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Anand Agricultural University, Anand

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Anand Agricultural University (AAU) was established in 2004 at Anand with the support of the Government of Gujarat, Act No.(Guj 5 of 2004) dated April 29, 2004. Caved out of the erstwhile Gujarat Agricultural University (GAU), the dream institution of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel and Dr. K. M. Munshi, the AAU was set up to provide support to the farming community in three facets namely education, research and extension activities in Agriculture, Horticulture Engineering, product Processing and Home Science. At present there seven Colleges, seventeen Research Centers and six Extension Education Institute working in nine districts of Gujarat namely Ahmedabad, Anand, Dahod, Kheda, Panchmahal, Vadodara, Mahisagar, Botad and Chhotaudepur AAU's activities have expanded to span newer commodity sectors such as soil health card, bio-diesel, medicinal plants apart from the mandatory ones like rice, maize, tobacco, vegetable crops, fruit crops, forage crops, animal breeding, nutrition and dairy products etc. the core of AAU's operating philosophy however, continues to create the partnership between the rural people and committed academic as the basic for sustainable rural development. In pursuing its various programmes AAU's overall mission is to promote sustainable growth and economic independence in rural society. AAU aims to do this through education, research and extension education. Thus, AAU works towards the empowerment of the farmers.


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  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Agriculture is the centre to all strategies for planned socio-economic development of our country. In India 91.6% of the water is used for irrigation purpose as compared to 84% in overall Asia & 71% in the world . In spite of these significant gains, the agriculture sector faces increasing criticism for a perceived lack of performance, unsustainable practices, and excessive adverse environmental impact. Improvement in the water use efficiency through proper management strategies as well as further increase in irrigation potential is crucial to avoid the envisaged water crisis and to meet the future food demand. The irrigation scheduling needs to be carried out with the objectives of improving the system operation
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Horticultural crops make up a major portion of the diet of humans in many parts of the world and play a significant role in human nutrition, especially as sources of phytonutraceuticals: vitamins (A, C, B1, B6, B9 and E), minerals, dietary fiber and phytochemicals. Carrots contain vitamins such as vitamin C and K, thiamin (B1), riboflavin (B2), pyridoxine (B6) and folates (B9), necessary for metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and healthy growth. Carotenoids and anthocyanins are the major antioxidant pigments found in carrots. Tomato is a major source of antioxidants, vitamin A, lycopene, folate, vitamin E. Limes are acidic in nature and serve as rich source of vitamin C, citric acid, sugar, certain minerals like calcium and phosphorus. Mint are used for their flavouring and medicinal properties.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    (AAU, Anand, 1987) SAVANI, J. B.; Hakimuddin
    In the present investigations, design and size variations of major components of the bullock drawn multi-purpose pipe framed implements in context with improvement of the design and field performance of implements were studied. Measurement in size and design study for the main components of the implements were carried out to quantity the extent of manufacturing variations. The remarkable extent of variation was observed. The C. V. for length and dia. of head piece pipe was 7.86 % and 8.29 %, respectively. The number of holes and their positions from the centre of head piece are quite irregular and even dissimilar position of the same number of hole from the center of head piece in a single implement. The beam length is divided in two or three stages of different dia. pipe.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    (AAU, Anand, 1997) PATEL, P. M.; SIRIPURAPU, S. C. B.
