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  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Influence of Cycocel on Growth and Development of Soybean (Glycine max L.)
    (University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, 2018-07) Rashmi, G.J.; Patil, H.Y.
    A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of cycocel on growth, development and yield of soybean variety DSb–21 during kharif, 2017 at Main Agricultural Research Station, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with three replication and three concentrations of cycocel viz., 125, 250 and 500 ppm sprayed at 30, 45 and 60 days after sowing. Foliar application of 250 and 500 ppm of cycocel at 45 and 60 DAS decreased the plant height (9 to 10 per cent) whereas, the number of branches increased significantly. Application of cycocel significantly increased the leaf area, total dry matter and growth indices. Physiological traits like, relative chlorophyll content, photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and seed quality parameters i.e., seed protein and oil content increased. Yield and yield attributing characters viz., number of flowers per plant, number of pods per plant, flowers to pod ratio, seed weight per plant, seed yield per hectare, harvest index and 100 seed weight were significantly increased due to application of cycocel at 250 and 500 ppm at 45 and 60 DAS. Whereas, higher seed yield per hectare (36.71 q ha-1) was recorded in 500 ppm of cycocel sprayed at 45 DAS. Seed germination percentage and seedling vigour index increased due to foliar application of cycocel after two months of harvest over control. The soybean genotype DSb-21 responded very well with 34 per cent increase in yield by increasing reproductive efficiency by the increased dry matter production, translocation of assimilates as well as increasing the sink efficiency by foliar application of 500 ppm of CCC at 45 DAS. It is concluded that foliar application of cycocel @ 250 ppm either at 45 or 60 DAS is economical in soybean which recorded B: C of 3.53 and 3.43 respectively.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Biofortification of Zinc in Bajra (Pennisetum glaucum L.)
    (University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, 2018-07) Panda, Babyrani; Doddamani, M.B.
    A field experiment to enhance the Zn concentration in bajra grains through soil application of Zn was carried out in a randomized complete block design with three replications at the Main Agricultural Research Station, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad during kharif 2017. The bajra variety ICMV-221 was used with nine treatments viz. ZnSO4.7H2O (basal application @ 5, 10, 15 and 20 kg ha-1) and Zn EDTA (basal application @ 5, 10, 15 and 20 kg ha-1) and one absolute control. The result revealed that morphological parameters, viz. plant height, number of tillers, leaf area, flag leaf area, ear head length and girth and number of green leaves plant-1 were enhanced significantly by zinc treatments. Phenological traits, growth parameters viz. LAI and dry matter production and physiological traits viz. chlorophyll content, relative chlorophyll content (SPAD value), photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate also significantly differed among treatments. Zinc application @ 20 kg ha-1 significantly increased the N, K and Zn content in all plant parts of bajra. Whereas, P, Fe, Cu and Mn content decreased at higher doses of Zn treatments. With increase in Zn fertilizer doses, soil Zn status was improved. Soil application of 20 kg ha-1 Zn EDTA was the best source of Zn compared to other treatments recording highest chlorophyll content of 2.12 and 2.79 mg g-1 fresh weight and photosynthetic rate of 26.76 and 38.96 µmol CO2 m-2 s-1 respectively at 30 and 60 DAS. The same treatment also enhanced the bajra grain yield by 27 per cent with 37 per cent increase in grain Zn content over control, recording the highest grain yield of 4,153 kg ha-1 and grain Zn content of 44.43 mg kg-1. Hence, soil application of 20 kg ha-1 Zn EDTA is beneficial for bajra crop.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    "Effect of Temperature Regimes on Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Productivity"
    (University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, 2018-06) Kiran, B.O.; Chimmad, V.P.
