Loading...
Thumbnail Image

Thesis

Permanent URI for this collection

Browse

Search Results

Now showing 1 - 9 of 522
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT GENOTYPES AND CULTIVARS OF GAILLARDIA UNDER SAURASHTRA REGION 3762
    (JAU JUNAGADH, 2023-09) PATEL VINODKUMAR SURESHBHAI; Dr. D. K. Varu; 1020618002
    The present investigation entitled “Evaluation of different genotypes and cultivars of gaillardia under Saurashtra region.” was taken at Instructional Farm (Jambuvadi), Department of Floriculture and Landscape Architecture, College of Horticulture, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh during September to March, 2019-2020 and 2022-2023. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design with 3 Replications and 12 Genotypes. The data pertained to morphological and molecular characteristics of 12 genotypes and cultivars were analyzed statistically. The mean data showed significant variation among genotypes and cultivars with respect to plant height at peak flowering time. Significantly, maximum plant height (89.00, 81.00 and 85.00 cm) was recorded in genotype Ludhiana Selection 1, Whereas, maximum number of branches per plant (21.13, 21.16 and 21.14) was recorded in Gaillardia Mix and maximum number of stem diameter (10.28, 10.46 and 10.37 mm) was recorded in PG 1 during both the years as well as in pooled. Similarly, maximum fresh weight of plant after final harvest (2382.12, 2422.95 and 2402.53 g) was recorded in Sarpan Yellow and maximum dry weight of plant (637.11, 637.66 and 637.39 g) was recorded in Gaillardia Mix during both the years as well as in pooled. Significantly, highest plant spread (50.67 cm N-S) was observed in Gaillardia Mix during first year. While, Sarpan Gaillardia Grand Mix recorded (55.06 and 52.85 cm N-S) during second and in pooled. Significantly maximum plant spread E-W (71.87 cm) was noted in Sarpan Gaillardia Grand Mix during first year. While, PG 1 recorded (73.31 and 71.93 cm N-S) during second year and in pooled. Minimum days for first flowering (44.57, 45.27 and 44.92 days), maximum flower yield per plant (2334.86, 2430.02 and 2382.44 g), highest flower yield per plot (46.62, 48.55 and 47.58 kg), maximum flower yield per hectare (86.33, 89.90 and 88.11 t/ha) and longest flowering span (119.14, 120.27 and 119.71 days) were observed in cultivar Sarpan Yellow during both the years as well as in pooled data. Significantly highest number of flowers per plant (268.73, 287.61 and 278.17) was recorded in cultivar Gaillardia Mix during both the years as well as in pooled. While, highest flower weight (9.44, 9.51 and 9.48 g) was obtained in cultivar Gaillardia Double Mix during both the years as well as in pooled data. Longest In-situ longevity of flower observed (19.19, 19.34 and 19.26 days), maximum vase life (9.95, 10.32 and 10.14 days), highest number of ray florets per flower (196.12, 198.49 and 197.30) were recorded in cultivar Sarpan Yellow during both the years as well as in pooled data. The longest stalk (36.57, 36.91and 36.74 cm) was obtained in Ludhiana Selection 1 during both the years as well as in pooled. The maximum flower diameter was recorded in Gaillardia Double Mix (7.64, 8.41 and 8.02 cm) in both the years as well as in pooled data. The flower colour of 12 genotypes and cultivars under study, was recorded by comparing the colour of ray florets with Royal Horticulture Society colour chart. In the Saurashtra region, the cultivar Sarpan Yellow outperformed over other gaillardia genotypes/cultivars in terms of fresh weight and dry weight of the plant, flowering time, flower yield, shortest number of days to first flowering, longevity of flower in-situ, vase life, and quantity of ray florets per flower. The results of the molecular characterisation revealed that the gaillardia genotypes could be successfully classified and characterised based on PCR amplification profile, and as a result, these properties may be used as useful descriptors in the identification and upkeep of gaillardia genotypes. The dendrogram's findings have been confirmed as cultivars with a similar cluster have moved closer to one another and vice versa. The correlation analysis demonstrated the significance of gaillardia features such as flowering span, flower weight, number of ray florets per flower, and in situ longevity flower for enhancing flower output per plant. In addition, path coefficient analysis showed that the number of ray florets per flower could be regarded as a significant contributor to yield and should be given due consideration when performing selection because of their strong positive direct effect and strongly positive correlation with flower yield per plant