    Banana is the most important fruit crop of the world. India is the largest producer of banana. Shorter shelf life of matured banana under tropical atmosphere is resulting in distress sales and wastage of fruits in peak season. Papad is a traditional savory food commodity of India which had gained importance in national and international markets in recent years. Looking to the importance of banana to Indian food processing industry, studies were conducted to develop an acceptable dried long lasting product in the form of papad from basarai banana (Dwarf cavendish), the largest grown cultivar in India and Gujarat, blended with edible flours. Primary studies were conducted on mashed cooked pulp of peeled banana blended papads with four different types of precooked edible flours viz. ragajara, singoda, sago and rice, in two different proportions. On the basis of results of sensory evaluation of primary blend papads, the studies were conducted on blends of peeled banana with rice flour in different proportions to determine optimum proportion of rice in the blend. On the basis of sensory evaluation results, three different treatments of banana rice papads in proportions of peeled banana: rice flour T1 (67:33), T2 (62:38), T3 (59:41) and one treatment of sago blended banana papad T4 (87:13) were studied in detaU along with a control sample of rice papad with respect to physical, chemical. frying and sensory qualities of raw and fried samples of fresh and samples stored for two months. Among the various unit operations involved in preparing banana blended papads during JBnal treatments, maximum time was required for the drying of papad (225-240 min). The range of physical properties of fresh banana blended papads were 8.3-12.8 cm for average diameter, 0.48-1.40 mm for average thickness and 3.75 to 14.36 g for average weights. Variations around 5% in diameter and below 0.3 mm in thickness were observed in the measurements taken at two different locations on the papad. Physical characteristics were found within the limits of control sample of rice papad and were close to limits specified in ISI standards. No effect of storage was observed on physical properties studied under present investigation. Linear models, developed to interrelate the physical properties of banana blended papads, are indicating an increase in the density of rice-banana blended papad mix with the increase in rice proportion. Among the chemical characteristics, HLC. of fresh banana blended papads varied between 7.81 and 9.13% (w.b.). Although it was not within the limits of ISI specification, but very close to control sample i.e. of rice papads. pH, total ash, acid insoluble ash and alkalinity of ash of fresh banana blended papads were found to be within the limits of the prescribed ISI standards and were varying with the type of ingredient and its proportion in the papad mix. There was decrease in m.c., pH and alkalinity of ash and increase in total ash and acid insoluble ash with storage. However, chemical characteristics were found to be within prescribed ISI standards even after 2 months storage. Changes in the physical properties of papad due to frying i.e. frying properties were affected by the proportion and type of ingredient flour. Percent changes in diameter, thickness and weight of papad due to frying were maximum in control sample i.e. rice papad followed by treatment T3 and were lowest in sago blend, treatment T4. The expansion/increase in diameter, thickness and weight of fresh samples of Treatment T3 i.e. maximum rice blended banana papads was 13.5%, 95.2% and 9.36% respectively and was close to control sample. In all these parameters changes due to frying increased with increase in storage period. Sensory qualities like colour, appearance, texture, flavour and taste of raw and fried papads of fresh and stored samples were evaluated by a panel of judges on a ten point scale. Sensory evaluation of fresh samples of banana blended papads indicated T3 as the best treatment and comparable to control samples of rice papads with scores more than 8.0 on a ten point scale for various sensory attributes of raw and fried papads. Sago blended banana papad treatment T4 was rated poorest among all the four treatments. Sensory scores of raw papad changed slightly due to storage but T3 was comparable to rice papad even after 2 months storage. Both 300 and 400 gauge HDPE bags were found suitable for storage of banana blended rice/sago flour papads. However 400 gauge bags were found to be better for storage of banana-edible flour blended papads, with respect to moisture clianges and sensory attributes. From the results obtained in the present investigations, it can be concluded that papads can be successfully prepared from blending of cooked rice flour with mashed pulp of cooked peeled banana of basarai cultivar (Dwarf cavendish) following traditional process of preparing rice papads in this region, with proportions of peeled banana : rice flour of 59:41 and can be stored safely upto a minimum of two months in 300 or 400 gauge HDPE bags at ambient conditions with acceptable sensory attributes.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    (AAU, Anand, 1997) GABANI, S. H.; Siripurapu, S C B
