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  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Effects of seed source variation in cone, seed characteristics and seed germination of Cedrus deodara from Uttarakhand, Himalaya
    (College of Forestry, Ranichauri Campus, V.C.S.G. Uttarakhand University of Horticulture and Forestry, 2022) Topwal, Divya; Khanduri, V.P.(Dr.)
    This study was carried out in College of Forestry Ranichauri, Tehri Garhwal, (Uttarakhand) during Oct 2019 March 2020. Cones of C. deodara were collected from 10 different natural growing ranges of Uttarakhand, Himalaya. Cedrus deodara (Deodar) is an important industrial/commercial timber yielding tree. Cones of C. deodara were collected to understand the extent and pattern of variation in morphological characteristics of cones and seeds among the seed sources. Seeds were germinated under laboratory conditions to assess the effect of temperature on germination. On the basis of morphological variation among the seed sources broad sense heritability, genetic advance and genetic gain were estimated. Simple correlation was also calculated with geographical attributes. Significant variation (P 95% germination in Kandoliya, Dhanaulti, Dandachalli and Hulanakhal seed sources. It is also observed that seed germination decreases after three months of storage period. Altitude, latitude, longitude, temperature, rainfall, pH and electric conductivity had significant positive relationship with cone weight, cone length, seed thickness and number of seeds. Broad sense heritability (h2) calculated for different morphological characters and germination characters showed a considerable possibility of genetic evaluation for rapid genetic improvement of these traits. The variability appeared to be geographically structured and would be mainly genetically controlled. Based on cone, seed germination and seedling traits, Pauri, Dhanaulti and Dandachalli were the best seed source among the studied seed sources. Thus, the result of present study should be helpful for collecting quality seeds and producing quality planting material of this potential tree species for afforestation of temperate region of Garhwal Uttarakhand, Himalaya India.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    (College of Forestry, Ranichauri Campus, V.C.S.G. Uttarakhand University of Horticulture and Forestry, 2020) Goswami, Suraj; Bijalwan, Arvind(Dr.); Butola, B.S.(Dr.) (Co-Advisor)
    The present study was conducted at four villages each of lower elevation (1300-1500 m) and upper elevation (1500-1700 m) in two blocks (Chamba and Jakhanidhar) of Tehri Garhwal district of Uttarakhand during November 2019 to May 2020. The study was carried out to study the diversity, production potential, economics of Malta (Citrus sinensis) based traditional homegarden and marketing of Malta fruit. A total of 47 species documented including 27 agriculture crops, 15 fruit crops and 5 multipurpose tree species. The Citrus sinensis (density: 106-313 trees/ha; IVI: 128-216) was found to be the most dominating among all tree species and important species of these homegardens. The Shannon Weiner index value was highest (1.88) in lower elevation and lowest (0.81) in upper elevation. The Simpson index of diversity was found highest (0.76) in lower elevation (Petaw Village) and lowest (0.41) in upper elevation (Dargi Village). Margalef’s index of richness was highest (6.16) in lower elevation (Petaw Village) and lowest (2.44) in upper elevation (Dargi Village). The highest productivity among vegetable crops was recorded for Solanum tuberosum in both the elevations. The highest productivity of Citrus sinensis was recorded at Dargi village (19.844 t/ha) of upper elevation. The highest gross return (297660 ₹/ha) and net return (212155 ₹/ha) of Citrus sinensis fruit was recorded at Dargi. The least gross return (77592 ₹/ha) and net return (9864.25 ₹/ha) of Citrus sinensis fruit was recorded at Jagdhar village. The highest BC ratio for Citrus sinensis fruit was recorded at Budogi (3.86) and least BC ratio for Citrus sinensis fruit was recorded at Jagdhar village (1.27). Three marketing channels of Citrus sinensis fruit were recognized in the investigation region; Channel 1: [Producer – Local shopkeeper – Consumer], Channel 2: [Producer – Consumer] and Channel 3: [Producer – Contractor – Local shopkeeper – Consumer]. Only 35.88% people adopted these three marketing channels. The potential and benefit of Citrus sinensis is diverse and it is cultivated in a scientific manner along with proper management and transportation facilities can be a boom to a group of cultivators and this can save pecuniary losses and their occupation. These all measures can uplift the Citrus sinensis cultivator community.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    (College of Forestry, Ranichauri Campus, V.C.S.G. Uttarakhand University of Horticulture and Forestry, 2019) Bala, Shashi; Bijalwan, Arvind(Dr.)
