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Anand Agricultural University, Anand

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Anand Agricultural University (AAU) was established in 2004 at Anand with the support of the Government of Gujarat, Act No.(Guj 5 of 2004) dated April 29, 2004. Caved out of the erstwhile Gujarat Agricultural University (GAU), the dream institution of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel and Dr. K. M. Munshi, the AAU was set up to provide support to the farming community in three facets namely education, research and extension activities in Agriculture, Horticulture Engineering, product Processing and Home Science. At present there seven Colleges, seventeen Research Centers and six Extension Education Institute working in nine districts of Gujarat namely Ahmedabad, Anand, Dahod, Kheda, Panchmahal, Vadodara, Mahisagar, Botad and Chhotaudepur AAU's activities have expanded to span newer commodity sectors such as soil health card, bio-diesel, medicinal plants apart from the mandatory ones like rice, maize, tobacco, vegetable crops, fruit crops, forage crops, animal breeding, nutrition and dairy products etc. the core of AAU's operating philosophy however, continues to create the partnership between the rural people and committed academic as the basic for sustainable rural development. In pursuing its various programmes AAU's overall mission is to promote sustainable growth and economic independence in rural society. AAU aims to do this through education, research and extension education. Thus, AAU works towards the empowerment of the farmers.

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  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    EFFECT OF MICRO-NUTRIENTS ON MORPHO-PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS AND YIELD IN BLACK GRAM (Vigna mungo L.)
    (DEPARTMENT OF PLANT PHYSIOLOGY B. A. COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE ANAND AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY ANAND, 2018) Mahammad Aman Z. Malek; Dr. D. B. Patel
    The present investigation entitled “Effect of micro-nutrients on morpho-physiological parameters and yield in black gram (Vigna mungo L.)” was carried out during 2017 at Department of Plant Physiology, B. A. College of Agriculture, Anand Agricultural University, Anand. The experiment was laid out in completely randomized block design with four replications to known the effect of micronutrients on various morpho-physiological, biochemical, yield and yield components. The treatments consist of control (T1) multi-micronutrient mixture (MN) grade-1 general (foliar spray) (T2), MN mixture grade-2 for Zn deficiency (foliar spray) (T3), MN mixture grade-3 for Fe deficiency (foliar spray) (T4), MN mixture grade-4 for Fe and Zn deficiency (foliar spray) (T5), MN mixture grade-5 general (soil application) (T6) and micronutrient application as per soil test value (STV) (T7).
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    HAEMATOLOGICAL, BIOCHEMICAL AND ENDOCRINE PARAMETERS AT DIFFERENT AGES AND PHYSIOLOGICAL STAGES IN GIR CATTLE AND JAFFARABADI BUFFALOES
    (AAU, Anand, 2012) JACOB, NINAN; ARYA, J. S.
    The study titled "Haematological, Biochemical and Endocrine parameters at different Ages and Physiological stages in Gir cattle and Jaffarabadi buffaloes" was imdertaken in different age groups and physiological stages in Gir cattle and Jaffarabadi buffaloes with the objective to determine and compare the species differences for (i) haematological parameters viz. TEC, Hb, PCV, TLC, DLC (ii) biochemical parameters viz. plasma glucose, total protein, albumin, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, urea, uric acid, creatinine, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium and potassium (iii) enzymes viz. aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, and lactate dehydrogenase (iv) hormonal levels of triiodothyronine, thyroxine, insulin, growth hormone, Cortisol, estradiol - 17 β, progesterone and testosterone and (v) to observe the milk components viz. percentage of fat, protein and lactose in lactating Gir cows and Jaffarabadi buffaloes and their relationship with the stage of lactation under study. The blood samples were collected from Gir and Jaffarabadi females (n=8 for each sampling stage) at 1 wk, 1, 3, 6, 12, 24 and 36 months age, at 1, 2 and 3 month of lactation and in non-lactating pregnant and non-pregnant animals. In Gir and Jaffarabadi males (n=6 for each sampling' stage) blood samples were collected at 1 wk, 1, 3, 6 and 12 month of age and in bulls. Castrated males were also used for blood sampling in Gir males. A total of 270 blood samples were collected and the analysis was conducted by standard techniques.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    BLOOD BIOCHEMICAL PROFILES DURING DIFFERENT STAGES OF GESTATION AND POSTPARTUM IN SHEEP AND GOAT
    (AAU, Anand, 2009) PANDYA, UNNATI D.; ARYA, J. S.