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    ATTITUDE AND LIVELIHOOD SECURITY OF SMALL AND MARGINAL FARMERS TOWARDS AGRICULTURAL DIVERSIFICATION 3693
    (JAU,JUNAGADH, 2023-06) RATHOD RAJSINH BHUPATBHAI; Dr. B. N. Kalsariya; 1010120021
    In India, agriculture plays a crucial role in agrarian economies, but small and marginal farmers are facing unsustainable land-based livelihoods. Their land no longer meets their families' and cattle' food and fodder needs. Diversification has been seen as a strategy to minimize risks caused by price fluctuations, uncertain weather, and pests. Traditionally, diversification involved growing multiple crops for subsistence farming and managing household food security. Keeping this in view, present study was thought to be carried out with selected characteristics of small and marginal farmers, livelihood security, extent of agricultural diversification, to develop and measure the attitude scale, relation between selected characteristics and attitude as well as agricultural diversification, constraints and suggestions offered by the small and marginal farmers. The study was conducted in three districts viz., Junagadh, Rajkot and Gir Somnath of Saurashtra region. Two talukas from each selected district and three villages from each taluka were selected randomly. From each village, seven small and seven marginal farmers were selected. Thus, 126 small and 126 marginal farmers making a total 252 respondents were selected for the study.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    HETEROSIS, COMBINING ABILITY AND INBREEDING DEPRESSION FOR SEED YIELD AND ITS ATTRIBUTING TRAITS IN SESAME (Sesamum indicum L.) 3683
    (JAU,JUNAGADH, 2023-06) SUCHITRA; Dr. R. B. Madariya; 1010120026
    The present investigation was undertaken with a view to examine the manifestation of heterosis, inbreeding depression, combining ability and nature and magnitude of gene action involved in the inheritance of seed yield and its components characters viz., days to 50 per cent flowering, days to maturity, length of reproductive stem, number of capsules per plant, number of branches per plant, plant height, length of capsule, number of seeds per capsule, test weight, biological yield per plant, harvest index and oil content. The experimental materials consisted of parents and their 45 F1’s and 45 F2’s derived by crossing 10 diverse sesame genotypes (GT-3, GT-4, GT-6, AT-338, AT-324, IC-132186, GT-10, T-11, GJT-5 and GTF-1) in a half diallel fashion were evaluated in Randomized Block Design (RBD) with three replications during Kharif 2022 at Main Oilseeds Research Station, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh. The results for analysis variance revealed that the mean square differences among genotypes, parents, F1’s and F2’s were highly significant for all the studied characters except days to maturity in parents. The mean square due to parents vs. F1’s was significant for all the 13 characters except seed yield per plant and parents vs. F2’s was also found significant for all the traits except days to maturity, length of capsule, number of seeds per capsule and harvest index, respectively.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    A CRITICAL STUDY ON GENERATION OF FARMERS’ CONTEMPORARY INNOVATIONS AND RE-INVENTIONS IN SAURASHTRA REGION 3670
    (JAU,JUNAGADH, 2023-05) VAGHASIYA KRUPALI PARSOTAMBHAI; Dr. N. B. Jadav; 1010120029