    Watermelon (Citrullus Vulgaris Schrad) is one of the important fruits because of its special nutritive value. It is widely grown as a summer fruit crop all over India. It has good flavour, taste and colour which attract the consumers. Generally only fleshy parts of the ripened watermelon fruit is consumed while the rest madeup of rind and seeds are discarded. Fresh matured watermelons are harvested and transported to the market and stored till they are ripened. Generally the watermelons are stored either in a simply shaded open structure or in a room or vakhar type closed structure. The losses in handling occurs due to physical and mechanical injuries which include cuts, punctures, scars and scuffmarks. Therefore the physical and mechanical properties of fruits are important to the researcher, design engineer, the food industry and the consumer alike. A knowledge on the basic physical and mechanical properties is essential for the development of transportation models, machines and storage structures. Therefore, the present investigation was undertaken to study the physical and mechanical properties of fresh and stored watermelon. Fresh watermelon fruits of variety Sugar baby were selected and handpicked from the field. The physical properties, static friction coefficients on different materials and mechanical properties were determined. The average three axial dimensions viz., maximum equatorial, minimum equatorial, and polar diameter and geometrical mean diameter of the watermelon are 166.5, 161.1, 165.9 and 164.4 mm respectively. The average sphericity and shape factor are 96.8 per cent and 1.008 respectively. The average volume and weight are 2616 CC and 2.356 kg respectively and the average weight density and average bulk density are 890 and 550.2 kg m-3 respectively. The packing factor/bulk porosity is 38.13 per cent. The frequency distribution curves of the axial dimensions are following a normal distribution with slight skew and have high peaks close to their mean average dimensions. The per cent sphericity frequency distribution graph is following a skew distribution and a maximum of 27 per cent fruits have the per cent sphericity of 98 and about 84 per cent fruits have per cent sphericity between 95-100. The frequency distribution of the shape with respect to volume range is indicating that the shape is a function of size and with increase in size, the shape tends to change from oblate to prolate. The volume and weight frequency curves are following normal distribution with slight skew. Volume, weight and weight density are having highest frequencies of 29, 35 and 39 per cent respectively close to their average values. It is found that models based on linear relationship are adequate to describe the relationship between dimensions, between cube of dimensions and volume/weight and between volume and weight. The average coefficients of friction of watermelon are 0.511, 0.529, 0.548 and 0.562 on galvanised iron, mild steel, aluminium and plywood sheets, respectively. Mechanical properties, namely, average quasi-static compression rupture force, puncture strength, static compression rupture stress and impact rupture energy per unit weight for watermelon are 1638.3 N, 885.1 N, 44321 N m-2 and 12.49 N m/kg, respectively The best fitted empirical models were developed to describe the effect of watermelon weight on different quasi-static rupture force parameters. It is observed that the per cent shinkage in volume, weight loss and weight density reduction is increased with storage for both indoor and outdoor storage treatments. It is found that maximum shrinkage of volume is 3.59 and 3.61 per cent, maximum weight loss is 11.47 and 10.69 per cent and maximum reduction of weight density is 8.49 and 7.07 per cent for outdoor and indoor stored watermelon fruits respectively, at the end of the fifth week. It is observed in all the cases that static friction coefficient is decreasing linearly with storage for both the treatments. It is observed that quasi-static rupture force decreases with storage for both the storage treatments. It is also observed that quasi-static compression rupture force is higher till the end of second week of storage and subsequently it was lower for indoor stored fruits compared to the open system. It is found that the puncture strength is decreasing with storage at a decreasing rate for both the storage treatments. The static compression test parameters, namely, rupture force, stress and stress-strain ratio of stored watermelon are decreasing with storage for both indoor and outdoor stored samples. In this case also, the rupture force for indoor stored samples was more than that of outdoor stored samples. It is further observed in impact test that rupture energy per unit weight of fruit is decreasing at decreasing rate with storage for both the storage treatments. It is found that the impact rupture energy per unit weight is more for indoor stored fruits compared to fruits stored in open in the veranda. From the results obtained in the present investigation, an inference can be drawn that indoor stored fruits are stronger than the outdoor stored fruits. It is also found that after the fifth week of the storage, in both outdoor and indoor storage systems, the watermelon fruits were unfit for human consumption. The data generated in the present study and models developed will be useful in the design of handling, transportation and storage systems for watermelon.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    (AAU, Anand, 2013) TIWARI, ATUL; Prajapati, P. S.