    A study was conducted on nine Patanwadi sheep and fourteen Surti goats at Insrtuctional Farm, Department of Livestock Production and Management, Veterinary College, Anand Agricultural University, Anand with the objectives to know various blood biochemical profiles at different stages of gestation and post partum. The blood was collected from these animals through jugular venipuncture once a day on days 30, 60, 90 and 120 post mating and on the day of parturition (day 0) and days 3, 7 and 15 post partum. The blood samples so collected were analysed for Haemoglobin, Packed Cell Volume, Blood Glucose, Plasma Total Protiens, Cholesterol, Triglycerides, Calcium, Phosphorus, Trace Minerals (Cu, Fe, Zn, Mn & Co), electrolytes (Sodium & Potassium) and Hormones (T3, T4, Insulin, Progesterone, Estrogen and Cortisol) using standard laboratory procedures. Triglycerides were estimated by kit (Crest Biosystems, Goa). Trace elements were estimated by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (ECIL, AAS4141). Hormones were analysed by using kits of ImmunoTech, France. Haemoglobin and PCV both decreased significantly (P<0.05) as the pregnancy advanced and increased non-significantly during post partum in both sheep and goats. In non-pregnant sheep and goats the values differed nonsignificantly on various day of blood collection. The values also did not differ between the pregnant and non-pregnant sheep and goats. Biochemical parameter such as blood glucose significantly (P<0.05) increased during pregnancy and decreased during post partum in sheep. In non-pregnant sheep and goats the values did not differ significantly. A nonsignificant decrease in glucose was seen in goats during pregnancy and post partum. Plasma total proteins showed a significant (P<0.05) decrease in pregnant and non-pregnant sheep and an increase during post partum. The totals protein non-significantly decreased in pregnant and non-pregnant goats while significantly (P<0.05) increased during post partum. Plasma cholesterol significantly (P<0.05) increased upto parturition and then decreased during post partum in pregnant sheep and goats. A non-significant decrease in plasma cholesterol was shown by non-pregnant sheep and goats at various stages of sample collection. Plasma triglycerides significantly (P<0.05) decreased during various stages of gestafion in sheep. A non-significant decrease in plasma triglycerides was seen in sheep during post partum and in non-pregnant animals as well as in goats during pregnancy and post partum. In biochemical profiles a non-significant difference was shown for all parameters (except pregnant sheep for blood glucose) between pregnant and non-pregnant sheep and goats. Plasma calcium significantly (P<0.05) decreased in pregnant sheep while increased during post partum. A non-significant decrease was shown by non-pregnant sheep and goats and pregnant goats. The plasma calcium increased significantly (P<0.05) during post partum. Plasma inorganic phosphorus significantly (P<0.05) decreased in pregnant and non-pregnant sheep and did not differ during post partum. The plasma phosphorus did not differ in goats during pregnancy and post partum while significantly decreased in non-pregnant goats. A non-significant difference was shown between pregnant and non-pregnant sheep and goats in levels of plasma calcium, inorganic phosphorus and trace minerals. However, plasma copper had a significant (P<0.05) variation due to stage of gestafion in both sheep and goats and zinc and cobalt had a significant (P<0.05) difference in goats only. While during post partum only Fe and Mn had significant (P<0.05) variation in both sheep and goats. : The plasma electrolytes, sodium and potassium increased significantly (P<0.05) during various stages of gestation but sodium decreased and potassium increased significantly (P<0.05) during post partum in sheep and goats. The plasma sodium of non-pregnant sheep and goats differed significantly (P<0.05) whereas plasma potassium did not differ. The plasma T3 showed a non-significant difference in both sheep and goats. The plasma T4 differed significantly (P<0.05) in sheep during pregnancy but showed a non-significant difference in pregnant, non-pregnant and post partum sheep and goats. Plasma insulin showed a significant (P<0.05) increase in non-pregnant goats and post partum sheep and goats. Non-pregnant sheep and pregnant sheep and goats showed a non-significant difference. A significant (P<0.05) difference was seen between pregnant and non-pregnant sheep and goats for plasma insulin. A non-significant difference was seen in plasma progesterone in pregnant, non- pregnant and post partum sheep and goats. The difference between pregnant and non-pregnant sheep and goats was significant (P<0.05) for plasma progesterone. Plasma estradiol significantly (P<0.05) increased in sheep during pregnancy and post partum. In nonpregnant sheep and post partum goats the difference was non-siginificant. A significant (P<0.05) difference was seen between pregnant and non-pregnant sheep whereas in goats the levels did not differ for plasma estradiol as well as Cortisol. A non-significant increase in plasma Cortisol was observed in pregnant and non-pregnant sheep and goats. There was a significant (P<0.05) decrease in the plasma Cortisol levels during post partum in sheep and goats. The average birth weight in male lambs was 2.5 ± 0.14 kg and that of female 2.8 kg while in goats the mean birth weight in male kids was 2.3 ± 0.07 kg and females 1.88 ± 0.3 kg. The gestation period for male and female lambs was 147 ± 0.84 and 147 days, respectively while in male and female kids was 145 ± 1.30 and 141 ± 1.08 days, respectively.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    STUDY ON BLOOD BIOCHEMISTRY IN RELATION TO MILK PROTEIN WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO KAPPA CASEIN IN INDEGENOUS GOAT
    (AAU, Anand, 2010) PATEL, SANJAYKUMAR B.; Pande, A. M.