    An innovation in agriculture has been the basis for increasing agricultural productivity and promoting agricultural development. Over the years, farmers also selected several varieties that had higher productivity and better quality. Farmers have also developed new and low-cost technologies to preserve process and package various farm products both for increased shelf life and better market opportunities. Although farmers’ innovations and re-inventions have always been happening but quite slowly and has seldom been recognized by communities itself and the scientists also. It so, because of the key actors’ innovation process is not working closely with each other. The significance of farmers' innovations and re-inventions however ranges from being useful only to the individual farmer, sometimes even limited to specific circumstances to a wider range of application that can be used by many farmers. With this consideration, the problem entitled “A critical study on generation of farmers’ innovations and re-inventions in Saurashtra region” was undertaken.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    DEVELOPMENT AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF AGRIVOLTAIC GREENHOUSE SYSTEM FOR ENERGY AND CROP PRODUCTION 3786
    (JAU JUNAGADH, 2023-12) RAMANI MAULIK LABHUBHAI; Dr. P. M. Chauhan; 1050219008
    Agrivoltaics is a concept that combines solar energy production and agriculture on the same land. It involves installation of solar panels on a roof of greenhouse to generate power and concurrently cultivation of crop within it. The aim is to meet energy needs and generate income through both energy production and crop cultivation on the same land. The agrivoltaic greenhouse was designed and developed at the experimental field of the Department of Renewable Energy Engineering, CAET, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh (Gujarat). The developed agrivoltaic greenhouse was 12 m in length and 5 m in width, with a total surface area of 60 m². The greenhouse features an arched roof covered with a 200 μ-thick UV stabilized polyethylene sheet on both the roof and sides. To facilitate cooling, a fan and pad type forced convection cooling system was implemented. The solar photovoltaic panels were strategically installed on the greenhouse roof in a chessboard configuration to minimize shading effects and efficient crop cultivation. A total of 32 solar panels, each with a capacity of 150 W, were installed, providing a total solar power capacity of 4.8 kW. The experimental investigation of cucumber crop was performed under four different environmental conditions: agrivoltaic greenhouse (S1), agrivoltaic structure (S2), poly cum nethouse (S3), and open field (S4) conditions. The climatic study was conducted in all environments by measuring major parameters such as air temperature, light intensity, solar radiation and relative humidity during the cucumber crop period and recorded data were analyzed on a monthly basis. Additionally, an energy generation analysis was performed in the developed agrivoltaic greenhouse throughout the experimental period. The cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) crop was cultivated in all environmental conditions during the summer season (March to May) with three different soil treatments: raised bed with silver black mulch (T1), soilless media with cocopeat and vermicompost (T2), and flat bed of soil (T3) as the control. v The climatic study revealed significant variations in temperature, light intensity, solar radiation and relative humidity among different environments. The highest monthly average temperature of 41.65 ˚C was recorded in the poly cum nethouse (S3) during May month. The open field (S4) recorded the highest average light intensity and solar radiation, as 1,30,005 lux and 1145 W/m2 , respectively, during May month. The agrivoltaic greenhouse observed 50% light intensity compared to the open field due to the light blocking effect caused by the solar panels installed on its roof. Meanwhile, the agrivoltaic greenhouse (S1) exhibited the highest average relative humidity at 84.95 % during the May month. The maximum energy output from the agrivoltaic greenhouse with a capacity of 4.8 kW was observed in March at 512.78 kWh, followed by 509.28 kWh in May and 501.5 kWh in April, respectively. It was observed that the net energy generated from the agrivoltaic greenhouse was 1.75 times higher than the energy consumption within it. This indicates a promising energy surplus, highlighting the effectiveness of the agrivoltaic greenhouse system in both energy production and crop cultivation. Among the different treatment combinations, S3T1 showed the highest number of fruits per plant and weight