    The field experiment was conducted during 2018-2019 at Duwakoti village of district Tehri Garhwal (Uttarakhand) to study the impact of sowing distance from tree base on performance of Amaranth crop (Amaranthus cruentus L.) under Agroforestry system. The experiment consisting of thirteen treatments (i.e. Amaranth under two Agrihorticulture system, two Agrisilviculture system and one control at 1 m , 2 m and 3 m spacing from tree base). Growth parameters (plant population, plant height, leaves per plant, dry weight per plant, stem diameter) for yield attributes (number of panicles per plant, 1000 grain weight (g), grain yield per plant (g), grain yield (kg/ha), biological yield (kg/ha) and harvest index (%) of Amaranth increased with increase in distance from base of the tree and were maximum under control condition (sole cropping). Also maximum nitrogen and phosphorus content in Amaranth seeds were recorded in control condition, however sulphur and crude protein content were recorded higher in T12 (Amaranth at 3m distance from Toon) and minimum sulphur and phosphorus content were reported in T13 (control) and T7 (Amaranth at 1m distance from Kharik). The net return as well as B:C ration of Amaranth remained higher under Agrihorticulture system. The finding of present study suggested that cultivation of Amaranth under Agrihorticulture system can be recommended for the better economic returns under Tehri district of Garhwal Himalyas.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Traditional Agroforestry and Livelihood Support: A study in Upper Yamuna Valley of Uttarkashi district of Garhwal Himalaya, India
    (College of Forestry, Ranichauri Campus, V.C.S.G. Uttarakhand University of Horticulture and Forestry, 2022) Kumar, Mohit; Bijalwan, Arvind(Dr.)
    Agroforestry is a common feature of land use pattern in Uttarakhand hills which fulfills the day to day requirements of local people of the area. The present study was carried out in six villages of Naugaun block (1000-2000 m asl elevation), Uttarkashi district of Uttarakhand, India with the broader objectives of socioeconomic status of farmer in the study area, role of different agroforestry systems and different management practices adopted in traditional agroforestry system by the villagers. The socio-economic surveywas carried out using common questionnaire and representative taken from each village. Majority of respondents had education up to intermediate and graduation. Most of the respondents had medium family size (6-10 members) with (44.44%) residing in pucca house (concrete house). The primary source of income for (37.78%) families were Government/Private job, however (28.88%) were involved in farming. The families in the study area mainly had medium and large land holding. Among the livestock, cows (29.89%), buffalos (24.19%), bullocks (23.84%) and calves (22.08%) were the majorly owned by the villagers. The major agroforestry systems occupied in the study area were Agrisilviculture, Agrosilvihorticulture and Homegarden system. Trees such as Bhimal, Banj oak, Khadik etc. were mainly retained for fodder and fuel wood purpose by the villagers on their farmland. Horticulture trees such as apricot, walnut, plum, peach etc were also the source of livelihood for farmers. Crops such as wheat, finger millet, amaranth, maize, mustard, barley etc were commonly grown in agroforestry systems. Among the management practices, lopping (97.78%), thinning (88.89%) and pollarding (81.12%) were mainly adopted in forest trees by the villagers. In horticulture trees, cleaning (96.67%), pruning (85.56%) and training (76.67%) were the main management practices adopted by the villagers whereas weeding, irrigation, land preparation, manuring, stacking and fertilizer application were the main management practices followed in agricultural crops by the villagers. Current study reveals a high potential of agroforestry in the area with inclusion of multipurpose fruit and forest trees with improved varieties of agricultural crops for sustainable livelihood and income generation.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Plant species richness of the campus of College of Forestry, Ranichauri, Tehri Garhwal, Uttarakhand
    (College of Forestry, Ranichauri Campus, V.C.S.G. Uttarakhand University of Horticulture and Forestry, 2022) Singh, Chandramohan; Khanduri, V.P.(Dr.); Butola, B.S.(Dr.) (Co-Advisor)
