING SEMEN QUALITY TRAITS IN AI BULLS OF ANDHRA PRADESH
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY TIRUPATI - 517 502. (A.P.) INDIA, 2023-01) DEEPTHI, CHANDAKA; VINOO, R(MAJOR); SUDHAKAR, K; NARENDRA NATH, D; ASWANI KUMAR, K
    Bull fertility is an important factor for improving the economic value of the herd as the single bull can be used to inseminate many cows using artificial insemination. The bull fertility is measured in terms of semen quality traits like sperm motility and plasma membrane integrity of semen. The scrotal circumference of the bulls influences the semen quality in terms of sperm concentration and percentage of normal sperms of bulls ejaculate. These traits were influenced by both genetic and non-genetic factors. The genes MAP3K1, SPEF2 and PLCZ1 influencing the semen quality traits like scrotal circumference, sperm motility and plasma membrane integrity of semen were identified based on GWAS through Chilibot and Connected paper web-based bioinformatic tools. The SNPs rs463712269 (MAP3K1) and rs722354121 (SPEF2) were identified by screening these genes for missense mutations using Ensembl database and their RFLP pattern was verified using NEBcutterV2.0 software. For PLCZ1 gene, the perusal of literature revealed the presence of rs208019489 affecting the plasma membrane integrity of semen. A total of five frozen semen straws per bull and the relevant data were collected from 239 bulls of different breeds residing in FSBS of Andhra Pradesh. A suitable DNA isolation protocol viz., modified high salt method was selected through comparison of five different DNA isolation procedures in frozen semen. PCR-RFLP polymorphisms were examined in each group by using CviQI, HpyCH4V, and AvaII restriction enzymes for digestion of PCR products in MAP3K1, SPEF2 and PLCZ1 genes respectively. Association of MAP3K1, SPEF2 and PLCZ1 genotypes on scrotal circumference, sperm motility and plasma membrane integrity respectively were worked out using General linear model of SPSS Statistics base 26. The MAP3K1/CviQ1 PCR-RFLP assay revealed that the T allele frequency was more in Ongole population while in other cattle breeds C allele frequency was more. The highest homozygosity values were observed in Jersey and a reversal of this was observed in Ongole and HF population. Negative FIS values in the studied population are indicative of heterozygous excess due to outcrossing. In Murrah, the T allele frequency was more wiaaaaaaaaath effective number of allele of 1.13 and heterozygosity excess at this locus. Fixation of T allele was observed in both the exotic pure breeds (HF and Jersey) and presence of C allele was almost insignificant in cattle SPEF2/ HpyCH4V assay. The low selective pressure on SPEF2 locus was observed and the negative FIS values were observed in the cattle groups studied. In Murrah, the abundance of heterozygotes was observed indicating the selective advantage of C allele in this species and they deviated from the Hardy Weinberg equilibrium suggesting a high selection pressure on this locus. The GG (0.64) genotype frequency was higher than the CG (0.22) in Ongole cattle in PLCZ1/AvaII assay. Except in HF crossbred none off the other cattle genetic groups were with CC genotype which could be an inadvertent result of crossbreeding in HF crossbred. The HF crossbred and indigenous Ongole cattle (P<0.01) were not in agreement with the Hardy Weinberg equilibrium. In Murrah buffaloes, the near fixation of G allele (0.98) was observed accounting for the selection. The presence of low genetic diversity and heterozygosity excess in the Murrah population at this locus was found. Association of MAP3K1/CviQ1 and SPEF2/HpyCH4V polymorphisms had no significant influence on scrotal circumference and pre-thaw and post-thaw sperm motility respectively in both cattle and buffaloes. The PLCZ1/AvaII genotypes have significant influence on the plasma membrane integrity of semen in Holstein Freisiean, Jersey (P<0.05) and Ongole bulls (P<0.01). The plasma membrane integrity of semen was reported to be high in heterozygotes (CG) of Jersey and Ongole cattle. In Murrah, the genotypes have no significant effect on plasma membrane integrity of semen. The present study, conclude the importance of PLCZ1 gene as a marker for semen quality assessment and selection in bulls, owing to the association of PLCZ1 polymorphisms with plasma membrane integrity of bulls. Identification of few more SNPs in the vicinity of the verified SNPs suggests the importance of investigations aiming at screening for further casual mutation responsible for the variation of these traits with higher number of bulls.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    GENETIC POLYMORPHISM IN AGOUTI SIGNALING PROTEIN (ASIP) GENE AMONG SHEEP GENETIC GROUPS OF ANDHRA PRADESH