    Caprine casein genes exiiibit an unusual and extensive polymorphism that affects milk quality and composition. The Kappa casein gene includes 5 exons, 4 of them carrj'ing more than 90 per cent of the information to encode for the mature protein. Caseins comprise about 80 per cent of the total protein content of milk and present polymorphism with changes in the amino acid sequence. Within this abundance of proteins. Kappa casein is noteworthy, since it has been associated with differences in milk yield, composition and processing. The objective of this study was to observe the existence of polymorphism in the Kappa casein gene and to compare the levels of plasma and milk biochemical parameters in lactation stage of Zalawadi goats. For this purpose, blood samples from 50 lactating goats, collected with vacutainer by needle puncture of the jugular vein. Plasma separated from blood and cellular parts (WBCs) was used for genomic DNA extraction. Milk samples were collected in glass test tube (50 ml capacity) v^ith boric acid preservative and milk samples were preserved at -20 °C till laboratory analyses. The milk biochemical profiles were estimated by using the ECOMILK analyzer and milk urea nitrogen and total casein were estimated by Auto method and kjeidahl method, respectively. The blood biochemical profiles were estimated by using the BS 120 CHEMISTRY analyzer. Plasma sodium and potassium were measured by Flame photometer. DNA was extracted from cellular part of blood. Goat Kappa Casein (CSN3) gene (exon 4) was amplified from genomic DNA samples by PCR. The PCRs were carried for the amplification of Kappa casein {CSN3) gene with specific primers (F: - 5' TCC CAA TGT TOT ACT TTC TTA ACA TC 3') and (R: - 5' GCG TTG TCC TCT TTG ATG TCT CCT TAG 3') gene loci. Amplified products were visualized as a single compact band of expected size of 645bp under UV light by gel documentation system. PCR products and restriction enzymes were incubated overnight in water bath at 37 °C for digestion with Haelll and Alw441 RE and at 65 °C for digestion with BseNI RE. Digested products were visualized as per restriction patterns with compact band size under UV light by gel documentation system. There were monomorphic restriction patterns with HaeIII-RFLP digestion, whereas polymorphic restriction patterns shown with BseeNI-RFLP and Alw44I-RFLP. In this study, genotypes AA, AG, GG ware observed with BseNI and CC, CT, TT with Alw44I in these animals except HaeIII RFLP. The frequency of allele A and allele G was 0.87 and 0.13, respectively and the frequency of allele C and allele T was 0.88 and 0.12, respectively. There were non-significant and positive correlations between blood glucose with milk fat, plasma total proteins with milk protein and milk casein and plasma total cholesterol with milk fat. There was non-significant and negative correlation between plasma triglycerides with milk fat. There was highly significant (P<0.01) and positive correlation between blood urea nitrogen and milk urea nitrogen.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    HAEMATOLOGICAL, BIOCHEMICAL AND ENDOCRINE PARAMETERS AT DIFFERENT STAGES OF LACTATION IN INDIGENOUS AND CROSSBRED CATTLE
    (AAU, Anand, 2015) MADHIRA, SURYA PRAKASH; ARYA, JHAMMAN SINGH
    The study titled "Haematological, Biochemical and Endocrine Parameters at different stages of Lactation in Indigenous and Crossbred Cattle" was undertaken in Gir, Kankrej and Crossbred cattle, at different stages of lactation and milking phases within the stages, with the objective to determine and compare the differences for (i) hematological parameters viz. Haemoglobin (Hb), Pack cell volume (PCV), Total erythrocyte Count (TEC), Total Leucocyte count (TLC), Differential Leucocyte count (DLC) (ii) biochemical parameters viz. Blood glucose. Plasma total protein, albumin, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, urea, uric acid, creatinine, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and electrolytes: sodium and potassium.