of fruit, with values of 18.60 and 313.94 gm, respectively. Conversely, S4T2 exhibited the lowest number of fruits per plant and weight of fruit, with values of 8.4 and 163.88 gm, respectively. The treatment combination of S3T1 also recorded the highest fruit diameter (41.15 mm) and fruit length (188.28 mm), while S4T2 had the lowest values with 33.31 mm and 151.16 mm, respectively. In terms of cucumber yield, S3T1 displayed the highest yield of 213.81 t/ha, while the lowest yield was observed in S4T2 with 96.47 t/ha. Among the different treatment combinations, S1T1 (Agrivoltaic Greenhouse: Raised bed with mulch) exhibited the highest gross revenue of ₹385/m², while the lowest gross revenue of ₹144.75/m² was observed in S4T2 (Open field: Soilless media) due to lower fruit yield in that treatment. Treatment combination S1T1 showed the highest net profit of ₹352.68/m² after the payback period, whereas S4T2 had the lowest net profit at ₹106.17/m². Treatment combination S2T2 (Agrivoltaic Structure: Soilless media) had a higher payback period of 4.65 years. The lower payback periods were observed in environment S4 (Open field), followed by S3 (Poly cum nethouse) and S1 (Agrivoltaic greenhouse)
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    RESPONSE OF SUMMER PEARL MILLET [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. Emend. Stuntz] TO VARIOUS BIO-ENHANCERS UNDER ORGANIC FARMING 3789
    (jau junagadh, 2023-11) MUSHAR RADHIKA RAMBHAI; Dr. B. B. RAMANI; 1010120016
    An experiment entitled “Response of summer pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. Emend. Stuntz] to various bio-enhancers under organic farming” was conducted on medium black calcerous soil at Junagadh (Gujarat) to evaluate some bio enhancers for organic cultivation of pearl millet (GHB 1129). Ten treatments comprising Panchgavya @ 3 % foliar spray at 30, 45 and 60 DAS (T1), Banana sap @ 1 % foliar spray at 30, 45 and 60 DAS (T2), Sea weed extract @ 3.5 % foliar spray at 30, 45 and 60 DAS (T3), Humic acid @ 20 kg ha-1 as soil application at sowing (T4), Vermiwash 12.5 L ha-1 + Cow urine 12.5 L ha-1 as foliar spray at 30, 45 and 60 DAS (T5), Jivamrut @ 500 L ha-1 with irrigation at sowing, 30 to 40 and 50 to 60 DAS (T6), Go-Krupa Amrutam @ 2500 L ha-1 with irrigation at sowing, 30 to 40 and 50 to 60 DAS (T7), Amrut Pani @ 500 L ha-1 with irrigation at sowing, 30 to 40 and 50 to 60 DAS (T8), Cow urine @ 500 L ha-1 with irrigation at sowing, 30 to 40 and 50 to 60 DAS (T9) and Control (T10) in randomized block design with three replications. The experiment results revealed that application of Panchgavya @ 3 % foliar spray at 30, 45 and 60 DAS was found superior in respect of the growth parameters and yield attributes along with higher grain yield (5309 and 5271 kg ha-1 ), stover yield ABSTRACT Abstract ⅱ (9204, 9191 kg ha-1 ), protein content and yield, content and uptake of nutrients by seed and stover. However, Banana sap @ 1 % foliar spray at 30, 45 and 60 DAS found at par with it in almost all the parameters. Application of Jivamrut @ 500 L ha-1 with irrigation at sowing, 30 to 40 and 50 to 60 DAS enhanced status of available N, P2O5 and K2O in soil after harvest of the crop. Economical analysis showed that higher net return and BCR were obtained with Panchgavya @ 3 % foliar spray at 30, 45 and 60 DAS in respect of premium price, which was closely followed by Banana sap @ 1 % foliar spray at 30, 45 and 60 DAS. In nut shell, it is concluded that application of Panchgavya @ 3 % foliar spray at 30, 45 and 60 DAS or Banana sap @ 1 % foliar spray at 30, 45 and 60 DAS in addition to soil application of 10 t FYM ha-1 before sowing, in organic pearl millet grown under South Saurashtra region is beneficial as it provided significantly higher production with better quality grain along with more net return.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    DEVELOPMENT OF DEHUSKING TECHNOLOGY FOR PSYLLIUM (Plantago ovata) SEEDS 3785
    (jau junagadh, 2023-11) JOSHI NIRAV UMESHBHAI; Dr. M. N. Dabhi; 1050219006
