Thumbnail Image

Anand Agricultural University, Anand

Anand Agricultural University (AAU) was established in 2004 at Anand with the support of the Government of Gujarat, Act No.(Guj 5 of 2004) dated April 29, 2004. Caved out of the erstwhile Gujarat Agricultural University (GAU), the dream institution of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel and Dr. K. M. Munshi, the AAU was set up to provide support to the farming community in three facets namely education, research and extension activities in Agriculture, Horticulture Engineering, product Processing and Home Science. At present there seven Colleges, seventeen Research Centers and six Extension Education Institute working in nine districts of Gujarat namely Ahmedabad, Anand, Dahod, Kheda, Panchmahal, Vadodara, Mahisagar, Botad and Chhotaudepur AAU's activities have expanded to span newer commodity sectors such as soil health card, bio-diesel, medicinal plants apart from the mandatory ones like rice, maize, tobacco, vegetable crops, fruit crops, forage crops, animal breeding, nutrition and dairy products etc. the core of AAU's operating philosophy however, continues to create the partnership between the rural people and committed academic as the basic for sustainable rural development. In pursuing its various programmes AAU's overall mission is to promote sustainable growth and economic independence in rural society. AAU aims to do this through education, research and extension education. Thus, AAU works towards the empowerment of the farmers.


Search Results

Now showing 1 - 9 of 11
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    (AAU, Anand, 1983) Deshpande, Lalita V.; Janakiraman, K.
    Gondal development and activity in Surati buffalo calves was studied from birth to maturity (in 17 stages), to correlate the gonadal histology with testicular and serum biochemical characteristics. The characteristics studied, histologically in H. and E. stained sections; included seminiference tubule diameter, tubular count, interstitial space per cent and various cellular elementsin seminiferous tubule and the Laydig cells; the biochemical estimates were Alkaline Phosphatase (AKP), protein, cholesterol (free and total) calcium and phosphorus, both in testis and serum; the nucleic acids were estimated in gonadal tissues only. Similar studies were also made in calves, hemi orchidectomised at birth from Day 1-300.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    (AAU, Anand, 2005) PATEL, SANJAYKUMAR B.; Pathak, M. M.
    The present investigation was carried out on non-descript adult female goats of Gujarat State with the objective to study the ovarian steroid and biochemical constituents of follicular fluid of different categories of follicle. Follicular fluid of small (2-3 mm), medium (> 3-5 mm) and large (> 5 mm) sized follicle was collected from 60 goats slaughtered at slaughter house and follicular fluid from preovulatory and anovulatory follicles was collected by laparotomy of adult goats of the farm. Collection of follicular fluid from preovulatory follicle of the normally cyclic goats was made by laparotomising the goat after detection of the animal in heat. Follicular fluid from anovulatory follicle was collected after 72 hrs. of heat in superovulated goats. Superovulation was carried out by PMSG (Folligon®) and all treated goats were subjected to laparotomy operation, 72 hours after breeding and the follicular fluid was aspirated from follicles present on the ovaries at the time of operation. Follicular fluid samples collected from such different stages of follicular development were analysed for hormones (estradiol-17β, progesterone and testosterone) by standard RIA technique and biochemical constituents (total protein and cholesterol) by standard analytical procedure. The results revealed that the level of estradiol-17β increased significantly (P < 0.05) at every stages of follicular development. The smallest follicle (2-3 mm) had lowest concentration of estradiol-17β in follicular fluid (8.95 ± 0.89 ng/ml) which rose gradually with the development of follicles. Preovulatory follicle had significantly higher (32.40 ± 0.78 ng/ml) level of estradiol-17β than small, medium and large sized follicle, whereas the anovulatory follicle showed the highest level (53.00 ± 3.01 ng/ml). Estradiol-7β concentration of follicular fluid showed a significant and positive correlation between different stages of follicular development (r= 0.96). Progesterone concentration in follicular fluid of different developmental stages of follicle varied remarkably. The level of progesterone increased as the follicle grew (small: 3.98 ± 0.40 ng/ml; medium: 8.40 ± 0.35 ng/ml and large: 16.15 ± 1.05 ng/ml) but the differences were statistically nonsignificant. The variation in progesterone concentrations in preovulatory (128.50 ± 5.87 ng/ml) and anovulatory (728.00 ± 33.52 ng/ml) follicles were statistically highly significant (P < 0.05) compared to all developing follicles. Follicular fluid progesterone concentration was positively but nonsignificantly correlated with different stages of follicle (r = 0.83). The level of testosterone in follicular fluid decreased significantly (P < 0.05) as the follicle size increased. The highest value of testosterone (5.68 ± 0.50 ng/ml) was observed in small sized follicle and the lowest value in preovulatory follicle (0.55 ± 0.03 ng/ml). The differences were statistically significant for