ThesisItem Open AccessANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE GENES PROFILING IN CAECAL MICROBIOTA OF POULTRY USING NEXT GENERATION SEQUENCING(Department of Veterinary Microbiology College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry Anand Agricultural University Anand, 2021) Patel Krishnabahen. J; Dr. R. A. MathakiyaPoultry production can function as an instrument for poverty alleviation and economic development. As low-income countries transition into higher incomes alongside growing urban populations, there is an increasing demand for quality sources of animal products. Poultry products are consumed highest in the world, but in several countries many essential antibiotics are used during poultry production. Promotion of intensive poultry production could increase antimicrobial resistance (AMR) within resource-limited settings lacking in effective biosafety and biosecurity measures. In recent scenario, phenotypic and genotypic methods are used for the detection of antimicrobial resistance. Antimicrobial resistance genes spread through horizontal gene transfer (HGT) through phages, plasmids, transposons or integron gene cassettes. ThesisItem Open AccessWHOLE GENOME SEQUENCING, GENOTYPING AND PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS OF ROTAVIRUS ISOLATES OF BOVINES AND POULTRY(Department of Veterinary Microbiology College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry Anand Agricultural University Anand, 2021) Esha Sinha; Dr. R. A. MathakiyaRotavirus A (RVA) is a significant pathogen and leading cause of neonatal diarrhea in the young ones of a large variety of mammalian and avian host species with extensive economic impact. RV is a cart-wheel shaped, non-enveloped, triple layered, 11 segmented double stranded RNA virus with a genome size of 18.55 kb. RV is transmitted through fecal oral route and causes diarrhea by destroying mature enterocytes near the tips of villi of the small intestine. The lack of proof reading activity of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase coupled with reassortment events among RV species results in generation of new genotype and genetically closely related variants. Much of the previous work looks at virus prevalence and genotyping of VP4 and VP7 genes. The latest development focuses on the evolution of the gene segments and genotyping of all the other segments. The development of next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies has enabled the evolutionary studies of the entire viral genome and its variants. The use of the Illumina NGS technology interrogates the genome sequence and evolution of rotaviruses. ThesisItem Open AccessEFFECTS OF DIETARY SUPPLEMENTATION OF BETAINE WITH REDUCTION OF METHIONINE ON PERFORMANCE OF COMMERCIAL BROILER CHICKEN DURING SUMMER SEASON(POULTRY RESEARCH STATION COLLEGE OF VETERINARY SCIENCE & A. H. ANAND AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY, 2021) Suryawanshi Gaurav P.; Dr. F. P. SavaliyaThe experiment was conducted to study the effects of dietary supplementation of betaine with reduction of methionine on performance of commercial broiler chicken in summer season. One hundred and sixty-eight (168) straight run day old commercial broiler chicks were distributed randomly to seven treatment groups, each treatment group consisted of four replicates, each with six chicks leading to 24 chicks per treatment. The experiment was conducted for a duration of six weeks. The seven treatments were divided as follows: T1 diet was kept as control (without Betaine Hcl). T2 diet contained Betaine Hcl @50g/100kg of feed, T3 diet contained Betaine Hcl @100g/100kg of feed, T4 diet contained Betaine Hcl @50g/100kg of feed along with 10 % reduction of Methionine, T5 diet contained Betaine Hcl @50g/100kg of feed along with 20 % reduction of Methionine, T6 diet contained Betaine Hcl @100g/100kg of feed along with 10 % reduction of Methionine and T7 diet contained Betaine Hcl @100g/100kg of feed along with 20 % reduction of Methionine. ThesisItem Open AccessPOLYMORPHISMS IN HYPOTHALAMIC-PITUITARY GONADAL AXIS GENES AND THEIR ASSOCIATION WITH EGG PRODUCTION IN ANAND SYNTHETIC WHITE LEGHORN AND ANAND BANTAMISED WHITE LEGHORN CHICKEN(Department of Animal Genetics & Breeding College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry Anand Agricultural University, Anand, 2021) Sourav Pal; Dr. A. C. PatelIndia is the world's third largest egg producer, contributing 6% of global egg production. The domestic demand as well as exporting demand is increasing day by day. About 82% of total egg production in India comes from commercial poultry farming. The layer industry in India mostly relies on different strains and lines derived from White Leghorn and Rhode Island Red chicken breeds. The genetic variation among different breeds, strains and lines provides a reliable source of increasing egg production through scientific breeding approaches. India has achieved tremendous success in improving egg production through the phenotypic selection. However, response to phenotypic selection may diminish once the genetic variation is exhausted. Recent advancements in molecular technologies offer a great opportunity to identify and introduce genetic variations related to laying performance. Next generation sequencing along with candidate gene approach