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY TIRUPATI - 517 502. (A.P.) INDIA, 2022-09) DIANA, M; MURALIDHAR, M(MAJOR); VINOO, R; KALYANA CHAKRAVARTHY, M
    The sheep genetic resources of Andhra Pradesh shows a very clear distinct coat colour pattern. Coat colour is an important economic trait in domestic sheep which vary greatly due to hereditary and environmental factors. The coat colour phenotype is influenced by a large number of genes involved in various stages of melanogenesis, from the migration and maturation of the melanocytes to the production of melanin. The agouti signaling pathway (ASIP) gene is a crucial gene that plays an important role in coat colour determination in sheep through epistatic interaction with other genes. The present study was conducted to provide insight into role of certain ASIP loci in coat colour patterns in the sheep genetic groups of Andhra Pradesh. Blood samples were collected from six sheep genetic groups of Andhra Pradesh. Modified high salt method was used for the isolation of Genomic DNA. An allele specific PCR assay was designed to study variation in the deletion locus D5 located on exon 2 of the gene. PCR-RFLP assay with PstI restriction enzyme was used to determine the non-synonymous SNP (c.5172T>A) polymorphism. Departures from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in each population were analyzed using a chi-square test for both the loci. As the pattern of genotypes are not consistent with the genetic groups, it is difficult to draw a conclusion with respect to D5 allele and its role in coat colour in sheep genetic groups of Andhra Pradesh. In 5172T>A SNP, it is interesting to note that how a black coat colour influencing allele under homozygous condition is producing white coat colour in Nellore Palla. No single genetic group is associated with specific genotype for either of the loci so, a total of nine possible combination of diplotypes were scored. However, no specific diplotype is associated with the genetic group. From this, it is plausibly deduced that the combination of wild type at the deletion locus and T allele at the non-synonymous locus could plausibly be giving rise to the white coat colour in these genetic groups except in Nellore Brown which may be due to interactions with other coat colour loci. In order to get better understanding about genetics of coat colour in the native sheep genetic groups of Andhra Pradesh, studies involving coat colour loci other than ASIP gene and specific coat colour pattern of each individual is necessary.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    A STUDY ON BUFFALO PRODUCTION SYSTEM IN DELTA AND UPLAND AREAS OF WEST GODAVARI DISTRICT OF ANDHRA PRADESH
    (SRI VENKATESWARA VETERINARY UNIVERSITY TIRUPATI - 517 502. (A.P.) INDIA, 2022-09) LAKSHMI KALYANI, G; ANITHA, A(MAJOR); ASHA LATHA, P; SUDHAKAR, K
    An investigation was conducted to study the production and reproduction performance of buffaloes, management practices, cost of milk production, socio-economic characters and constraints perceived by the buffalo milk producers of Godavari delta and upland areas of West Godavari district in Andhra Pradesh. The cattle and buffalo population increased by 8.56and 39.04 per cent, respectively during the period from 1999 to 2019 in the district. The contribution of buffalo milk to the total milk production of West Godavari district is 85.17 per cent. The mean total number of buffaloes was significant (p ≤ 0.05) higher in Godavari delta area (4.88 ± 0.86) than that in upland (2.13 ± 0.34) area. The mean age at first calving (months) was significant (p ≤ 0.01) lower in graded Murrah (41.72 ± 0.52) and Murrah (39.52 ± 0.70) buffaloes. The service period (days) was significant (p ≤ 0.01) lower in Murrah buffaloes (101.82 ± 4.34) of delta area. There was no significant difference in calving interval between the buffaloes of delta and upland area.The peak yield (litres) was significant (p ≤ 0.01) higher in local buffaloes (5.25 ± 0.13) of delta area. The lactation milk yield (litres) was significant (p ≤ 0.01) higher in local (1050.12 ± 27.54) and Murrah (1942.80 ± 51.3) buffaloes of delta area. The lactation period (days) was significant (p ≤ 0.01) higher (332.75± 3.95) and the dry period (days) was