    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), in its reproductive stage, is sensitive to day/night temperatures with consequent substantial loss of potential yields at high temperatures. Two field experiments were conducted with 44 and four genotypes under three temperature regimes (D1: 41st, D2: 44th and D3: 48th SMW) during rabi, 2015-16 and 2016-17 at Main Agricultural Research Station (MARS), Dharwad. Among four genotypes, JG-11 recorded least pollen sterility (17.15 %) followed by JG 14 (17.49 %), while crop sown in 41st SMW recorded least pollen sterility (19.42 %) when compared to crop sown in 44th and 48th SMW. Genotype, Annigeri-1 recorded maximum pollen germination (62.90 %) and pollen tube length (171.36 µm). Crop sown in 44th SMW significantly higher seed yield (24.19 q ha-1) followed by 41st SMW (22.17 q ha-1). However, genotype JG 11 recorded maximum seed yield (23.12 q ha-1) followed by JG 14 and Annigeri-1 (21.75 and 21.22 q ha-1 respectively). The overall reproductive phase efficiency was stable in JG 11 across environments. Among 44 genotypes, the total chlorophyll, membrane stability index, SPAD values recorded at 65 DAS was higher in crop sown in 44th SMW compared to 48th SMW. The seed yield was significantly higher for crop sown in 41st SMW (13.29 g plant-1) followed by 44th SMW (11.95 g plant-1). Among the genotypes, JAKI 9218 recorded higher seed yield (19.25 g plant-1) followed by GCP-107 and PA 0102334 (18.59 and 17.32 g plant-1, respectively). Genotypes, ICC-4958, GCP-107, BGD-9812, ICC-5383 and BGD-132 recorded higher stability for grain yield across environments. However, genotypes GCP-107 (23.54 g plant-1), PA-0102334 (19.66 g plant-1) and BGD-1044 (18.37 g plant-1) recorded higher yield and yield components under normal sown conditions (44th SMW), while H-206, ICCL-82108, ICC-88201, RSG-44, Local Collection, ICC-5383, AKG-70 and ICC-1745 were found suitable for late sown condition (48th SMW) for grain yield. Mean performance but confined to specific environments. Genotype ICCV-2 and JG-130 was found early with average regression coefficient and least deviation recommended for late sown conditions. Further, genotypes, The maximum pollen germination and least pollen sterility was recorded under 44th SMW (40.86%) and 41st SMW (17.10 %). Genotype, ICC-790197 recorded least pollen sterility (12.56%), while maximum pollen germination was recorded in genotype JAKI 9218 (69.95%) followed by Annigeri -1 (63.83%). Genotypes, ICCV-2, JG-130, JG-11, GCP-107, MI-35 and BGD-9920 were highly stable for seed yield under 44th SMW. The environment index was higher under 41st and 44th SMW for genotypic adaptability. Further, the degree of association for seed yield and components decreased with delayed sowing. Under 44th SMW, seed yield recorded positive association with pod number, pod weight, total flower production, total dry matter, test weight and harvest index. The experiment concluded that, reproductive efficiency for heat stress tolerance was higher in genotypes ICC-4958, GCP-107, BGD-9812, ICC-5383 and BGD-132 and further helpful in breeding program.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Physiological and Biological Quality of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) Cultivars Grown in Different Growing Systems Under Protected Condition
    (University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, 2018-06) Thomas, Tinu; Janagoudar, B.S.
    An experiment was conducted at the Hi-Tech Horticultural Unit, Main Agricultural Research Station, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad during kharif, 2017-18 with factorial CRD design. Two factors of experiments were growing systems viz., soil based growing system, aggregate media hydroponics growing system (cocopeat as substrate), nutrient film technique (NFT) and lettuce cultivars viz., Locarno RZ, Concorde RZ, Starfighter RZ. The morphological parameters viz., plant height (45.8 cm), number of leaves (35.3), leaf fresh weight (96.73 g) and root length (45.84 cm) were significantly highest in nutrient film technique and lowest in soil. Leaf area (2552.0 cm2 plant-1) was significantly highest in nutrient film technique whereas leaf dry matter percentage (4.55 %) was significantly highest in soil grown lettuce at bolting. Physiological parameter like relative chlorophyll content (29.47 SPAD value) and biophysical parameters viz., photosynthetic rate (18.57 µmol CO2 m-2 s-1), transpiration rate (6.994 mmol H2O m-2 s-1) and stomatal conductance (0.647 mmol CO2 m-2 s-1) of lettuce cultivars were significantly higher in nutrient film technique and least in soil. Yield parameter like marketable number of leaves, leaf fresh weight of total marketable leaves per plant and number of marketable leaves per square meter was 27.7, 260.66 g and 719 respectively and quality parameters viz., anthocyanin content (146.03 µg 100 g-1 fw) and ascorbic acid content (7.029 mg 100 g-1 fw) was significantly highest in nutrient film technique. The cultivar Starfighter RZ recorded significantly highest relative chlorophyll content (38.39 SPAD value), photosynthetic rate (18.27 µmol CO2 m-2 s-1), marketable number of leaves harvested per plant (25.2) and also other growth parameters compared to other cultivars. Overall performance of growing systems were in decreasing order of nutrient film technique followed by aggregate media hydroponics followed by soil based growing system. The cultivar Starfighter RZ had best performance among the cultivars.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Plant Sap Analysis for Enhancing the Physiological Nitrogen Use Efficiency in Maize (Zea mays L.)
    (University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, 2018-06) Spandana, K.S.; Koti, R.V.