    Psyllium is a rich source of total dietary fibre and essential minerals like calcium, potassium, and magnesium. It finds various applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries, serving as a gluten substitute, thickening agent, and natural fibre source due to its unique mucilaginous properties. However, processing psyllium seeds poses challenges. Obtaining the desired husk yield requires multiple passes, leading to high energy demands. There's a risk of husk fragmentation or turning it into smaller particle size of husk, resulting in profit losses. Larger mesh-sized husks fetch higher market prices. The research on effect of machine variations viz., feed rate, roller clearance, roller speed ratio and seed moisture content on dehusking characteristics of psyllium seeds and storage of psyllium husk in different packaging materials is limited. The experiment was carried out in the Department of Processing and Food Engineering, College of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh during the year 2022-23. The physical properties of three different varieties of psyllium seeds viz., VI-1, GI-3 and HI-5 were evaluated at three different moisture content from 6%, 12% and 18%. The geometric properties length, width, thickness, size and sphericity were varied among different moisture content and varieties from 2.52 mm to 2.81 mm, 1.25 mm to 1.48 mm, 0.72 mm to 0.80 mm, 1.33 mm to 1.47 mm and 0.513 to 0.533, respectively. The bulk density, true density and porosity were varied from 550.07 kg/m3 to 585.54 kg/m3 , 1206.78 kg/m3 to 1316.84 kg/m3 and 54.06% to 56.75%, respectively. Static angle of repose was varied from 28.07° to 35.99°. Coefficient of static friction on glass, plywood and GI sheet were varied from 0.42 to 0.51, 0.47 to 0.52 and 0.48 to 0.55. Thousand seed weight of psyllium varied from 1.52 g to 1.82 g. Terminal velocity of psyllium seeds was varied from 2.63 m/s to 4.17 m/s. The biochemical properties of psyllium husk and seeds of VI-1 variety was also evaluated. The mean values of moisture content, total carbohydrate, crude fibre, true protein, total fat, total ash and acid insoluble ash of psyllium seeds were 10.02%, 62.70%, 34.13%, 14.42%, 2.01%, 3.35% and 0.73%, respectively. The mean values of moisture content, total carbohydrate, crude fibre, total dietary fibre, true protein, total fat, total ash and acid insoluble ash of psyllium husk was 11.26%, 80.14%, 3.50%, 75.22%, 3.10%, 1.63%, 2.44% and 0.67%, respectively. The dehusking technology based on rubber roller dehusking mechanism was developed considering the measured physical properties of psyllium seeds. The major components of developed dehusking technology were feed hopper with adjustable feed ii plate and slit, dehusking chamber consists of feed roller and rubber roller, constant speed slow roller with adjustable clearance mechanism, fast roller with adjustable differential speed between rollers. The separation of husk from dehusked seeds was done by cyclone separation. The estimated cost of developed dehusking technology was worked out to be ₹ 97,500. The performance evaluation of developed dehusking technology was evaluated on the basis the different machine parameters viz., feed rate (40, 50 and 60 kg/h), roller clearance (0.5, 0.6 and 0.7 mm) and roller speed ratio (1:1, 1.25:1 and 1.5:1) as well as different moisture content of psyllium seeds (6%, 9%, 12%, 15% and 18% w.b.). The variation of different machine parameters varied the moisture content, total carbohydrate, true protein, total fat from 10.06% to 11.41% (w.b.), 76.39% to 80.45%, 3.00% to 3.93% and 1.28% to 1.86%, respectively. The crude fibre, total dietary fibre, total ash, acid insoluble ash, swelling volume of psyllium husk were varied from 3.16% to 4.70%, 74.09% to 76.73%, 1.91% to 2.90%, 0.12% to 0.76% and 38.74 ml/g to 43.37 ml/g. The whole husk, average particle size, fineness modulus of husk, dehusking efficiency of machine were varied from 52.31% to 80.65%, 302.42 μm to 393.49 μm, 2.59 to 3.43 and 64.16% to 90.85%. The husk yield, number of passes, dehusking time, dehusking capacity and power consumption was varied from 215.46 g to 348.80 g, 19 to 59, 19.43 min to 61.02 min, 0.99 kg/h to 3.11 kg/h and 0.23 kWh to 0.88 kWh. Dehusking at 40 kg/h feed rate, 0.5 mm roller clearance and 1.5:1 speed ratio was best treatment combination among different treatment combinations. For standardization of product parameter of developed dehusking machine, the moisture content of seeds was varied from 