    A study on the “Plant species richness of the Campus of College of Forestry Ranichauri, Tehri Garhwal, Uttarakhand” was carried out during the month of August 2021 to October 2021. The survey was done to observe, record and to initiate the activities, such as collection of plant taxa, habitat characteristics and identification of potential species for various medicinal uses. The collected plants were preserved using herbarium preparation techniques. During the study a total of 253 species belonging to 188 genera and 81 were documented. The majority of the documented plants were herbs (54 %), followed by trees (23 %), shrubs (12 %), ferns (5 %) and climber (4%). Poaceae was the dominant family with 23 genera and 37 species, followed by Asteraceae (23 species in 15 genera) and Rosaceae (16 species in 9 genera). From the total 87 plant taxa, 77 plant taxa were least concern, 02 rare, 02 endangered, 04 vulnerable and 02 were data deficient. Regarding traditional utilization, about 88 ethno-botanical species (42 herbs, 27 trees, 14 shrubs, 5 climbers) are being utilized by the local people in study area. Some of the medicinal plants species such as Cinnamomum tamala, Tinospora cordifolia, Chenopodium album, Berginia ciliata, Myrica esculenta, Cannabis sativa, Berberis asiatica, Urtica dioica, Rhododendron arboreum, Cuscuta reflexa, Eupatorium adenophorum and Zanthoxylum armatum used by local people for medicine purposes. Local people were keen to provide the information and transferring the indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants from one generation to other generation. The information obtained from the study can be utilized for conservation, sustainable utilization and management of forest resources from the study area for socio-economic development of the inhabitants and maintaining diversity.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Comparative studies of the effect of microbial inoculants and inorganic chemicals on growth, yield, yield contributing traits and disease suppression in two varieties of mustard green (Brassica juncea L.) under protected structure and open field conditions in mid hills of Uttarakhand
    (College of Forestry, Ranichauri Campus, V.C.S.G. Uttarakhand University of Horticulture and Forestry, 2022-06) Rawat, Monika; Rawat, Laxmi (Dr.)
    Mustard green (Brassica juncea L.) is a popular green vegetable grown in the plains and hills of Northern India. It is a rich source of vitamins, minerals, and protein. The present investigation was conducted during Rabi-2021 at the Vegetable Research Block, College of Forestry, Ranichauri, V.C.S.G. Uttarakhand University of Horticulture and Forestry in Mustard Green (var. Local and UHF VR 12-1) with an aim to study the effect ofmicrobial inoculants and inorganic chemicals on growth, yield, yield contributing traits and disease suppression in two varieties of mustard green (Brassica juncea L.) under protected structure and open field conditions in mid hills of Uttarakhand. The experimental data for field studies were laid out in RBD comprising nine treatments and one Control, while laboratory studies were evaluated using a CRD comprising six treatments and Control. In field under open and protected structure conditions, bio-agents (Trichoderma asperellumTh-14, Pseudomonas fluorescens Psf-12, and Bacillus subtilisBs-2), fertilisers (Sulphur and Boron), and the fungicide (Ridomil Gold) were used. The treatments under laboratory conditions were comprised of Bio-agents (Th-14, Psf-12 and Bs-2), fertilizers (Boron and Sulphur) and the fungicide Ridomil Gold through the mode of application of seed treatment only for recording seed quality parameters. To study the effect of colonization of bioagents on nutritional composition of pre-colonized FYM and non- colonized FYM, three bioagents namely Th-14, Psf-12 and Bs-2 were used and non-colonized FYM served as Control for the comparative studies. The treatment T4 (Seed bio-priming with Th-14 + FYM pre-colonized by Th-14+ one drenching at 45 days of transplanting with Th-14) recorded the highest plant height, chlorophyll content, leaf length, leaf width, number of leaves per plant, leaf yield, plant height, number of branches per plant, number of siliquae per plant, length of siliqua, and seed yield followed by T7, whereas Control, in both open and protected conditions, recorded the lowest.Similarly, T4 (Seed bio-priming with Th-14 + FYM pre-colonized by Th-14+ one drenching at 45 days of transplanting with Th-14) also showed minimum disease incidence (Damping off and Alternaria blight) and disease severity (Alternaria