(iii) enzymes viz. alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase, (iv) Hormonal levels of, T3, T4, Cortisol, Insulin and Prolactin, and (v) relationship of these parameters with the milk production. The blood samples were collected from the three breeds (n=6) for each sampling stage, at different stages of lactation, before and after milking, at the time of morning milking. In Gir cattle, the total erythrocyte Count (TEC-10 power 6 /cmm) at different stages lactation ranged between 6.78±0.10 (stage-I) and 7.93±0.03 in (stage-Ill), while in Kankrej it ranged between 6.35±0.14 (stage-I) and 7.45±0.31 in (stage-Ill), and in crossbred cattle it ranged from 6.15±0.p6 (stage-Ill) to 7.22±0.07in (stage-I).The total erythrocyte count differed significantly (P<0.05) among the breeds. The total erythrocyte count increased with the progress of lactation in Gir and Kankrej cattle while it showed a decreasing trend in the crossbred cattle. The total erythrocyte count differed significantly (P<0.05) among the stages of lactation. In Gir cattle, the Haemoglobin (Hb-g/dl) at different stages of lactation ranged between 10.93±0.05 (stage-Ill) and 12.38±0.11 in (stage-I), while in Kankrej it ranged between 12.25±0.28 (stage-Ill) and 13.78±0.12 (stage-II) and in crossbred cattle it ranged between 13.31±0.17 (stage-I) and 11.08±0.31 in (stage-II).The Haemoglobin differed significantly (P<0.05) among the breeds with Gir cattle reporting highest values. The mean haemoglobin decreased with the progress of lactation in Gir cattle while no such clear trend was observed in the crossbred and Kankrej cattle. In Gir cattle, the Packed cell volume (PCV-%) at different stages of lactation ranged between 39.66±0.06 (stage-III) and 41.23±0.29 in (stage-I), while in Kankrej it ranged between 39.00±0.26 (stage-III) and 42.80±0.33 (stage-I), and in crossbred cattle it ranged between 39.44±0.44 (stage-III) and 46.50±0.53 (stage-I).The Pack cell volume differed significantly among the breeds and among the stages. The mean Pack cell volume decreased with the progress of lactation in all the three breeds under the study. In Gir cattle, MCV, MCH and MCHC at different stages of lactation ranged from: MCV-50.52±0.20 (stage-III) to 58.15±0.84 (stage-I), MCH- 15.28±0.10 (stage-III) to 17.35±0.20 (stage-I) and MCHC from 28.20±0.37 (stage-II) to 30.17±0.08 (stage-I). In Kankrej cattle it ranged from: MCV-49.86±0.35 (stage-III) to 59.38±0.47 (stage-I), MCH- 16.18±0.34 (stage-Ill) to 18.89±0.44 (stage-I) MCHC ranged from 27.45±0.47 (stage-Ill) to 30.83±0.18 (stage-I). In crossbred cattle it ranged from: MCV-54.34±0.39 (stage-Ill) to 59.95±0.61 (stage-I) MCH-15.98±0.31 (stage-Ill) to 18.52±0.13 (stage-I) and MCHC ranged from 27.51±0.39 (stage-II) to 29.95±0.28 (stage-I).The Mean Corpuscular Volume, Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin decreased with the progress of lactation, in all the three breeds under the study, while the Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin Concentration showed similar trend in Gir cattle only. The MCV differed significantly (P<0.05) among the breeds and stages of lactation. The MCHC differed non significantly (P<0.05) among the breeds and among the stages. In Gir cattle, the Total leucocyte count (TLC-10 power 3/cmm) at different stages of lactation ranged from 8.38±0.11 (stage-II) to 8.83±0.03 (stage-Ill), while in Kankrej it ranged from 8.49±0.12 (stage-I) to 9.16±0.07 (stage-II) and in crossbred cattle it ranged from 8.59±0.198 (stage-I) to 9.18±0.06 (stage-II). The total leucocyte count differed significantly (P<0.05) among the breeds and also among the stages. In Gir cattle, the total lymphocyte count (%) ranged between 51.00±0.73 (stage-I) and 62.50±0.42 in (stage-Ill), while