ThesisItem Open AccessEcofriendly Management of Fungal Foliar Diseases of Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.)(University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, 2018-06) Aditya, Sanghmitra; Hegde, Gurudatt M.Groundnut is an important oilseed and food crop of India. An experiment was conducted in the Bioresource farm, IOF, UAS, Dharwad during kharif 2017 to know the relationship of weather factors with fungal foliar disease development and to manage them organically. The results from survey indicated that, the severity of early leaf spot (ELS), late leaf spot (LLS) and rust ranged from 20.00 to 42.22 PDI, 17.78 to 66.66 PDI and 17.78 to 60.88 PDI respectively. Maximum severity of fungal foliar diseases was recorded in Dharwad and minimum in Bagalkote district. Epidemiology studies revealed that early sowing on 22nd June 2018 escaped the rust infection while late sowing on 25th July 2018 escaped leaf spot infection. Spore load was highest during 38th standard meteorological week (SMW) for ELS and 40th SMW for LLS and rust. The correlation studies of PDI with weather parameters indicated a significant positive correlation with cumulative rainfall (CRF) and cumulative number of rainy days (CRD), irrespective of the dates of sowing. Regression studies indicated that fungal foliar disease development was significantly positively affected by CRD. In vitro spore germination studies revealed that all the botanicals evaluated (Adhatoda vasica, Azadirachta indica, Pongamia pinnata) were more effective at five per cent concentration against fungal foliar diseases. In vivo studies revealed that, minimum disease severity was recorded in consortia of bioagents (Trichoderma harzianum – Pseudomonas fluorescens – Bacillus subtilis) treated plots which was on par with wettable sulphur. All the plant growth and yield parameters were positively influenced in all the treatments when compared to the untreated control. The highest yield (41.51 q/ha), highest net returns (Rs. 1,21,712) and B:C ratio (3.75) was recorded in the consortia of bioagents treated plots. ThesisItem Open AccessSynthesis, Characterization and Evaluation of Green Sulphur and Silver Nanoparticles Against Foliar Fungal Pathogens of Greengram(University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, 2018-06) Srikanth H.N.; Nargund, V.B.In this study, synthesis of sulphur nanoparticles (SNPs) and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were attempted using pomegranate peel, aril and periwinkle leaf extract at the College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad. Reduction process in SNPs synthesis was assisted by addition of citric acid with sodium thiosulphate. Reduction process in AgNPs was done from AgNO3 by exposure to microwaves at 800 W for 90 sec. Change in the colour from colourless to dull white precipitate in SNPs and colourless to dark brown in AgNPs indicted the formation of nanoparticles. SNPs showed mean diameter of 61.1 - 83.4 nm in Particle Size Analyser (PSA) and shape was confirmed as spherical to irregular by Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). AgNPs showed absorbance peak of 420 - 435 nm by UV-visible spectrophotometer, with mean diameter ranging from 46.8 - 81.8 by PSA and spherical in shape was confirmed by AFM and SEM. Characterised SNPs and AgNPs did not inhibit mycelial growth of Colletotrichum truncatum in food poison technique. However, they influenced the sporulation of C. truncatum. AgNPs at 3 ppm completely inhibited the germination of conidia of C. truncatum. Pomegranate aril based SNPs at 1000 ppm recorded the least PDI (7.15) which is on par with wettable sulphur @ 3000 ppm (6.48) and hexaconazole (8.52). AgNPs at 50 ppm completely inhibited the development of Cercospora leaf spot and anthracnose in glasshouse experiment. SNPs showed phytotoxicity at 5000 ppm and AgNPs at 500 ppm. Further sodium thiosulphate and AgNO3 showed phytotoxicity at 1500 and 169 ppm respectively. Pomegranate aril based SNPs against powdery mildew and pomegranate peel based AgNPs against Cercospora leaf spot and anthracnose, were effective in management at 1,000 and 50 ppm respectively under glasshouse condition. ThesisItem Open AccessLoss Assessment and Integrated Management of Leaf Blight of Sweet Sorghum Caused by Exserohilum turcicum (Pass.) Leonard and Suggs.