significant (p ≤ 0.01) lower (101.81±2.30) in graded Murrah buffaloes of delta area. Adoption of A.I in buffaloes was significant (p ≤ 0.01) higher in the Godavari delta (87%) than that in upland area (79%). Majority of buffalo milk producers bred their animals between 3-5 months after calving in the Godavari delta (77%). Most of the buffalo milk producers adopted pregnancy diagnosis in the study area (96.50%). The practice of green fodder production was significant (p ≤ 0.01) higher in Godavari delta (79%) than that in upland area (58%). The practice of chaffing of green fodder was very low (1.5%) in the study area. Significant (p ≤ 0.01) majority of buffalo milk producers in upland area (93%) provided home made concentrate mixture. Significant (p ≤ 0.01) majority of the buffalo milk producers practiced soaking of concentrates in delta area (67%) compared to upland area (42%). Most of the buffalo milk producers provided concentrate feed to animals on flat rate basis in Godavari upland (87%) than in delta (83%) area. Supplementation of mineral mixture (42%) and common salt (16%) in the feed was practiced by significant (p ≤ 0.01) majority of buffalo milk producers in the delta area. The practice of extra concentrate feeding during advanced pregnancy was significant (p ≤ 0.05) higher in Godavari delta (31%) compared to upland (16%) area. Majority of buffalo milk producers in upland (99%), and delta area (82%) provided drinking water to animals from tube well. Significant (p ≤ 0.05) majority of buffalo milk producers in upland (72%) than in delta area (58%) located the animal shed nearer to their dwelling. Significant (p ≤ 0.01) majority of the respondents in delta area provided pucca flooring (28%) and drainage (21%) in animal houses. Significant (p ≤ 0.01) majority of the respondents of delta area provided cooling devices (25%), wallowing of buffaloes (71%) and practiced cleaning of sheds twice in a day (52%) compared to upland area.Colostrum feeding to new born calf within one hour of birth (91%), weaning of calves (6%) and regular deworming of calves (75%) was practiced by significant (p ≤ 0.01) majority of milk producers in Godavari delta area. Washing of animals before milking (53%) and marketing of milk to co-operatives / private diaries (78%) was practiced by significant (p ≤ 0.01) majority of milk producers in delta area. Vaccination against BQ was practiced by significant (p ≤ 0.01) majority of milk producers in upland area (60 %). Deworming of adult animals (42%), control of ecto-parasites using insecticides (88%) and isolation of sick animals (30%) was found to be significant (p≤0.01) higher in Godavari delta area. The average gross cost, cost of milk production, gross income and net income of graded Murrah buffalo was significant (p≤ 0.01) higher in Godavari delta area (Rs.191.52, 21.14, 467.79, 276.27, respectively). The average gross cost, cost of milk production and net income of local buffalo was significant (p≤ 0.05) higher in delta area (Rs.105.67, 22.86, 79.25, respectively) and the average gross income was significant (p≤0.01) higher in delta area (184.92) than that in upland area.The average gross cost and cost of milk production of Murrah buffalo was significant (p≤ 0.05) higher in Godavari delta area (207.02 and 20.49, respectively). The average gross income and net income of Murrah buffalo was significant (p≤0.01) higher in Godavari delta area (581.93 and 374.91, respectively). Majority of buffalo milk producers belonged to middle age (76.5%) and were illiterate (41%). Majority of buffalo milk producers had agricultureas main occupation (82%) and dairying as subsidiary occupation (6.5%). Most of the milk producers in study area (33%) were of marginal farmer category. Significant (p≤ 0.01) majority (45.5%)of milk producers had extension contact with veterinarian followed by para veterinarian (33%). High cost of pure bred buffaloes (84.56%), high cost of feed and feed ingredients (73.5%),high incidence of repeat breeding (68%) and anoestrum (67.5%) were found to be some of the major constraints perceived by buffalo milk producers in the study area. Majority of veterinarians expressed problem of inadequate facilities for diagnostic purpose and specialized treatment (100%), not bringing animals in right time for A.I (96%), larger area to be covered for treatment of livestock (94%) and lack of sufficient knowledge to the farmers about the scientific feeding and management of buffaloes (94%) as major constraints in buffalo production of West Godavari district.