in Kankrej it ranged between 50.33±0.80 (stage-I) and 62.00±0.57 in (stage-Ill), and in crossbred cattle it ranged between 50.16±0.87 (stage-I) and 61.50±0.76 in (stage-Ill).The total lymphocyte count differed significantly (P<0.05) among the breeds and the stages. In Gir cattle, the total monocyte count (%) ranged between 1.66±0.21 (stage-Ill) and 2.50±0.40 (stage-II) while in Kankrej between 2.00±0.25 (stage-I) and 3.00±0.36 in (stage-II) and in crossbred cattle between 1.83±0.40 (stage-Ill) and 3.00±0.36 in (stage-Ill). A nonsignificant variation was observed in the total monocyte count between the breeds and the milking stages. In Gir cattle, the neutrophils count (%) count ranged between 30.33±1.05 (stage-Ill) and 39.00±0.77 (stage-II) while in Kankrej between 29.83±0.47 (stage-I) to 39.50±0.47 (stage-Ill) and in crossbred cattle from 29. 66±0.42 (stage-Ill) to 40.33±0.60 in (stage-I). A non-significant variation was observed in the total neutrophil count while it differed significantly (P<0.05) among the stages. In Gir cattle, the eosinophil count (%) count ranged between 4.50±0.34 (stage-Ill) and 6.83±0.30 (stage-II) while in Kankrej between 5.33±0.49 (stage-I) and 7.00±0.25 in (stage-II) and in crossbred cattle from 4.66±0.61 (stage-I) to 6.83±0.30 in (stage-Ill).The Eosinophil count differed significantly (P<0.05) among the breeds and the stages. In Gir cattle the basophil count (%) ranged between 0.16±0.16 (stage- Ill) and 0.33±0.21in (stage-I), while in Kankrej between 0.33±0.21 (stage-I) and 0.66±0.21 (stage-II) and in crossbred cattle from 0.33±0.21 (stage-II) to 0.66±0.21 (stage-Ill). A non-significant variation was observed in the total basophil count between the breeds and stages. In Gir cattle, the Plasma Glucose (mg/dl) at different stages of lactation ranged between 56.79±0.28 (stage-I) to 60.38±0.45 (stage-Ill), while in Kankrej from 57.33±0.47 (stage-I) to 61.33±0.33 in (stage-Ill) and in crossbred cattle from 81.65±0.75 (stage-I) to 91.51±0.72 (stage-Ill).The plasma glucose differed significantly (P<0.05) among the stages of lactation and breeds. In Gir cattle, the Plasma Total protein (g/dl) at different stages of lactation ranged between 6.31±0.05 (stage-I) and 7.20±0.11 in (stage-I), while in Kankrej cattle from 6.39±0.15 (stage-II) to 7.40±0.11 in (stage-I) and, in crossbred cattle from 8.35±0.06 (stage-I^ to 9.04±0.11 (stage-III).The plasma total protein differed significantly (P<0.05) among the breeds and the stages. In Gir cattle, the Plasma Albumin (g/dl) at different stages of lactation ranged between 3.48±0.07 (stage-Ill) and 3.97±0.06 in (stage-I), while in Kankrej cattle from 3.90±0.06 (stage-I) to 4.25±0.18 in (stage-I) and in crossbred cattle from 4.30±0.07 (stage-I) to 5.11±0.03 (stage-Ill).The plasma albumin differed significantly (P<0.05) among the breeds, but did not differ among the stages of lactation. In Gir cattle, the Plasma Total Cholesterol (mg/dl) at different stages of lactation ranged between 172.71±0.06 (stage-I) to 195.40±1.74 (stage-Ill), while in Kankrej from 173.76±1.13 (stage-I) to 195.97±2.34 in (stage-Ill) and in crossbred cattle from 180.53±2.78 (stage-I) to 190.20±1.02 in (stage-Ill). Significant (P<0.05) breed and effect of stages of lactation was observed. In Gir cattle, the Plasma High density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (mg/dl) at different stages of lactation ranged between 117.66±0.74 (stage-I) and 133.00±2.35 in (stage-Ill), while in Kankrej it ranged from 116.42±0.39 (stage-I) to 132.56±0.45 (stage-Ill) and in crossbred cattle from 118.87±0.75 (stage-I) to 129.25±0.61 (stage-III).A significant (P<0.05) difference was observed among the breeds and lactation stages. In Gir cattle, the Plasma Triglycerides (mg/dl) at different stages of lactation ranged between 15.98±0.47 (stage-I) to 17.06±0.41 (stage-I), while in Kankrej from 16.14±0.31 (stage-I) to 17.86±0.26 in (stage-I) and in crossbred cattle from 27.99±0.70 (stage-I) to 44.61±1.31 in (stage-III).Breed differences and lactation stage differences were significant. In Gir cattle, the Plasma Urea (mg/dl) at different stages of lactation ranged between 19.43±0.62 (stage-Ill) and 20.31±0.53 in (stage-I), while in Kankrej from 19.52±0.24 (stage-II) to 20.31±0.23 (stage-Ill) and in crossbred cattle it ranged from 16.65±0.49 (stage-I) to 21.09±0.76 in (stage-III).The Plasma Urea differed significantly (P<0.05) among breeds and stages of lactation. In Gir cattle, the Plasma Creatinine (mg/dl) at different stages of lactation ranged between 0.74±0.01 (stage-I) and 0.92±0.01 in (stage-Ill), while in Kankrej from 0.73±0.07 (stage-II) to 0.91±0.01 (stage-Ill) and in crossbred cattle from 0.83±0.01 (stage-I) to 0.95±0.02 (stage-Ill). The values of plasma creatinine varied significantly (P<0.05) among the breeds an'd stages of lactation. In Gir cattle, the Plasma Uric acid (mg/dl) at different stages of lactation ranged between 1.57±0.01 (stage-II) and 1.60±0.01 (stage-Ill), while in Kankrej from 1.60±0.01 (stage-II) to 1.63±0.01 (stage-Ill) and in crossbred cattle it ranged betweenl. 57±0.01 (stage-Ill) and 1.69±0.01 (stage-I).Breed and stages of lactation differences were significant (P<0.05). In Gir cattle, the Plasma Calcium (mg/dl) at different stages of lactation ranged between 8.77±0.07 (stage-I) and 9.41±0.12 (stage- Ill), while in Kankrej from 8.73±0.14 (stage-I) to 9.41±0.10 (stage-Ill) and in crossbred cattle from 9.94±0.10 (stage-I) to 10.63±0.06 (stage-II). Significant (P<0.05) breed differences and differences in stages of lactation were observed. In Gir cattle, the Plasma Inorganic Phosphorus (mg/dl) at different stages of lactation ranged between 4.68±0.04 (stage-I) and 6.22±0.08 in (stage-Ill), while in Kankrej from 4.76±0.08 (stage-I) to 6.18±0.09 in (stage-Ill) and in crossbred cattle from 5.23±0.03 (stage-I) to 5.74±0.21 in (stage-II). A non-significant difference was observed among the breeds, while it differed significantly (P<0.05) among the stages. In Gir cattle, the Plasma Magnesium (mg/dl) at different stages of lactation ranged between 3.04±0.05 (stage-I) and 3.87±0.01 in (stage-Ill), while in Kankrej from 3.01±0.05 (stage-I) to 3.41±0.09 in (stage-I) and in crossbred cattle from 3.18±0.06 (stage-Ill) to 3.49±0.04 (stage-II). Significant (P<0.05) effect of the breeds and lactation stages was observed. In Gir cattle, the Plasma Sodium (mEq/L) at different stages of lactation ranged between 158.45±2.66 (stage-I) to 170.91±1.66 in (stage-Ill), while in Kankrej from 162.32±3.29 (stage-I) to 173.11±0.57 in (stage-Ill) and in crossbred cattle from 166.87±2.11 (stage-I) to 180.53±1.60 in (stage-II).Breed and effect of lactation stages was significant (P<0.05). In Gir cattle, the Plasma Potassium (mEq/L) at different stages of lactation ranged between 3.37±0.08 (stage-Ill) to 4.57±0.17 (stage-I), while in Kankrej from 3.39±0.07 (stage-Ill) to 4.59±0.20 (stage-I) and in crossbred cattle from 4.29±0.03 (stage-1) to 4.75±0.23 in (stage-I). Breed and lactation stages differences were significant (P<0.05). In Gir cattle, the Plasma Aspartate Aminotransferase (lU/ml) at different stages of lactation ranged between 68.40±2.57 (stage-Ill) to 89.79±1.05 in (stage-II) while in Kankrej from 67.83±2.32 (stage-Ill) to 89.42±1.47 in (stage-II) and in crossbred cattle from 78.04±0.81 (stage-Ill) to 88.19±0.95 in (stage-I). Breed and lactation stages differences were significant (P<0.05).In Gir cattle, the Plasma Alanine Aminotransferase (lU/ml) at different stages of lactation ranged between 39.23±0.82 (stage-I) to 45.19±1.21 (stage-Ill), while in Kankrej from 38.88±0.86 (stage-I) to 43.85±1.33 in (stage-I) and in crossbred cattle from 42.04±0.67 (stage-I) to 44.55±0.48 (stage-I). Breed differences and lactation stages