    The present investigation was earried out with the objectives to assess the suitability of Sweet Cream Buttermilk (SCBM) in preparation of Burfi and evaluate the physico- chemical and sensory properties of Burfi and compare the Burfi with market sample of Burfi. The levels of ingredients, namely fat and sugar were selected using the design by CENTRAL COMPOSITE ROTATABLE DESIGN (CCRD) of Response Surface Methodology (RSM). In this, the fat in form of cream and sugar (on khoa basis) to be added were chosen within a specified range of 4 to 8 percent and 30 to 40 per cent respectively. All the 13 Burfi samples were evaluated for their physico-chemical {moisture, fat, water activity (a™), free fatty acid (FFA), hydroxyl methyl furfural (HMF)}, rhcological (hardness) and sensory (flavour, body St texture, colour & appearance and overall appearance) properties using the standard techniques were employed for such studies. Quadratic model fitted well to all above parameters, which was used to explain with R2 of 0.91, 0.96, 0.93, 0.96, 0.90, 0.91, 0.95, 0.95, 1.00 and 0.98 for moisture, fat, water activity (aw), free fatty acid (FFA), hydroxyl methyl furfural (HMF), hardness, flavour, body & texture, colour & appearance and overall acceptability respectively. Fat per cent of standardized buttermilk had positive significant effect at linear level on fat and free fatty acid content of Burfi. Whereas, it had negative significant effect (P<0.01) on moisture and water activity of Burfi. Likewise, at quadratic level it showed significant positive effect on FFA and HMF value of Burfi. Moreover, sugar showed significant negative correlation with moisture and water activity of Burfi at linear level. In terms of FFA and HMF content of Burfi, sugar had shown significant positive effect both at linear level and quadratic level. In terms of rheological properties i.e. hardness, only sugar had significant effect on hardness of Burfi both at linear and quadratic level. The progressive increase in fat per cent of standardized sweet cream buttermilk had shown significant effect on all of the sensory properties viz., flavour, colour fit appearance and overall acceptability of Burfi except body 86 texture score at linear level (A). On the other hand, fat per cent of standardized SCBM had shown significant negative effect on all the sensory characteristics at quadratic level. Addition of sugar had showed non-significant positive effect on flavour score at linear level, whereas on rest of the sensory characteristics viz. body & texture, colour & appearance and overall acceptability, had significant (P<0.01) negative effect at linear level. But at quadratic level it had shown significant negative effect on all the sensory characteristics. The optimum product suggested by the statistical package consisted of 6 per cent fat of standardized SCBM and 34.35 per cent sugar addition on khoa basis. The optimized product made with this formulation scored 8.00 for flavour, 8.06 for body 85 texture, 8.10 for colour & appearance and 8.04 for overall acceptability. The moisture, fat, water activity, FFA and HMF content of standardized burfi was 14.50, 24.01, 0.745, 2.27 and 141.85 respectively. The rheological properties i.e. Hardness (N), Cohesiveness, Gumminess (N), Chewiness (Nmm) and Adhesive force (N) of standardized SCBM based khoa Burfi was 51.67, 0.10, 5.20, 9.17 and 4.78 respectively. The SPC and yeast and mold count were observed 2.49 log cfu/g (3.10x102 cfu/g) and 1.2Hog cfu/g (1.63x10 cfu/g) in Burfi respectively, whereas no coliform count was found in the Burfi. Standardized Burfi was compared with market sample of Burfii (Rajbhog). In comparison of standardized Burfii with market sample of Burfii, the sensory score of standardized Burfi was at par with market sample. Moisture, protein and ash content of standardized Burfi were lower than the market of Burfi. On the other hand fat and total carbohydrate contents were found higher in standardized Burfi than the market Burfi. Amongst, all the rheological properties of standardized Burfi. the values were lower than the market Burfi. The approximate cost of the standardized Burfi was 215.42 per kg which is lower than the market Burfi (Rajbhog X 350 per kg).
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    (AAU, Anand, 2013) SENGAR, ANIKET; Prajapati, P. S.