    A field experiment was conducted during kharif, 2017 at the Main Agricultural Research Station, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad to study plant sap analysis for enhancing the physiological nitrogen (N) use efficiency in maize. N levels at 100, 50, 25 and 0 kg ha-1 including three other treatments on plant demand viz., 50 % recommended N + rest through soil application, 0 N + rest by soil application and 0 N + foliar application, based on tissue nitrate tests by nitrate ion meter were tried in simple randomized block design with four replications. The results revealed that soil application of N at 100 kg ha-1 at sowing showed significantly higher sap nitrate (1037, 660 and 502 ppm at 30, 55 and 70 days after sowing respectively) and other sap indices, total leaf nitrogen (2.25 %), plant height (230.6 cm), relative chlorophyll content (57 SPAD value), plant performance (13,167), total chlorophyll (3.34 mg g fresh weight-1), leaf area (79.8 dm2), total dry matter (399.7 g plant-1), grain weight per cob (246.7 g), grain yield (106.9 q ha-1), stover yield (100.1 q ha-1) and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) of grain and dry matter (35.79 and 30.83 respectively) which are on par with 50 % recommended N at sowing + rest by soil application based on sap nitrate test i.e on demand. Higher gross returns ( . 1, 22,577), net returns ( . 90,198) and B: C ratio (2.79) was observed with application of 100 % recommended N which is on par with 50 % recommended N + rest by soil application based on tissue nitrate test. It is inferred that nitrate ion meter can be used for quantification of nitrogen requirement based on crop demand with saving of 30 per cent nitrogen and avoiding environment pollution. Thus, technology is farmer’s friendly and enhances the NUE.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Studies on Powdery Mildew of Cluster Bean Caused by Leveillula taurica (Lev.) Arn.
    (University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, 2018-07) Vijaykumar, K.N.; Kulkarni, Shripad
    Cluster bean is a versatile and multipurpose legume crop cultivated for vegetable, fodder and manure. Cluster bean powdery mildew caused by Leveillula taurica is the major limiting factor for its cultivation in India. The present investigation involving roving survey in five districts, molecular characterization of pathogen, epidemiological studies, in vitro evaluation of botanicals, bioagents and fungicides, field screening of 41 genotypes and management studies were carried out at University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad during the year 2017-18. During survey maximum disease severity was observed in Dharwad (39.70 PDI) and least in Haveri district (22.92 PDI). The rDNA sequencing of L. taurica indicated that Dharwad isolate is having 94 per cent homology with Iran and Turkey isolates. Highest conidial germination was observed at 25 °C (63.16 %) and 85 per cent relative humidity. Sowing during first fortnight of November recorded maximum disease severity. Maximum temperature was positively correlated with disease development whereas, minimum temperature, minimum and maximum relative humidity, rainfall and number of rainy days showed negative correlation. Among different botanicals and bioagents tested, maximum conidial germination inhibition was observed with nimbecidine (80.13 %) and Bacillus subtilis (56.72 %). Among different fungicides tested, maximum inhibition was observed with hexaconazole @ 0.1 (100.00 %), wettable sulphur (95.78 %) and tebuconazole 50 % + trifloxystrobin 25 % (94.72 %). None of the genotypes were immune or resistant whereas, two, 37 and two genotypes were found to be moderately susceptible, susceptible and highly susceptible respectively. Field evaluation of fungicides revealed that two sprays of hexaconazole @ 0.1 % resulted in least PDI of 11.75 % with an yield of 6.20 t/ha and C: B ratio of 1:3.23 which was significantly superior over other treatments followed by two sprays of tebuconazole 50 % + trifloxystrobin 25 % (14.27 PDI) with an yield of 5.98 t/ha.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Physiological Characterization of Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) for Lime Induced Iron Chlorosis
    (University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, 2018-06) Akshay, N.; Koti, R.V.
    A field experiment was carried out during kharif-2017 at Main Agriculture Research Station, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad to screen the F2 population obtained from the two crosses TMV 2 × ICGV 86031 (TIP) and JL 24 × ICGV 86031 (JIP) for lime induced iron chlorosis (LIIC) resistance. Variation was observed among the selected population of F2 generation with respect to visual chlorotic rating (VCR) score at 45 days after sowing (DAS) and relative chlorophyll content at 60 DAS. The iron deficiency chlorosis (IDC) resistant parent ICGV 86031 had significantly higher relative chlorophyll content (46.2) compared to IDC susceptible parents TMV 2 (39.3) and JL 24 (37.7), respectively. Similarly, ICGV 86031 showed least VCR score (1.00) compared to TMV 2 (2.10) and JL 24 (2.30). Among the progenies, TIP-16 and JIP-27 had recorded highest relative chlorophyll content (41.8 and 42.9, respectively) with least VCR score (1.07 and 1.00, respectively) followed by the populations TIP-23 (1.15) and JIP-28 (1.00). The hydroponic experiment was conducted, to unearth the strategy I mechanism involving rhizosphere acidification and root ferric reductase activity in parents of the crosses, ICGV 86031, TMV 2, JL 24 and check KADIRI 9. The results on physiological and biochemical observations indicated that ICGV 86031 at 45 days recorded highest leaf ferrous content (7.44 ppm), chlorophyll content (2.41 mg g-1 fresh weight), relative chlorophyll content (42.60), root ferric reductase activity (56.9 n mol g-1 fresh weight hr-1) and root protonation (pH 3.83), followed by KADIRI 9 and significantly least leaf ferrous content (4.61 ppm), chlorophyll content (1.24 mg g-1 fresh weight), relative chlorophyll content (31.48), root ferric reductase activity (40 n mol g-1fresh weight hr-1) and root protonation (pH 4.32) was observed in JL 24 followed by TMV 2. Hence, the parent genotype ICGV 86031 has been identified as most resistant for LIIC.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Studies on Anthracnose of Greengram Caused by Colletotrichum truncatum (Schw.) Andrus and Moore
    (University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, 2018-07) Pavithra, L.; Kamanna, B.C.