small and medium sized follicle only (P < 0.05). Testosterone values were negatively correlated with different stages of follicular development (r = -0.66). Ratios of different hormones were also analysed statistically. It revealed that there was a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in estradiol-ivp/progesterone ratio in follicular fluid as the follicle increased in size except small and medium size follicle. The highest ratio of estradiol-17β/progesterone (2.66 ± 0.53) observed in small sized follicle whereas the lowest ratio (0.07 ± 0.01) was observed in anovulatory follicle. Estradiol-lyp/progesterone ratio had significant and negative correlation with follicular development (r = -0.99). The differences of progesterone/testosterone ratio for small (0.63 ± 0.01), medium (6.87 ± 0.34) and large (26.08 ± 0.05) sized follicle were statistically nonsignificant but these ratio differed significantly from that of preovulatory (228.07 ± 14.78) and anovulatory (982.43 ± 87.18) follicle. Progesterone/testosterone ratio correlated positively with follicle development (r = 0.85). The results revealed that there was progressive increase in estradiol- 17β/testosterone ratio in follicular fluid as follicle developed. Lowest value of estradiol- 17β/testerone ratio was observed in small (1.67 ± 0.19) sized follicle, while highest value of ratio was observed in anovulatory follicle (69.51 ± 4.88). Ratio of estradiol- 17βand testosterone was correlated significantly (P < 0.05) and positively with the different categories of follicles (r = 0.93). The studies on biochemical constituents indicated that the differences observed in cholesterol concentrations in follicular fluid of different category of follicle were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Follicular fluid cholesterol levels showed significant and positive correlation with various stages of follicular development (r = 0.90). The variation of total protein content of follicular fluid of different categories of follicle was found statistically significant (P < 0.05). Average total protein content ranged from 3.13 ± 0.20 gm/dl in small sized follicle to 12.59 ± 0.31 gm/dl in anovulatory follicle. Follicular fluid protein concentration correlated positively but nonsignificantly with different stages of follicle development (r = 0.80). Overall, it was found that follicular fluid concentration of steroid hormones and biochemical parameter has important relative association with the physiology of follicle and oocyte development, their maturation and ovulation.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    (AAU, Anand, 1990) Shah, Rohit G.; Mehta, V. M.
    The corpus lutem being an important endocrine gland related with the maintenance of estrous cycle and pregnancy, it’s detail studies in Surti buffaloes are essential. These studies will pave the way for detail understanding about the physiological role of this important structure in the reproductive efficiency of dairy buffaloes.Towards detail studies on physiology of CL in Surti buffaloes, the requisite number (n=49) of corpora lutea in different phases of luteal development were collected from buffaloes slaughtered on definate days after estrus.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    (AAU, Anand, 1990) Parmar, Ajaykumar P.; Mehta, V. M.
    Totally 210 normal Surti buffalo ovaries in follicular phase and blood serum samples of same animals were collected from local slaughter house during winter, summer and monsoon to study the nature of follicular development during different seasons. The diameter of individual follicles and total number of follicles on the ovaries were recoiled. These follicles were grouped according to their diameter in different developmental phase viz., 1 to 4, 5 to 8, 9 to 12 and above 12 mm. For biochemical and endocrine studies, the follicular fluid was aspirated from these follicles and pooled according to the phase of developing follicles. During all the three seasons it was observed that right ovary was having more number of developing follicles as compare to the left ovary, indicating that right ovary is more functional than left ovary in Surti buffaloes. More or less similar number of developing follicles were observed on ovaries collected daring winter, summer and monsoon. The seasons had no significant effect on number of developing follicles.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    (AAU, Anand, 1989) Sarvaiya, Nitesh P.; Pathak, M. M.
    Totally 20 cycles (normal estrous cycle of 22 days) of six Surti buffalo heifers of the farm of Reproductive Biological Research Unit, Gujarat Agricultural University, Anand Campus, Anand and 6 anestrous heifers of same farm (which showed one cycle and became anestrus) and anestrus heifers of 6 different villages were studied for their blood serum honnonal and biochemical profile. The main objectives were : To know the basic norms for these characters for normally cycling and anestrus heifers (farm and villages) and to know the probable physiological reasons for anestrus condition (all the anestrus animals studied were clinically normal). Hormonal parameters were estimated by standard Radio-Immuno Assay procedures and biochemical parameters were estimated by standard analytical methods. Overall 360 samples were estimated for each characters.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    (AAU, Anand, 2001) Rajeshirke, Ajay; Raval, S. K.