6% to 18% (w.b.). This caused variation in moisture content, total carbohydrate, true protein and total fat of psyllium husk from 5.49% to 13.94%, 77.73% to 82.74% to, 3.01% to 4.16%, 0.96% to 1.30%. Crude fibre, total dietary fibre, total ash, acid insoluble ash, and swelling volume were also varied from 3.87% to 4.04%, 75.50% to 77.12%, 1.88% to 2.44%, 0.16% to 0.78% and 40.19 ml/g to 44.43 ml/g. The whole husk, average particle size, fineness modulus of husk, dehusking efficiency of machine were varied from 55.69% to 70.57%, 300.90 μm to 353.98 μm, 2.57 to 3.08 and 73.72% to 90.68%. The variation in husk yield, number of passes, dehusking time, dehusking capacity and power consumption were observed from 298.21 g to 349.82 g, 17 to 66, 18.33 min to 45.17 min. 1.48 kg/h to 3.31 kg/h and 0.18 kWh to 0.66 kWh. The suitable moisture content of seeds was standardized at 9% (w.b.). Cost of dehusking treatment and producing one kg of husk was turned out to be ₹ 64.59/kg. The psyllium husk dehusked at standardized treatment combination were stored in PP plastic bag (50 μ), aluminium bag (50 μ) paper bag (20 μ) for ambient storage of 180 days. The variation in moisture content of husk was 8.11% to 13.80% (w.b.), total carbohydrate, true protein and total fat decreased from 81.47% to 76.93%, 3.27% to 2.75% and 1.80% to 1.11%. The crude fibre and total dietary fibre decreased non significantly and varied from 3.45% to 3.17% and 76.63% to 73.36%. The total ash, acid insoluble ash, swelling volume and physiological weight was varied from 2.43% to 2.29%, 0.56 to 0.64, 43.80 ml/g to 35.99 ml/g and 0.05 to 10.40%. Colour values L*, a* and b* were differed from 42.21 to 41.06, 1.27 to 0.90 and 11.24 to 10.65. The colour difference Δ E increased from 0.16 to 1.24%. Storing the psyllium husk in aluminium bag resulted in minimum change physiochemical, functional and microbial properties at the end of storage period and proved to be best suitable packaging material among PP plastic, aluminium and paper bag.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    EVALUATION OF PHEROMONE TRAPS, MATING DISRUPTION PASTE AND INSECTICIDES FOR Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) IN MAIZE 3782
    (jau junagadh, 2023-11) BHIMANI ANKUR MANJIBHAI; Dr. D. M. JETHVA; 1010117030
    The present investigation was framed with an aim to molecular characterization of fall armyworm in the Saurashtra region, standardization of trap density, evaluation of mating disruption paste (MDP), bio-efficacy and persistence of insecticides against S. frugiperda under field and laboratory conditions. The field investigation was carried out at the farmers' field and Instructional Farm, Department of Agronomy, while laboratory experiments were taken at the Biocontrol Research Laboratory, Department of Entomology, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh during Kharif 2020-21 and 2021-22. Investigations on the molecular characterization were carried out for the identification of S. frugiperda at molecular levels from five districts (Junagadh, Gir Somnath, Porbandar, Rajkot and Amreli) of the Saurashtra region. These studies revealed that the presence of this pest was confirmed in all five districts and based on the sequence available online on the NCBI GenBank portal percentage of similarity ranged from 99.57 to 98.00%. A study on the standardization of sex pheromone traps against S. frugiperda noted that the sex pheromone traps installed @ 60 and 50 traps/ha recorded the lowest (12.01-16.51% and 12.89-17.26%) per cent central shoot damage, larval population (2.37-10.27 and 2.49-10.62 larvae/10 plants), cob damage (12.07 and 13.08%) and moth catches (27.34 and 25.98 moths/trap/week), respectively. The study concluded that a trap density of 50 pheromone traps per hectare was optimal for managing fall armyworm infestation in maize. The pragmatic data from the evaluation of different doses of Gir Sawaj MDP showed that the two applications of Gir Sawaj MDP @ 600 g/ha or 400 g/ha showed the lowest percentages of central shoot damage, larval population, per cent cob damage, moth catches and the highest cob yield. Moreover, Gir Sawaj MDP had higher economic feasibility with ICBR as compared to farmers' practices. ABSTRACT Investigations on the efficacy of