blight) followed by T9 whereas Control revealed maximum disease incidence and severity. In laboratory studies, maximum first count per cent, germination per cent, root, shoot and seedling length, seedling fresh and dry weight, vigour index-I and II were found when seeds were treated with T1 (Seed treatment with Trichoderma asperellum Th-14) when compared to other treatments and Control.In the study related to the nutritional composition of pre-colonized FYM and non-colonized FYM, organic carbon, nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium content were found to be maximum in Trichoderma asperellumTh-14 pre-colonized FYM and minimum was reported in Control. From the present investigation, it may be concluded that, seed treatment with Trichoderma asperellumTh-14 improved all the seed quality parameters in both the studied varieties of Vegetable Rai. The application of seed bio-priming with Trichoderma asperellumTh-14 + FYM pre-colonized by Th-14 was found to be the most effective and promising for enhancing growth, yield and resistance to damping off and Alternaria blight disease in Brassica juncea under both open and protected structure conditions. The nutritional composition was found to be enhanced in FYM pre-colonized with Trichoderma asperellum Th-14. When compared to open and protected conditions, the protected condition offered the best results as all the studied growth, physiological and yield parameters performed well under protected conditions. Disease incidence and severity of Alternaria blight were high in open field environments, whereas disease-free circumstances existed in protected settings. The variety UHF VR 12-1 was found best with respect to all the studied traits when compared with the local variety under present materials and environmental conditions.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Marketing and livelihood assessment of Hill Bamboo Based Products in Western Himalayan region of India
    (College of Forestry, Ranichauri Campus, V.C.S.G. Uttarakhand University of Horticulture and Forestry, 2022) Pundir, Smriti; Vasishth, Amol (Dr.); Ahmad, Taufiq(Dr.) (Co-advisor)
    The present study entitled “Marketing and livelihood assessment of Hill Bamboo based products in Western Himalayan region of India” was conducted to study the socio-economic profile and livelihood support of hill bamboo artisans, marketing channels adopted by hill bamboo artisans along with marketing constraints and topropose the marketing strategies. The data for the present investigation pertains to the year 2021 was collected from 60 hill bamboo artisans during the month of August to October. The data collection was done using pre-tested questionnaire. The results of the study indicated that preparing of traditional hill bamboo handicrafts is an age-old practice as a source of livelihood for scheduled caste families and were mostly educated up to primary school, had small and joint families. Most of the artisans had earning between Rs. 2001- 2500 from hill bamboo activities. 86.67 percent preferred farming to Hill bamboo activity as their primary source of income whereas 13.33 percent of the artisans preferred Hill bamboo activity to farming. In marketing of products two marketing channels were identified viz., Channel- I artisan ⤑ consumer and Channel –II artisan ⤑ retailer⤑ consumer or artisan⤑ wholesaler ⤑ consumer. Majority of artisans preferred channel-I to channelize their products to the end consumer. The major problem faced by artisan families in marketing their products were, irregularity in demand, fluctuation in price of the products and lack of transportation facilities. 70 percent of the artisan were not aware about information and current market price of the products. Majority of artisan families suggested to provide transportation facilities and training programs to the artisans. On the basis of the results it is suggested that, to improve marketing system and socioeconomic condition of artisan families MSP formulation, promotion of hill bamboo products, providing marketing workshops with the cooperation of the government is essential in the study area.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Performance of Indian Barnyard millet (Echinochloa frumentacea (L.) Link)under Wild Himalayan Cherry (Prunus cerasoides D. Don) in mid hill situation of Garhwal Himalaya, India
    (College of Forestry, Ranichauri Campus, V.C.S.G. Uttarakhand University of Horticulture and Forestry, 2022) Kothari, Ahish; Bijalwan, Arvind(Dr.)