provide a promising future for increasing egg production in minimum time. ThesisItem Open AccessEFFECTS OF CINNAMON OIL AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO ANTIBIOTIC GROWTH PROMOTER IN BROILERS(Department of Veterinary Pathology College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry Anand Agricultural University, Anand, 2021) Solanki Devasibhai M.; Dr. C. J. DaveThe present investigation was planned to evaluate the effects of cinnamon oil as an alternative to antibiotic growth promoter in broilers. A total of 144 broiler chicks were randomly allocated to six experimental groups, each of which consisting of four replicates and each replicate consisting of six chicks. The group Ⅰ chicks were served as a control and given basal diet without administration of any treatments. Chicks of group Ⅱ were given chlortetracycline as an antibiotic growth promoter (1 g/Kg feed) as a standard control. Chicks of group Ⅲ were given cinnamon oil (400 mg/kg feed) as a treatment control. Chicks of group Ⅳ were served as a negative control and given basal diet and challenged with E. coli at the dose rate of 1.0 ml (1.5×108 CFU/ml) orally on 14th day. Chicks of groups Ⅴ were given chlortetracycline (1g/kg feed) with E. coli (1.5×108 cfu/ml) orally on 14th day. Chicks of group Ⅵ were given cinnamon oil (400 mg/kg feed) with E. coli (1.5×108 cfu/ml) orally on 14th day of experiment. ThesisItem Open AccessETIOPATHOLOGICAL STUDY ON EGG PERITONITIS IN COMMERCIAL LAYER(Department of Veterinary Pathology College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry Anand Agricultural University Anand, 2021) Sheth Aaftabhussain Liyakatali; Dr. D. J. GhodasaraThe present study was carried out to know the mortality pattern, etiology, gross and microscopic lesions of the egg peritonitis in commercial layer birds. The study comprised of flock wise mortality, gross and histopathological lesions, isolation, identification, biochemical characterization, antiobiogram of probable causative bacteria and molecular detection of isolated organisms. ThesisItem Open AccessEFFECT OF FEEDING OF MORINGA MEAL ON PERFORMANCE OF CROSSBRED CALVES(Animal Nutrition Research Station, College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Anand Agricultural University, Anand, 2021) Sherasiya Asif N.; Dr. P. M. LunagariyaMoringa (Moringa oleifera) is popular multipurpose legume, evergreen, tolerate to unfavourable environment of tropic region. Moringa oleifera is the most useful trees as feed supplements to animals as their leaves are highly nutritious with very good palatability, digestibility and stabilized chemical composition of protein and minerals. Moringa leaves are good source of protein, due to the optimal composition of amino acids and high digestible protein content. Considering these facts, present experiment was conducted to study the effect of feeding of Moringa oleifera meal (MOM) on performance of crossbred calves. ThesisItem Open AccessEFFECT OF DIETARY REPLACEMENT OF MAIZE WITH WHEAT ON PERFORMANCE OF COMMERCIAL BROILER CHICKEN(ANIMAL NUTRITION RESEARCH STATION COLLEGE OF VETERINARY SCIENCE AND ANIMAL HUSBANDRY ANAND AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY, ANAND, 2021) SATYAM SHARMA; Dr. S.G. VAHORAThe poultry sector plays an important role in fulfilling the continuously increasing demand for animal protein in an economic way. Maize being the chief energy ingredient used in poultry rations is subjected to a high demand resulting in its price fluctuations and uncertain unavailability along with the associated problem of mycotoxin development. Wheat being the most cultivated crop and closer to maize in terms of energy content accompanied with a better amino acid profile seems to be a feasible option in case of similar prices of maize and wheat. ThesisItem Open AccessCAECAL MICROBIOTA PROFILING IN BROILER CHICKENS FED WITH ANTIBIOTICS AND PROBIOTICS(Department of Animal Genetics & Breeding College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry Anand Agricultural University, Anand, 2021) Rahul Sharma; Dr. P. G. KoringaThe global poultry market is more promising than any other major agriculture sector in terms of consumer and trade growth. The increasing demands of urban markets have driven structural changes in poultry production and marketing. Globally, more than 1 trillion eggs and 90 million tonnes of poultry meat are produced each year to meet the demands of the growing population. Chickens are the most common species and major contributor of poultry industry with a global population of 25.9 billion. Antibiotics and probiotics are common feed additives used in the poultry industry for their efficient growth and may conflict with the gut microbiota. Microbiota play a significant role by influencing gut physiology, nutrition, immune responses, and protection against colonization of pathogens. Gut microbiota development in broiler chicken starts immediately after hatching. Chicks begin pecking and ingesting litter materials including adhered microorganisms found in faeces and dirt, in this way microbes from other environments can be transmitted to the gastrointestinal tract and may be a cause of infection. Therefore, the microbial species in the gastrointestinal tract of chickens should be monitored for animal health and food safety purposes.