    Laboratory and field experiment were conducted at Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture and Agricultural Research Station, Mugad, UAS, Dharwad to study the host range and survivability of pathogen, epidemiology, molecular variability and integrated management during kharif, 2017. A roving survey was carried out for the severity of anthracnose of greengram in four major greengram growing districts of northern Karnataka revealed that, the disease severity was found highest in Gadag (37.83%) and least in Haveri (29.86%) districts. Among eight pulses tested for host range studies, Vigna mungo, Glycine max and Macrotyloma uniflorum proved to be hosts for C. truncatum. Viability of conidia of C. truncatum in different storage conditions showed conidia were viable for maximum period of 360 days in freeze condition and the viability was reduced to 105 days under field condition. The first onset of anthracnose was noticed at 30 days after sowing with per cent index (PDI) of 7.86 and increased gradually with the PDI of 43.24. The correlation studies between PDI and weather parameters indicated the anthracnose development was positive correlation with rainfall, morning relative humidity, evening relative humidity and sunshine, whereas, negative correlation was noticed with maximum temperature, minimum temperature, evaporation and wind speed. Genetic variability among eight isolates of C. truncatum showed that maximum genetic variation exists in DwdCt1 followed by GadCt3 and TNAUCt7 isolates and less genetic variation in HsnCt5 and ShvCt4 isolates which showed 88 per cent similarity. In vitro bioassay revealed that, propiconazole, captan, trifloxystrobin + tebuconazole were found effective. Among bioagents and ITKs, Trichoderma harzianum and panchagavya respectively, were most effective against C. truncatum. Two foliar sprays of propiconazole (0.1%) at 15 days interval was most effective fungicide in managing the anthracnose of greengram.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Development and Identification of Drought Tolerant Maize (Zea mays L.) Hybrids
    (University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, 2018-01) Patil, Akshata S.; Mummigatti, U.V.
    The investigation was carried out to elucidate the genetic mechanisms underlying the drought tolerance in maize by withholding water before fifteen days of anthesis and silking interval at the Main Agricultural Research Station, University Agricultural science’s Dharwad. From the 100 inbred lines evaluated (rabi / summer 2014-15) ten drought tolerant inbred lines (DMIL 230, DMIL 438, DMIL 447, DMIL 516, DMIL 553, DMIL 607, DMIL 692, DMIL 715, CML 425 and NC 468) were selected based on genetic diversity (D2) and morphological traits for developing 45 single cross hybrids through half diallel mating design (kharif, 2015). These 45 hybrids and their parents were further evaluated during rabi / summer, 2016. Identified five top yielders (DMIL 438  DMIL 447, DMIL 512  DMIL 692, DMIL 425  DMIL 230, DMIL 448  DMIL 607 and DMIL 438  NC 468), five drought susceptible yielders their parents and two checks (CP-818 and GH-0727) were evaluated during rabi / summer, 2016-17 for drought tolerance. Simultaneously, evaluated for various root and shoot morphological traits under water stress condition in polythene bag upto 60 DAS. Five hybrids viz., DMIL 516  DMIL 230 (6,338 kg/ha), DMIL 553  DMIL 447 (3,687 kg/ha), CML 425  DMIL 516 (3,905 kg/ha), DMIL 607  DMIL 516 (3,416 kg/ha) and NC 468  DMIL 692 (3,641 kg/ha) were superior drought tolerant hybrids based on relative water content, chlorophyll content, anthesis to silking interval, root traits and yield components under water stress condition. DMIL 715, CML 425, DMIL 447 and DMIL 516 have the best general combining ability for drought tolerance. These hybrids and the general combiners can be considered for moisture stress situations and for developing hybrids for drought tolerance, respectively.