insecticides showed that treatments of spinoteram 11.7 EC 0.012%, emamectin benzoate 5 SG 0.0025 and thiodicarb 75 WP 0.075% were found the most effective against S. frugiperda as they recorded the lowest per cent central shoot damage, larval population and per cent cob damage as well as higher yield and net realization. However, chlorantraniliprole 18.5 SC 0.05%, spinosad 45 SC 0.013%, and chlorantraniliprole 9.3 + lambda-cyhalothrin 4.6 ZC 0.006% were found next in order. The highest ICBR (1: 11.58) was obtained in thiodicarb 75 WP 0.075% followed by emamectin benzoate 5 SG 0.0025% (1: 11.56). During the investigation of the bio-efficacy of different insecticides under laboratory conditions, it was found that the treatments of spinoteram 11.7 EC, 0.012%, emamectin benzoate 5 SG, 0.0025% and thiodicarb 75 WP 0.075% were showed the cent per cent mortality after 5 days of treatment and found the most effective against S. frugiperda under laboratory condition. Further, these insecticides persisted for up to 10 days but exposed the persistence a strong up to 5 days of application. From the overall results of the present investigations, it can be concluded that S. frugiperda is present in the five districts (Junagadh, Gir Somnath, Porbandar, Rajkot and Amreli) of the Saurashtra region in maize. Installation of 50-60 pheromone traps/ha or two applications of Gir Sawaj MDP @ 400-600 g/ha at 40-day intervals was found effective pheromone base management technique. The insecticides like spinoteram 11.7 EC, 0.012% @ 10 ml or emamectin benzoate 5 SG, 0.0025% @ 5 g or thiodicarb 75 WP, 0.075% @ 10 g in 10 litres of water was recommended for the management of S. frugiperda in maize. These insecticides persisted up to 10 days with 5 days of their strong effect.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    EFFECT OF SEED PELLETING, PACKAGING MATERIALS AND STORAGE CONDITIONS ON DIRECT SEEDING, BULB YIELD, SEED LONGEVITY AND QUALITY IN ONION (Allium cepa L.) 3781
    (jau junagadh, 2023-10) SONDARVA JYOTIBEN RAMJIBHAI; Dr. J. B. PATEL; 1010119036
    The present investigation entitled “Effect of seed pelleting, packaging materials and storage conditions on direct seeding, bulb yield, seed longevity and quality in onion (Allium cepa L.)” was carried out, wherein one field experiment was conducted during rabi 2020-21 at the Sagdividi Farm, Department of Seed Science and Technology, College of Agriculture, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh, while two laboratory experiments were carried out from summer 2020 and onwards at the Seed Testing Laboratory, Department of Seed Science and Technology, College of Agriculture, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh. In first laboratory trial, effect of different seed pelleting treatments [P1: Raw seed (Absolute control), P2: Standard pellet (Control) (Carbendazim), P3: Thiamethoxam, P4: Seed priming + Standard pellet, P5: Nano nutrition (Zn & Fe), P6: Biostimulant mixture, P7: Biological (Bacillus spp.), P8: Micronutrients mixture 1 (Regular phosphorus, manganese, sulphur, copper, zinc and molybdenum) and P9: Micronutrients mixture 2 (Nano phosphorus, potassium, manganese, sulphur, copper, zinc and molybdenum)] on onion seeds were evaluated under cold storage condition up to fourteen months (germination went below 70 % as per ISTA standards). After seed pelleting treatments, the seeds were stored in cold storage conditions and the observations on germination percentage, seedling length (cm), seedling dry weight (mg), seedling vigour index I and seedling vigour index II were recorded at two months interval up to fourteen month of storage and were analyzed using Completely Randomized Design as per the method suggested by Panse and Sukhatme (1985). In field trial, the same 9 different seed pelleting treatments were evaluated with two different sowing methods (S1: Transplanting and S2: Direct seeding) for bulb yield and quality of onion. The characters viz., plant height at harvesting (cm), average leaf length (cm), number of leaves per plant, days to maturity, polar diameter (cm), equatorial diameter (cm), bulb size index (cm2 ), number of bulbs per plot, bulb yield per plot (kg), average bulb weight (g), splitters (%), marketable bulb yield (kg), bolting percentage