effects were significant (P<0.05).In Gir cattle, the Plasma Alkaline Phosphatase (AKP-IU/ml) at different stages of lactation ranged between 152.93±4.10 (stage-I) and 210.97±3.56 in (stage- Ill), while in Kankrej from 152.74±3.10 (stage-I) to 210.21±3.63 (stage-Ill) and in crossbred cattle from 149.01±1.04 (stage-I) to 186.19±4.21 (stage-III).The Plasma Alkaline Phosphatase activity differed significantly (P<0.05) among the breeds and stages of lactation. In Gir cattle, the Plasma Acid Phosphatase (ACP-IU/ml) at different stages of lactation ranged between 83.85±1.39 (stage-I) and 104.42±1.27 in (stage-Ill), while in Kankrej from 83.83±0.76 (stage-I) to 103.23±0.62 (stage-Ill) and in crossbred cattle from 85.09±1.55 (stage-I) to 105.52±1.11 in (stage-III).The Plasma Acid Phosphatase activity did not differ significantly among the breeds but differed significantly (P<0.05) among the stages. In Gir cattle, the Plasma Lactate Dehydrogenase at different stages of lactation ranged from 917.87±22.84 (stage-II) and 956.54±28.08in(stage-I), while .in Kahkrej from 880.25±20.30 (stage-II) to 949.87±25.64 (stage-I) and in crossbred cattle from 973.41±7.98 (stage-Ill) to 1006.85±4.01 in (stage-II).The Plasma Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH-IU/ml) activity differed significantly (P<0.05) among the breeds and among the stages of lactation. In Gir cattle, the Plasma Triiodothyronine (T3-ng/ml) at different stages of lactation ranged between 1.54±0.05 and 1.94±0.04, while in Kankrej from 2.02±0.03 (stage-I) to 2.27±0.n in (stage-Ill) and in crossbred cattle from 1.58±0.04 (stage-I) to 1.93±0.02 in (stage-Ill). The Plasma Tri iodo thyronine differed significantly (P<0.05) among the breeds and amongst the stages of lactation. In Gir cattle, the Plasma Thyroxine (T4-ng/ml) at different stages of lactation ranged between 44.14±6.12 (stage-I) and 80.24±2.43 in (stage-Ill), while in Kankrej cattle from 50.21±5.21 (stage-I) to 81.23±3.48 (stage-Ill) and in crossbred cattle from 48.46±6.18 (stage-I) to 86.68±2.52 (stage-Ill). A non-significant variation in the Plasma Thyroxine levels was observed among the breeds, but it differed significantly (P<0.05) among the stages of lactation. In Gir cattle, the plasma insulin (μIU/ml) at different stages of lactation ranged between 8.89±0.69 (stage-Ill) and 16.51±0.48 in (stage-II), while in Kankrej cattle from 8.77±0.29 (stage-I) to 12.46±0.43(stage-I) and in crossbred cattle from 10.30±0.57 (stage-Ill) to 14.06±0.80 (stage-II). The Plasma Insulin levels differed significantly (P<0.05) among the breeds and stages of lactation. In Gir cattle, the plasma Cortisol (ng/ml) at different stages of lactation ranged between 5.00±0.38 (stage-I) and 7.51±0.35 in (stage-II), while in Kankrej from 5.57±0.16 (stage-I) to 7.43±0.19 in (stage-Ill) and in crossbred cattle from 7.11±0.10 (stage-I) to 9.36±0.18 (stage-I).The Plasma Cortisol (ng/ml) levels differed significantly (P<0.05) among the breeds and the stages. In Gir Cattle, the plasma prolactin (ng/ml) levels at different stages of lactation ranged between 35.92±1.56 (stage-II) and 49.04±1.24 (stage-I), while in Kankrej cattle, between 30.20 ±0.88 (stage-Ill) and 49.08 ± 1.56 (stage-I) and in Crossbred cattle, between 26.00± 1.07 (stage-II) and 35.44 ± 1.54 (stage-I).The plasma prolactin level differed significantly (P<0.05) among the breeds and the stages of lactation. The values in the milking phases differed significantly (P<0.05). Milk yield was found to be related with TEC, Hb, MCHC, TLC, neutrophil and eosinophil count, and in biochemical parameters, calcium, magnesium, HDL, creatinine, LDH, albumin, uric acid. The hormones, insulin, T3 and T4 and Cortisol were also related with milk yield.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    BLOOD BIOCHEMICAL PROFILES AT DIFFERENT STAGES OF GESTATION IN TRIPLE CROSS-BRED, (KxJxHF) CATTLE.