    The present study was conducted in four villages of district Tehri Garhwal, Uttarakhand, India in two altitudinal range (1000-1400masl and 1400-1800masl) and two aspects (Northern and Southern).For the estimation of production potential of Indian Barnyard millet(Echinochloa frumentacea (L.)Link) under Wild Himalayan Cherry (Prunus cerasoides D. Don), various growth and yield parameters were studied along with different distances (0-1 m, 1-2m, 2-3 m, 3-4 m and control) from tree base during Kharif season. The outcome of the study revealed that the production potential of Barnyard millet under Prunus cerasoides was reduced as compare to control. In case of elevation, lower elevation and northern aspect show maximum production potential as compare to upper elevation and southern aspect. In all the study sites, grain yield of Barnyard millet ranged between 235.97-849.97 kg/ha and straw yield ranged between 1285.80-3240.58 kg/ha. Overall results indicated a gradual increase in growth and yield performance of barnyard millet with increasing distance from tree base of Wild Himalayan Cherry. Enumeration of various trees of Wild Himalayan Cherry for Growing Stock, Volume and Carbon stock was done by measuring height and diameter individually for all the trees. Result revealed that the value of GSVD (Growing stock volume density), AGBD (Above ground biomass density), BGBD (Below ground biomass density) ranged between 18.91-29.12 M3/ha, 22.74-34.94 Mg/ha and 7.64-11.64 Mg/ha respectively. TBD (Total biomass density) and TCD (Total carbon density) in all study sites was between 30.25- 46.59 Mg/ha and 15.10- 23.29 Mg/ha respectively. Wild Himalayan Cherry was contributing 10.04 Mg/ha and 4.99 Mg/ha towards biomass and carbon stock respectively which accounts for 6.5% of total biomass and total carbon stock in study sites. Lower elevation was storing more amount of carbon (20.95 Mg/ha) in the form of tree biomass as compare to upper elevation (17.39 Mg/ha) in study sites. Soil bulk density and soil moisture in study sites varied between 1.18-1.31 g/cm3 and 27.84-36.73% respectively. Outcome from the soil bulk density and soil moisture revealed increasing trend with soil depth in all sites whereas, N, P, K, soil organic matter and soil organic carbon decreased with increasing soil depth. N, P and K in study sites ranged between 215.04-236.49 kg/ha, 44.20-55.71 kg/ha and 167.71-174.65 kg/ha respectively. Soil organic matter and organic carbon in study sites varied between 2.53-3.57 % and 1.38-1.42 % respectively. Keywords: Agroforestry, Prunus, Carbon sequestration, Grain yield, Soil carbon.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Response of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to foliar application of nano-nitrogen.
    (College of Forestry, Ranichauri Campus, V.C.S.G. Uttarakhand University of Horticulture and Forestry, 2022) Uniyal, Suchita; Kumar, Ajay (Dr.)
    The world’s one-third population is dependent on wheat Triticum aestivum L. for their food requirement. It contains higher protein than the other major grains. The indiscriminate use of fertilizers (Urea, D.A.P and M.O.P) are resulting in nutritional imbalances in soil, environmental hazards and a rise in production costs. Conventional nitrogenous fertilizers, can be lost or rendered inaccessible to plants by processes such as leaching, NH3 volatilization, denitrification, immobilization, and fixing in the soil solids as NH4-N which results 30-40 % fertilizer use efficiency. Therefore, to increase the nitrogenous fertilizer use efficiency and reduction of their ill effects there is need to use nano-nitrogen. Therefore, to access the response of wheat to foliar application of nano-nitrogen, the field and lab experiments were planned. The treatments comprised of T1- RDN (60:30:20 kg/ha), T2- 75 % RDN, T3- 50 % RDN, T4- RDN + nN (T), T5- RDN + nN (F), T6- RDN + nN (T+F), T7- 75 % RDN + nN (T), T8- 75 % RDN + nN (F), T9- 75 % RDN + nN (T+F), T10- 50 % RDN + nN (T), T11- 50 % RDN + nN (F), T12- 50 % RDN + nN (T+F), T13- nN (T), T14- nN (F), T15- nN (T+F), were evaluated in randomized complete block design with two replications at REC, Gaja during the rabi season 2020-2021. The seed quality parameters of harvested wheat seed were accessed in lab in complete randomized design with four replications. The significantly higher plant growth parameters and seed yield were recorded in 75 % RDN + nN (T) (2ml/litre water) than the RDN (60 kg). The treatment 75 % RDN + nN (T) and 75 % RDN + nN (T+F) gave 26 % and 11 % more grain yield, respectively as compared to the RDN. The maximum B:C ratio (2.9: 1) was also registered with 75 % RDN + nN (T). The seed quality attributes like germination percentage, seedling fresh weight, seedling dry weight, vigour index I and II, speed of germination, germination percentage in cold test and water sensitivity test were recorded significantly higher in 75 % RDN + nN (T+F) than the RDN. Based on the present experiment, 75 % of RDN (60 kg) + nN (T) @ 2ml/litre water might be beneficial for higher seed yield and quality of wheat under rainfed condition of mid hills of Uttarakhand.