    The present study was planned and conducted to arrive at a method of manufacture for Cham Cham on the basis of standardizing the process parameters such as fat of standardized milk, coagulation temperature of milk and cooking sugar syrup concentration. Cham Cham was made from milk standardized to 4 to 5 per cent fat, coagulation temperature of milk ranging from 80 to 90°C and cooking sugar syrup concentration varies from 55 to 65°Brix. The levels of these ingredients in the product were optimized by a Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD) of Response Surface Methodology (RSM), with three independent variables viz. fat of standardized milk, coagulation temperature of milk and cooking sugar syrup concentration and twelve responses, namely moisture, fat, water activity, FFA, yield, hardness, springiness, chewiness, flavour, body & texture, colour & appearance, and overall acceptability. The progressive increased in fat percentage of milk and coagulation temperatiire of milk had significant positive effect while cooking sugar syrup concentration had significant negative effect on moisture content of Cham Cham at linear level. Similarly a significant positive effect was observed on fat content of Cham Cham with fat percentage of milk and cooking sugar syrup concentration. There was significant negative effect on water activity of Cham Cham with respect to fat percentage of milk and cooking sugar syrup concentration at linear level while fat percentage of milk had significant positive effect at quadratic level. However, free fatty acid content of Cham Cham was affected significantly by fat percentage of milk and cooking sugar syrup concentration. It was observed that fat percentage of milk, coagulation temperature of milk and cooking sugar syrup concentration produced significantly (P<0.01) affected the yield of Cham Cham. A significant (P<0.01) negative interactive effect on yield was observed with both coagulation temperature of milk and cooking sugar syrup concentration (BC). Textural properties such as hardness, chewiness and springiness of Cham Cham were significantly affected by fat percentage of milk and coagulation temperature of milk at linear level. A significant (P<0.01) negative effect on hardness, chewiness and springiness was observed with fat percentage of milk. The significant (P<0.05) positive interactive effect with fat percentage of milk and coagulation temperature of milk (AB) was observed on all three response. The maximum score was given to product made from milk standardized to 4.50 per cent fat, coagulation temperature of milk 85°C and cooking sugar syrup concentration 60°Brix while minimum score was obtained for product made from milk with 4.00 per cent fat, coagulation temperature of milk 90°C and cooking sugar syrup concentration 65°Brix. There was a significant positive effect of fat percentage of milk at linear level and negative effect at quadratic level along with coagulation temperature of milk and cooking sugar syrup concentration on flavor score. The highest score was obtained for sample made from milk standardized to 4.50 per cent fat, coagulation temperature of milk 85°C and cooking sugar syrup concentration 60°Brix and the lowest sensory score in respect of body and texture was noticed to Cham Cham prepared using milk standardized to 3.66 per cent fat, coagulation temperature of milk 85°C and cooking sugar syrup concentration 60°Brix. There was a significant positive effect of fat percentage of milk and coagulation temperature of milk on the colour and appearance at linear level whereas significant negative effect at quadratic level. It was observed that fat percentage of milk, coagulation temperature of milk and cooking sugar syrup concentration had shown significant effect on overall acceptability of Cham Cham. Design expert package suggested that the optimized process condition involved the use of 4.77 per cent standardized milk, 87°C coagulation temperature of milk and 60°Brix cooking sugar syrup concentration for the manufacture of an acceptable quality of Cham Cham. The Cham Cham prepared by optimized process was packed in a PVC tray boxes and were monitored for shelf-life study at room temperature (30±2°C) until sensorily unacceptable and visible mould growth observed and up to 14 days under refrigeration temperature (7±20 C). All of the changes related to composition, physical, Theological, sensory and microbial properties of Cham Cham during storage were observed to be significantly affected (P<0.05) by storage period. Significant increased in compositional constituents i.e. fat and carbohydrate was observed with the advancement in storage period. The pH of Cham Cham decreased to 6.16 after 4 days of storage at room temperature, while FFA and HMF content increased with the advancement of the storage irrespective of the storage period. Radical increased in soluble nitrogen was also found at both the storage periods. Similarly, a