(University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, 2018-06) Kiran B.M.; Patil, P.V.Field experiment on loss assessment was conducted at the Main Agricultural Research Station, UAS, Dharwad, during kharif 2017 in randomized complete block design with three replications and seven treatments involving the different number of sprays with hexaconazole (0.1 %) at weekly intervals. The results revealed, loss in the fodder yield to the extent of 37.20 per cent and reduction in sucrose content (21.17 %), crude fibre content (9.64 %), leaf ash content (62.91 %) and crude protein (13.00 %) was observed at the PDI of 67.40. Epidemiological study indicated significantly positive correlation with morning and evening relative humidity, rainfall and number of rainy days without any association with maximum and minimum temperature. Grain sorghum, bajra, foxtail millet and Johnson grass expressed the symptoms of leaf blight under artificial inoculation with E. turcicum. However, grain sorghum and Johnson grass showed the symptoms under natural conditions also. In vitro studies revealed, hexaconazole 5 EC at 0.1 per cent (100%), multineemore at 0.5 per cent (67.50 %) recorded maximum inhibition of mycelial growth and consortium of three bioagents, Trichoderma harzianum + Pseudomonas fluorescens + Bacillus subtilis at 3.3 g each/l and panchagavya at 5 per cent inhibited 80.44 and 19.50 per cent spore germination, respectively. In integrated management spray schedule under filed condition, hexaconazole at 0.1 per cent - hexaconazole at 0.1 per cent - hexaconazole at 0.1 per cent effectively reduced the severity of leaf blight (PDI-26.54, AUDPC-542.29) and increased the fodder yield (40.35 t ha-1) and sucrose content (12.42 %) with highest BC ratio (1:1.42) followed by hexaconazole at 0.1 per cent - multinemor at 0.5 per cent - hexaconazole at 0.1 per cent, which has recorded the PDI and AUDPC of 29.51 and 626.84, respectively with fodder yield and brix value of 37.96 t ha-1 and 11.15 per cent, respectively. ThesisItem Open AccessMillet Based Approach for Fortification of Unbranded Low Cost Snacks for School Children(University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, 2018-09) Akkavva Wadakappanavar S.; Yenagi, NirmalaThe present study was conducted to evaluate the nutritional quality of commercially available unbranded cereal snacks for school children, development and promotion of millet fortified snacks through nutrition education and training to women entrepreneurs during 2015- 18. Totally 22 cereal snacks were documented from 30 local shops including rural and urban areas and majority were sweets (68.18%). The wide variation and significant difference in the proximate and mineral composition of cereal snacks was found. Snacks were rich in fat content and energy. They were meeting 0.02 to 0.11%, 0.21 to 0.76% and 0.01 to 0.03% of recommended protein, calcium and iron requirement of school children for one rupee. School children were consuming unbranded snacks every day and these snacks were available at one rupee. The developed composite flour contained germinated finger millet flour (50%), fermented little millet (30%), refined wheat flour and germinated horse gram flour (10% each). It exhibited good functional properties and enhanced the nutrition profile. The protein, calcium and iron content of fortified snacks (Spicy and sweet lavang chur, burfi, sev ladoo and biscuit) ranged from 13.74 to 25.12g/ 100g, 217.48 to 251.48 mg/100g and 7.31 to 14.05mg/100g respectively. The storage stability of developed composite mix and fortified snacks ranged from one to two months. There was a significant shift in the knowledge of entrepreneurs from moderate and low to high category after the training. Nutritional education had positive impact on nutritional knowledge of children. Training and market linkage for millet snacks at rural shops helped in providing income and employment opportunities to women entrepreneurs in rural areas. Thus, nutrition awareness on millets and healthy snacks to school children enhances the consumption of millets which could become one of the less expensive technologies to overcome the problem of poor nutrition among school children and helps to combat micronutrient deficiencies. ThesisItem Open AccessBiofuel Crops for Vertical Intensification of Sugarcane Based Intercropping Systems(University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, 2018-07) Chogatapur, Shilpa V.; Chandranath, H.T.A field experiment was conducted during 2016-17 (plant cane) and 2017-18 (ratoon cane) at Sugarcane Research Farm, Zadshapur of S. Nijalingappa Sugar Institute (SNSI) of Belagavi. The experiment was laid out in split plot design with three spacing levels (120,150 and 180 cm) as main plot treatments, three component crops (sugarbeet, sweet sorghum and sweet potato) under 1:1 and 1:2 ratio as sub-plots with four control plots [sole sugarcane (90 cm), sole sugarbeet, sole sweet sorghum and sole sweet potato] outside the experiment and replicated thrice. A row spacing of 150 cm