per plot and TSS (%) were recorded and analyzed using Randomized Block Design (Factorial) as per the method suggested by Cochran and Cox (1957). In the third storage trial under laboratory condition, three different factors, storage conditions [S1: Ambient storage condition and S2: Cold storage condition (10 + 2°C)]; packaging materials (P1: Plastic storage box, P2: Air tight plastic container, P3: Abstract ii Alluminium foil bag and P4: Alluminium foil bag with vacuum packing) and seed treatments (T1: Control, T2: Neem seed kernel powder 5g/kg, T3: Sweet flag rhizome powder 5g/kg and T4: Black pepper powder 5g/kg) were evaluated. After giving the seed treatments, the seeds were packed in different packaging materials as per treatment combinations and stored in two different storage conditions and the observations viz., germination percentage, seedling length (cm), seedling dry weight (mg), seedling vigour index I, seedling vigour index II and seed moisture content (%) were recorded at two months interval up to fourteen month of storage and the results were analyzed as per the method suggested by Cochran and Cox (1957). Among the seed pelleting treatments, seeds pelleted with micronutrient mixture 2 (P9: Nano phosphorus, potassium, manganese, sulphur, copper, zinc and molybdenum) recorded the maximum germination and vigour under cold storage condition, could be attributed to active materials present in micronutrient mixture which might synergistically interact with amino acids especially tryptophan to form IAA in germinating seeds resulting in enhancement in seedling growth. Direct seeding (S2) of seeds pelleted with micronutrient mixture 2 (P9: Nano phosphorus, potassium, manganese, sulphur, copper, zinc and molybdenum) recorded the highest marketable bulb yield with its yield contributing characters and quality characters with the lowest days to maturity and splitters in comparison to other treatment combinations. Seed pelleting with micronutrients not only improves the health and physiological quality of seeds by way of protecting the seeds from fungal and insect attack but also improves seed and soil relationships through enriching the Rhizosphere region of seed. Seed pelleting of tiny seeds like onion helps in precision sowing with added advantages of better establishment and increased productivity. Pelleted seeds reduced the seed rate in comparison to non-pelleted seed and it also helps in avoiding thinning and gap filling operations because of precision planting and uniform crop stand, resulted into higher marketable bulb yield as reflected in better bulb size in pelleted seeds than non pelleted seeds. Seeds packed in alluminium foil bag with vaccum packing after seed treatment with sweet flag rhizome powder @ 5g/kg seed and stored in cold storage condition recorded the highest germination percentage and vigour after fourteen month of storage period. This was mainly due to treating the seeds with compatible organics and it played an effective role in inhibiting the storage microflora with packing materials like alluminium foil bag with vaccum packing, which acted as moisture entry barriers. In storage trials, germination percentage and other quality parameters were decreased gradually with increased in storage period, while seed moisture content in the seeds were increased with increased in storage period; this was concluded that the quality of seed degraded in storage condition. In nut shell, it can be concluded that, seed pelleted with micronutrient mixture 2 (P9: Nano phosphorus, potassium, manganese, sulphur, copper, zinc and molybdenum) and stored in cold storage condition was found to be the best treatment gave good germination along with other seed quality parameters after fourteen month of storage. Onion seed packed in alluminium foil bag with vacuum packing after seed treatment with sweet flag rhizome powder @ 5g/kg seed and stored in cold storage condition was found to be the best treatment gave good germination along with other seed quality parameters after fourteen month of storage. Direct seeding of seeds pelleted with micronutrient mixture 2 (P9: Nano phosphorus, potassium, manganese, sulphur, copper, zinc and molybdenum) was found to the best treatment gave good field performance with increased bulb yield.