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  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    PHENOTYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF UDDER AND TEAT VIS-A-VIS MILK YIELD AND MILKING TRAITS IN GIR COWS
    (JAU,JUNAGADH, 2012-03) Saurabh Kumar Singhai; Dr. K. Ravikala
    An investigation was undertaken to study the variation m the udder and teat shapes and dimensions, body measurements and their relationship with the milk yield and milking traits in Gir cows. The study is carried out on hundred Gir cows maintained at the Cattle Breeding Farm, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh, Gujarat. The present investigation was carried out in four groups of lactating Gir cows based on udder shape, teat shape, lactation number and stage of lactation, over a period of three months from 01-11-2010 to 31-01-2011. The results showed that among the different udder shapes round shape was very common on the farm followed by trough pendulous and bowl shapes and their occurrences were 35.0%,' 27.0/6, 23.0% and 15.0% resoectivelv ^itviii-. i Y- Similarly, cylindrical teats were more common with a Hpceircceennttaaggee ootf ^35n.0 followejd l by pear, bottle and funnel shaped of teats with 21%, 20% and 24% respectively. The udder & teat measurements in Gir cows were low in bowl shaped udders and high in pendulous shaped udders compared to the other shapes of udders. Body measurements as body length, height at withers and heart girth with different udder shapes were found higher in pendulous shaped udders however, measurements on body length were significant (P < 0.05) with respect to different shapes of udder. Gir cows with pendulous shaped udders were found to have highest average daily milk yield followed by trough, round and bowl udders. Similarly milking time and milk flow rate was higher in pendulous shaped udders and lower in round shaped udders. The maximum milk yielding capacity of pendulous udders might be due to maximum udder, teat and body measurements. Bowl shaped udders were low in all measurements showing low milk yielding capacity. According to different teat shapes in Gir cows, all udder, teat and body measurements had higher means for cylindrical type teats and low for pear type teats. Funnel shaped teats were found to have higher daily milk yield followed by cylindrical, pear and bottle shaped teats. Percent of Milk constituents as Fat, SNF and Protein were not affected due to teat shapes. Milk flow rate and milking time were found to be higher in funnel and cylindrical shaped teats respectively Udder lengths were continuously increasing with parity compare to udder width and udder depth which were highest in third parity animals. Gir cows in third parity were found to have higher average daily milk yield. All udder measurements were high in second stage of lactation (except udder length which is highest in first stage) and low in third stage of lactation. The results of various milking traits were significantly ( P < 0.05 ) higher for daily milk yield, milking time and milk flow rate in first stage of lactation compared to second and third stage of lactation. Percent milk constituents as Fat, SNF and Protein were higher in third stage and lower in second stage of lactation. A positive correlation was found between the udder measurements and the daily milk yield, however, the correlation was significant among udder length, udder width and daily milk yield (P<0.05). A positive correlation existed between the average daily milk yield and teat measurements but was significant (P<0.05) with the teat diameter. Body measurements (except body height) were positively and significantly correlated with udder and teat measurements. Body measurements are not correlated with milking traits and milk constituents. The correlation of milk flow rate with daily milk yield and milking time was significantly positive (P < 0.01). Regression analysis is positively and significantly (P < 0.05) dependent on udder length and teat diameter, having the Coefficient of Determination of 14% and 7.00% respectively. In comparison to all, regression analysis of milking traits as milking time and milk flow rate to average daily milk yield in Gir cows was found to be positively and significantly (P < 0.01) higher. Multiple linear regression equation has shown that maximum contribution to average daily milk yield was due to udder width, milking time and milk flow rate. However, value in Simple linear regressions for udder width, milking time and milk flow rate to daily milk yield are found to be 8%, 47% and 31% respectively. So the above regression study suggests that udder width, milking time and milk flow rate are important factors deciding that milking potential of Gir cattle. Key Words: Gir cow, milk yield, teat dimensions, teat shape, udder dimensions, udder shape, body dimensions, milking traits
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    PHENOTYPICAL CHARACTERISTCS OF UNDDER AND TEAT VIS-A-VIS MILK YIELD AND MILKING TRAITS AN COWS
    (JAU,JUNAGADH, 2012-03) SAURABH KUMAR SINGHAI; K.RAVIKALA