recorded significantly higher number of millable canes (NMC) in both plant and ratoon cane. With respect to row spacing of 180 cm recorded higher cane yield (132.2 t ha-1) in plant cane. A row spacing of 150 cm recorded additional net returns of ` 79,999 ha-1 in plant cane and ` 80,832 ha-1 in ratoon cane over 90 cm row spacing. Among the component crops, sugarcane + sugarbeet 1:1 row proportion recorded significantly higher cane yield (132.2 t ha-1) and ethanol yield (8.69 thousand l ha-1) in plant cane. Similar trend was also observed in ratoon cane. With respect to interactions between row spacings and component crops with different row proportion, significantly higher NMC (111.91 thousands ha-1) and cane yield (139.6 t ha-1) was recorded with sugarcane (150 cm) + sugarbeet 1:1 row proportion. Similar trend was noticed in ratoon cane. In plant cane, intercropping of sugarcane (150 cm) + sugarbeet 1:2 row proportion, realised significantly higher sugarcane equivalent yield (145.7 t ha-1) and net returns (` 2,46,829 ha-1) over all other treatment combinations. In ratoon cane similar trend was followed as that of plant cane. ThesisItem Open AccessBio-Efficacy and Phyto-Toxicity of Pre and Post-Emergence Herbicides on Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill]; and Residual Effect on Succeeding Crops(University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, 2018-07) Shilpa H.D.; Malligawad, Lokanath H.The field experiment was conducted at Main Agricultural Research Station. University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad on medium black clay soil during two consecutive years (2015-16 and 2016-17) in kharif-rabi sequence. Results indicated that pre-emergence application of alachlor 50 EC, pendimethalin 30 EC, butachlor 50 EC, pendimethalin 38.7 CS and oxyfluorfen 23.5 EC effectively controlled annual grassy and broad leaved weeds in groundnut/soybean and had no residual toxicities on all the succeeding crops. Post-emergence application of quizalofop ethyl 5 EC, propaquizafop 10 EC and fenoxaprop-p-ethyl 9 EC effectively controlled only annual grassy weeds and they did not show any residual toxicities on all the succeeding crops. On the contrary, post-emergence application of imazethapyr 10 SL (100 g/ha) although suppressing the growth and development of annual grassy and broad leaved weeds, but resulted in residual toxicities in succeeding crops. The severity of imazethapyr residual toxicity on succeeding crops was greater on grain amaranth > sorghum > wheat > maize > safflower > chickpea. Yield components, dry pod weight/plant, total number of pods/plant, 100 dry pod weight in groundnut and; total number of pods/plant, seed weight/plant and 100 seed weight in soybean and B:C ratio were more in treatments which received pre-emergence herbicides, post-emergence herbicides and weed free check treatment over weedy check treatment and treatment which received post-emergence application of imazethapyr 10 % SL @ (100 g/ha). Significantly lower dehydrogenase (μg TPF formed/g soil/d ) phosphatase (pnp formed/g soil/h) and urease activity (μg NH4-N formed/g soil/d), in preceding as well as succeeding crops was recorded with post-emergence application of imazethapyr 10 SL (100 g/ha). ThesisItem Open AccessInformation need Identification and Source Preferences for Home and Farm Management by Rural Women(University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, 2018-10) Patil, Shivaleela; Nithyashree, D.A.Rural women play the dual roles of managing the farm as well as home affairs. Need of information is vital to rural women as it is a critical input for modernizing of farm production and home management in rural areas. Sources of information are tools that can possibly meet the information needs of rural women. The present study on "Information need identification and source preferences for home and farm management by rural women" has been conducted in Dharwad and Kundagol taluks of Dharawad district during the year 2017-18. Total of 150 rural women were selected for the study. Personal interview method was used to collect the data and suitable statistical tools were used for analyzing the data. The study revealed that most the respondents were middle aged with low level of education and belonged to nuclear, small sized families with medium land holding. Most of the respondents need information on preparation of handicrafts-knitting, crochet, embroidery (94.00 %), care of pregnant and lactating women (92.66 %), preparation of consumer chemicals-soaps & detergents, phenyl (90.66 %), information about training institutions (90.00 %) related to home management. In case of farm management, 79.33 per cent of the women