    The epidemiological surveillance is urgent need of today. In India increased pressure on land-favoured maintenance of small ruminants like sheep and goat. The goat with their multipurpose utility (meat, skin, fleece, manure and milk), play an important role in our national economy. The study was carried out from 1 st March 2000 to 28th, March, 2001 in five villages of Anand taluka. The epidemiological data on diseases through rural goat health surveillance system were studied in relation to production/ reproduction performance, prevalence of diseases, mortalities and culling patterns among rural goat. In addition to that economic losses due to diseases were also analyzed. Kachia Patel (1999) made efforts in his study to generate and analyze epidemiological data for disease health surveillance and economy records for production from rural sheep. The epidemiological data on disease incidence and mortality in relation to age, sex, breed, health hygiene, nutritional status, housing pattern, months, season, meteorological parameters and economics of the diseases in relation to its losses were also studied. During research period, 1,128 goats were studied, out of that 690 goat were found to be affected with disease with the overall prevalence rate of 61.17 percent. The highest prevalence of disease were observed due to parasitic diseases (26.32%), majority in Marwadi breed (81.90%) and in the age group of adult goat (81.72%). The overall high prevalence of disease was recorded in female animals (61.22%), with poor and fair health status (64.96 and 61.14%), in small size flock (70.43%)), flock which were reared in poor hygienic condition (64.59%) and with poor nutrition status (85.89%). The higher prevalence in the month of July- Aug (15.42%) and particularly in monsoon season (28.90%) indicates the positive relationship with high rainfall along with high humidity. Out of all different disease groups, major predominant groups in descending order of occurrence were recorded as parasitic diseases (26.32%), miscellaneous group (11.79%), digestive disorder (9.84%), bacterial disease (7.35%), viral diseases (2.83), reproductive disorder (2,12%.) and fungal diseases (0.88%). Amongst these, different diseases the gastrointestinal nematode (17.64%) ranked high followed by pneumonia (4.25%), enteritis 4.16%), anorexia (3.90%)and ectoparasites (3.81%) In the present study, the overall mortality rate was observed to be 5.93 percent along with 9.71 percent case fatality rate. The mortality rate was recorded highest (2.65%) in miscellaneous group with 22.55 percent case fatality rate, followed by bacterial diseases (1.50 and 20.48 %), digestive disorder (1.32 and 13.51%) and parasitic diseases (0.44 and 1.68%) respectively. Amongst above group, major cause of mortality in which disease were occurred are pneumonia (1.24%), enteritis (1.06%), septicemia (0.79%), toxemia (0.70%) and accidental death (0.62%). The mortality was found higher in Marwadi breed (6.66%), particularly in adult group (8.60%), in female animal (6.35%), having poor health condition (6.56%) and animals on poor plan of nutrition 9.05 percent respectively. Also the higher mortality was recorded in small size flock (6.78%) and in poor hygienic condition (8.75%). Higher mortality rate has also observed in the months of July-Aug. i.e. in the rainy season. In the present study, economical losses due to diseases involves treatment cost, losses due to poor growth rate, loss^ due to reproduction disorder, losses due mortality and losses due to culling were quantified. The losses due to treatment cost, losses due to poor growth rate, loss due to reproduction disorder, losses due mortality and losses due to culling were Rs. 20.50,42.92,142.12, 66.50, and 19.25 per goat, per year respectively. The use of computer programme for data recording and it analysis work indicated its usefulness in terms of time consumption for analysis along with maximum efficiency. Throughout the study period advice and recommendation were made to shepherds for improvement in management practices such as importance of hygiene, vaccination, treatment of affected animals, housing, kid management, better nutrition and care against adverse climatic condition to reduce losses and their by increase the profit. Review of literature, modalities of technique used at rural level, the achievements, constraints and suggestions for future through the development of rural goat health surveillance system using epidemiology and economy of records are described.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    (AAU, Anand, 2000) KANANI, A. N.; JHALA, M. K.
    Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is a wide spread, contagious, acute or more commonly a subclinical viral disease of young chicken characterized by severe morbidity and mortality. The virus causes lymphocytolysis in the lymphoid organs particularly the Bursa of Fabricius (BF) resulting in immunosupression, vaccine failure and surfacing of latent/subclinical/concurrent infections. The pathologenicity, immunosuppressive effect, antigen detection and electrophoretic studies on Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) were carried out in experimentally infected layer chickens. The bursal samples were collected from the dead or ailing birds showing specific lesions of EBD when brought for post mortem examinations at the Dept. of Veterinary Pathology with a history of high mortality and were tested for the presence of viral antigen using agar gel diffusion test (AGDT). The experimental infection was induced in three and four weeks-old chicks by intra occulonasal route of inoculation using ten per cent bursal suspension. The birds of both the groups were vaccinated using LaSota strain of NewCastle Disease (ND) vaccine at seven and twenty nine days of age. Bursae were collected at two, four, six, eight, fifteen, twenty two, twenty nine and thirty six days post-infection (PI) for antigen detection, histopathological and electrophoretic studies. Sera were collected at the same intervals for monitoring ND virus haemaggutination inhibition (HI) antibody response to study immunosuppressive effect of BBD on ND vaccinations. Following the experimental infection, birds of both the age groups showed clinical symptoms of dullness, depression, ruffled feathers, whitish diarrhoea, prostration, huddling to corner and reluctance to move. Number of birds showing severe clinical signs were higher in four weeks age group than that in three weeks of age. Two and 11 per cent mortality were found in the groups infected at three and four weeks of age respectively. The remaining birds apparently recovered clinically within a period of six days PI and appeared normal till the end of observation period. In the birds infected at three weeks of age, grossly bursa was found to be enlarged and oedematous with yellowish gelatinous transudate covering on its serosal surface at 48 hrs PI Pin-point haemorrhages were also seen on bursal mucosa. Bursa started regressing in size to appear atrophied after seven days PI which and did not return to normal upto 36 days PI. Haemorrhages on thigh and breast muscle were also observed at 48 hrs PI. Spleen, thymus and kidney showed enlargement at 96 hrs PI. Similarly, birds infected at four weeks of age showed enlarged and oedematous bursa with extensive haemorrhages throughout the entire bursa in most of the birds at 48 hrs PI Bursa started showing progressive atrophy from seven days PI and did not return to normal upto 36 days PI. Marked haemorrhages in thigh and breast muscles were also observed. Lesions in other organs were similar to that observed in three weeks old birds but were of more severe nature., Histopathological lesions of BF in birds infected at three weeks of age showed mild depletion of lymphocytes, vascular congestion and inter-follicular connective tissue proliferation at 48 hrs PI. Marked depletion of lymphocytes, presence of necrotic foci and inter-follicular heterophilic infiltration were noticed on fifth day PI. On seventh day PI, the bursal follicle showed cystic degenerative changes with hyperplasia and hypertrophy of corticomeduUary epithelium. From ninth-day PI onward, BF showed severe depletion of lymphocytes, formation of cystic spaces and extensive interstitial fibroplasia. There was marked reduction in size of the bursal follicles. The group of birds infected at four weeks of age showed similar lesions to those observed in the group infected at three weeks of age but severity of lesions was more pronounced. Bursal lesions were characterized by marked depletion of lymphocytes in bursal follicles, cystic degeneration of follicles and moderate to severe infiltration of heterophils and mononuclear cells in the inter-follicular space at 48 hrs PI. On fifth day PI, necrosis was evident in the bursal follicle. On seventh day PI and onwards cystic hyperplasia and hypertrophy of follicles were noticed giving adenomatoid appearance. There was marked reduction in size of the follicles from seventh day onwards till the end of experiment upto 36th day PI. For studying immunosuppressive effect of EBDV, sera collected at regular interval after the experimental infection were tested for presence of NDV antibody using HI test. Geometric mean titre (GMT) of the NDV antitodies in the infected birds were found significantly lower than that of the control birds in both the experimental groups, Boostering effect of ND vaccination done at 29 days of age was found lower in the infected birds than the controls. Age susceptibility for in munosuppression was not found among these two experimental groups. AGDT was used to detect IBDV antigen in the bursae collected at regular intervals PI by the field virus. IBDV antigen was detected upto sixth day PI in both the experimental groups. Thereafter, the antigen could not be detected in any of the two groups till the end of experimental period. For electrophoretic study, IBDV RNA was extracted from live Gumboro vaccine (Georgia strain) and AGDT positive bursal samples. RNA of IBDV was extracted after serial treatment of proteinase K digestion, phenol-chloroform extraction and ethanol precipitation and then electrophorsed in 0.8 per cent agarose gel. Two bands of ds RNA from the vaccine virus but not in the bursal samples were resolved when stained with ethidium bromide and visualized under UV transilluminator.