    (AAU, Anand, 2005) PADODARA, RAMESH J.; Arya, Jhamman Singh
    A study was conducted on fourty four triple cross-bred (1/2 Kankarej X 1/4 Jersey X 1/4 Holstein Friesian) pregnant heifers (20) and cows (24) at Livestock Research station, veterinary College, Anand Agricultural university, Anand with the objective to know various blood biochemical profiles at different stages of gestation. The blood was collected from these animals through jugular venipuncture once a day on days 90,150, 210 and 275 of gestation. The blood samples were analysed for various haematological, biochemical and hormonal parameters using standard laboratory procedure. Albumin and Triglyceride were estimated by kit (Crest Biosystems, Goa) using semi auto-analyser instrument. Trace elements were estimated by using Atomic absorption spectrophotometer (ECIL, AAS4141). Hormones viz. T3, T4 and insulin were estimated by RIA method using kits of BARC. Mumbai, while progesterone and estradiol-17β were analysed by using kits of ImmunoTech, France. Haematological and PCV both decreased significantly (p<0.01) as Ihe pregnancy advanced. Hormonal parameters of serum 13 and insulin were nonsignificantly differ but serum T4, progesterone and estradiol showed significantly (p<0.01) differ during various stages of gestation. Biochemical parameters such as blood glucose, serum cholesterol and triglyceride decreased significantly (p<0.01) as the pregnancy advanced. Serum albumin also decreased significant (p<0.05) with increased gestation period. Total serum protein, globulin, and albumin: globulin ratio did not differ due to stage of gestation. Serum calcium, inorganic phosphorus and their ratios decreased significantly (p<0.01) from day 90 to 275 of gestation. Trace elements manganese and cobalt were found to show increasing (p<0.01) trend but no significant difference was found in levels of serum iron, copper and zinc. The serum electrolytes, sodium and potassium showed increasing trend during different stages of gestation. But serum enzyme. Acetyl Cholinesterase showed no definite trend during different stages of gestation.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    BLOOD BIOCHEMICAL PROFILES AT DIFFERENT STAGES OF GESTATION IN TRIPLE CROSS-BRED (KxJxHF) CATTLE
    (AAU, Anand, 2005) PADODARA, RAMESH J.; Arya, Jhamman Singh
    A study was conducted on fourty four triple cross-bred 1/2 Kankarej X 1/4 Jersey X 1/4 Holstein Friesian) pregnant heifers (20) and cows (24) at Livestock Research station, veterinary College, Anand Agricultural university, Anand with the objective to know various blood biochemical profiles at different stages of gestation. The blood was collected from these animals through jugular venipuncture once a day on days 90,150, 210 and 275 of gestation. The blood samples were analysed for various haematological, biochemical and hormonal parameters using standard laboratory procedure. Albumin and Triglyceride were estimated by kit (Crest Biosystems, Goa) using semi auto-analyser instrument. Trace elements were estimated by using Atomic absorption spectrophotometer (BCIL, AAS4I4I). Hormones viz. T3, T4and insulin were estimated by RIA method using kits of BARC. Mumbai, while progesterone and estradiol-17β were analysed by using kits of ImmunoTech, France. Haematological and PCV both decreased significantly (p<0.01) as the pregnancy advanced. Hormonal parameters of serum T3 and insulin were nonsignificantly differ but serum T4, progesterone and estradiol showed significantly (p<0.01) differ during various stages of gestation. Biochemical parameters such as blood glucose, serum cholesterol and triglyceride decreased significantly (p<0.01) as the pregnancy advanced. Scrum albumin also decreased significant (p<0.05) with increased gestation period. Total serum protein, globulin, and albumin: globulin ratio did not differ due to stage of gestation. Serum calcium, inorganic phosphorus and their ratios decreased significantly (p<0.01) from day 90 to 275 of gestation. Trace elements manganese and cobalt were found to show increasing (p<0.01) trend but no significant difference was found in levels of serum iron, copper and zinc. The serum electrolytes, sodium and potassium showed increasing trend during different stages of gestation. But serum enzyme. Acetyl Cholinesterase showed no definite trend during different stages of gestation.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    STUDY ON BLOOD BIOCHEMISTRY IN RELATION TO MILK PROTEIN WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO KAPPA CASEIN IN INDEGENOUS GOAT
    (Anand Agricultural University, Anand, 2009) SANJAYKUMAR B. PATEL; Dr. A. M. Pande
    Caprine casein genes exhibit an unusual and extensive polymorphism that affects milk quality and composition. The Kappa casein gene includes 5 exons, 4 of them carrying more than 90 per cent of the information to encode for the mature protein. Caseins comprise about 80 per cent of the total protein content of milk and present polymorphism with changes in the amino acid sequence. Within this abundance of proteins, Kappa casein is noteworthy, since it has been associated with differences in milk yield, composition and processing. The objective of this study was to observe the existence of polymorphism in the Kappa casein gene and to compare the levels of plasma and milk biochemical parameters in lactation stage of Zalawadi goats. For this purpose, blood samples from 50 lactating goats, collected with vacutainer by needle puncture of the jugular vein. Plasma separated from blood and cellular parts (WBCs) was used for genomic DNA extraction