need information on vegetable cultivation, high yielding varieties (76.00 %) and dairy farming (65.33 %). The sources preferred for seeking home management information was family members (95.33%), department of women & child welfare (82.00 %) and television (41.33 %). Neighbors (87.33%), cooperative society (37.33 %) and krishimela (34.00 %) were the sources preferred for farm management information. With regard to utilization pattern of information, most of the respondents utilized information from informal sources compared to formal and mass media sources. Hence there is need to provide information to rural women through preferred sources to update their knowledge in various fields. ThesisItem Open AccessDrip Irrigation Levels in Chilli Based Intercropping Systems(University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, 2018-08) Meundimath, Basavaraj N.; Rajkumara S.A field experiment was conducted to study the drip irrigation levels in chilli based intercropping systems during kharif, 2017-18 at IWMRC Belavatgi, UAS, Dharwad with 9 treatments. The treatment comprised of two levels of irrigations 1.0 ETo and 0.8 ETo and four intercropping systems chilli + onion, chilli + garlic, chilli + groundnut and chilli + ginger and chilli + onion- cotton as control. The treatments were replicated thrice in strip-plot design and intercrop yields are analyzed under ‘T’ test. Irrigating chilli at 0.8 ETo irrigation recorded higher fruit yield (750.3 kg ha-1) as compared with 1.0 ETo level of irrigation (665.3 kg ha-1). Intercropping systems did not affect yield and yield parameters of chilli. Intercropping of chilli + onion with irrigation at 0.8 ETo recorded higher yield and yield parameters of chilli as compared to other treatment combinations and control treatment. Significantly higher water use efficiency of 2.88 kg/ha-mm was registered in chilli + onion irrigated with 0.8 ETo and it was on par with chilli + groundnut irrigated at 0.8 ETo (2.69 kg/ha-mm) and significantly lower water use efficiency of 0.97 kg/ha-mm recorded in surface irrigated control plot of chilli + onion – cotton. Non significant yield difference was found in all intercrops (onion, garlic, groundnut and ginger) between the two levels of irrigation. Significantly higher chilli equivalent yield (1,954 kg/ha), gross returns (` 2,93,100 ha-1), net returns (` 2,20,364 ha-1) and B:C ratio (4.03) was recorded in chilli + onion irrigated at 0.8 ETo. The next best treatment combination was chilli + groundnut irrigated at 0.8 ETo. Significantly lower net returns were recorded in surface irrigated chilli + onion – cotton intercropping system (` 98,785 ha-1). ThesisItem Open AccessResponse of Summer Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) to Varying Levels of Sulphur and it’s sources(University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, 2018-08) Sajjan, Praveenkumar B.; Pattar, P.S.A field experiment was carried out at Agriculture Research Station Farm, Bagalkot during summer 2017. The experiment comprising of 11 treatments with three levels of sulphur (10, 20 and 30 kg ha-1), three sources of sulphur (gypsum, elemental sulphur and sulphur bentonite), RPP and control. The experiment was laid out in a randomized block design with three replications. The results of the experiment showed that application of sulphur at 30 kg ha-1 through gypsum significantly increased the growth parameters of groundnut viz., plant height (31.50 cm) number of branches (8.90) total dry matter production (51.58 g per plant), number of nodules per plant (54.3) and relative chlorophyll content (46.12) as compared to other treatments. Application of sulphur at 30 kg ha-1 through gypsum significantly increased the yield attributes of groundnut namely number of pods per plant (18.3), 100 pod weight (64.2 g) and 100 kernel weight (35.7g) over other treatments. Significantly higher pod yield (2278 kg ha-1), haulm yield (3,625 kg ha-1) protein content (22.03 %) and oil content (46.92 %) was recorded in treatment receiving 30 kg sulphur ha-1 through gypsum as compare to other treatments. The total uptake of nitrogen (142.15 kg ha-1), P2O5 (23.34 kg ha-1), K2O (73.04 kg ha-1) and sulphur (33.11 kg ha-1) was significantly higher in treatment receiving 30 kg sulphur ha-1 through gypsum, while lowest uptake of N,P2O5,K2O and S was observed in control. The significantly highest net return (Rs 76,185 ha-1) and B:C (3.05) was observed in treatment with application of sulphur at 30 kg ha-1 through gypsum as compare to other treatments. Application of sulphur through gypsum at 30 kg ha-1 proved significantly superior over other treatments with respect to growth, yield attributes and pod yield of groundnut.