significant effect (P<0.05) of storage period was observed on the rheological properties of Cham Cham. Hardness, cohesiveness, chewiness and gumminess values increased while, in springiness and adhesiveness decreased was observed for Cham Cham under storage at 30±2° C and 7+2° C. All the physical and rheological changes taking place during storage affected the sensory characteristics of the Cham Cham. Cham Cham sample stored at refrigeration temperature for 14 days had an overall acceptability score of 7.10 and were acceptable to judges. Same product was having 7.14 score for overall acceptability after 4 days of storage under room temperature and the same product acceptable. During storage, microbial quality of the Cham Cham was also monitored and it was found that the SPC and yeast and mold count increased slowly in the samples stored at 7±2°C but very sharply when stored at 30±2°C. Coliform count in both the cases were observed to be zero. During storage study it was found that the product had a shelf life of 4 days at room temperature and more than 14 days under refrigeration temperature. However, the samples stored at room temperature had showed visible mould growth after 4 days of storage. During comparative study, standardized Cham Cham was compared with the market sample of Cham Cham. On overall, standardized Cham Cham scored maximum score for overall acceptability in comparison then market sample of Cham Cham. However, standardized sample was having remarkably lower values for hardness and chewiness and higher fat and protein contents as compared to market sample. The cost of production of standardized Cham Cham is computed to Rs. 210.94 per kg whereas the market sample of Cham Cham cost is Rs. 280.00 per kg.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    (AAU, Anand, 2016) NIKHLESH KUMAR VERMA; Dr. Pankaj Gupta
    Harvesting of crop is one of the important agricultural operations which demand considerable amount of labour. The availability and cost of labour during harvesting season are the serious problem. The shortage of labour during harvesting season and vagaries of the weather causes great losses to the farmers. It is therefore, essential to adopt the mechanical methods so that the timeliness in harvesting operation could be ensured. The use of mechanical harvesting device has been increased in the recent years. But, these means especially combine, are very costly making it un-affordable to most of the small farmers. Although, some manual operated reapers were developed. But, due to limitations of manual power, none of them become popular as the power available for cutting and conveying of the crop as well as was transportation of the machine not sufficient. Therefore, push type battery powered reaper was designed and developed, in which the cutting and conveying was done mechanically by means of electric power and transportation by means of manual power. The battery powered reaper include the battery, DC motor, crop row dividers, star wheel, standards cutter bar having 76.2 mm pitch knife section, vertical conveyor chain and gear box. The weight of the developed reaper with the battery was found 32 kg. The performance of the developed reaper was evaluated in wheat field by varying forward speed, cutting angle and cutter bar speed. The reaper was able to cut two rows at a time placed 22.5 cm apart. The total harvesting losses was found 2.67% of total yield. The field capacity and field efficiency was found 0.069 ha/h and 85.06%, respectively at forward speed of 1.55 km/h. The performance of the developed reaper was also compared with the traditional method of harvesting by sickle and mechanical harvesting by SPVCR. Harvesting losses found for developed reaper, SPVCR and sickle were 2.67, 2.02 and 1.03%, respectively. The cost of harvesting of wheat was found maximum with manual local sickle (Rs 3859.50/ha), followed by SPVCR (Rs 868.5/ha), whereas the lowest cost was recorded with the developed reaper (Rs 763.20/ha). Therefore, net saving of Rs 3096/ha was observed with the developed reaper over traditional manual harvesting of wheat crop by sickle and Rs 105.30/ha over SPVCR.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    (Anand Agricultural University, Anand, 2016) Milan M. Darji; Dr. A. K. Sharma
    Traditional products, such as burfi, kalakand, peda, Kajukatli, thabdi, halwasan etc. are not known only for their unique sensory attributes but also the traditional technology that has been associated with them. The preparation methods of kajukatli were studied in detail. The preparation processes involve grinding of soaked kaju, mixing with sugar while cooking, cooling, rolling, sheeting and cutting. All these operations are being carried out manually and reported to be time consuming, unhygienic and produce nonuniform sized and shape of kajukatli. Therefore, an appropriate rolling, sheeting and cutting system was developed and evaluated for continuous production.