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  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    PHARMACOLOGICAL EFFECTS AND SAFETY PROFILE FOLLOWING ADMINISTRATION OF POLY-HERBAL EXTRACT IN DIABETIC RATS
    (JAU,JUNAGADH, 2018-10) SHAUL AHMED R.; Dr. U. D. PATEL
    Diabetes mellitus describes a metabolic disorder of multiple etiology characterized by chronic hyperglycemia with disturbances of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. It is one of refractory diseases identified by Indian Council of Medical Research for which an alternative medicine is a need for the treatment. Looking to the pharmacological properties of different plant varieties like Allium cepa, Trigonella faenum-graecum, Tinospora cordifolia, Gymnema sylvestre, Syzigium cumini and Momordica charantia, the present study was carried out to evaluate the pharmacological effects and safety profile following administration of poly-herbal extract in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Thirty Srague-Dawley rats were randomly divided based on body weight in five groups (C1, C2, C3, T1 and T2). Rats of four groups (C2, C3, T1 and T2) were injected with streptozotocin to induce diabetes. Rats of group C1, C2, and C3 were kept as normal, diabetic and standard control, respectively. Rats of group C3 were administrated with glibenclamide (5 mg/kg, PO for 28 days). Rats of group T1 and T2 were treated with mixture of polyherbal extract at 100 and 200 mg/kg, respectively orally for 28 days. After induction of diabetes, clinical symptoms of diabetes were observed in rats of diabetic control group. These symptoms were mild to moderate in all other treatment groups compare to diabetic control group. Administration of poly-herbal extract significantly (P<0.05) reduced the blood glucose level in T1 and T2 experimental groups especially at 4th week of experiment. However the blood glucose level was maximally reduced in glibenclamide treated group. In oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), the blood glucose levels in rats of different treatment groups were significantly (P<0.05) increased at 30 and 60 minutes after oral glucose administration at dose of 2 g/kg. The little higher blood glucose levels in group T1 and T2 indicates inability of poly-herbal extract to reduce the increased blood glucose level at day 15. This result was supported by no effect of poly-herbal extract treatment on regulation of blood glucose level up to 3 weeks of our study period. In lipid profile, levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL-cholesterol were non-significantly (P>0.05) increased while levels of HDL-cholesterol were significantly (P<0.05) lower in diabetic control group compared to other groups. The mean levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol in rats treated with poly-herbal extract were found comparable to normal control rats. In hematological parameters, mean values of PCV and TEC in rats of diabetic control were significantly (P<0.05) lower compared to other groups. Whereas, the mean value of above parameters in rats treated with poly-herbal extract was significantly (P<0.05) higher than other treatment groups. In biochemical parameters, mean values of ALT, AST, BUN and creatinine were non-significantly increased while, the mean values of total protein, albumin, globulin and total bilirubin were found non-significant in all groups compared to control rats. In case of antioxidant parameters evaluated from blood, liver, kidney and pancreas tissue samples, mean values of SOD, catalase and GSH in diabetic control group were non-significantly (P>0.05) decreased compared to control group. Whereas, the mean values of SOD, catalase and GSH were non-significantly (P>0.05) higher in glibenclamide as well as in poly-herbal treated groups compared to diabetic control group at the end of study period. Upon gross examination of pancreas, no appreciable gross lesions in all treatment groups have been observed. Macroscopic examination of liver and kidneys of experimental rats of diabetic control group shown congestion, paleness and mild to moderate enlargement. No appreciable macroscopic lesions have been observed in the spleen, heart and lung of rats in all treatment groups. The histopathological changes of pancreas of rats of diabetic control group (C2) revealed varying degree of structural changes as well as degenerative changes, vascular changes and infiltration of inflammatory cells with loss of normal architecture of parenchyma and changes in kidney were also observed in rats of diabetic control group. No appreciable histopathological lesions have been observed in the liver, spleen, heart and lung of rats in all treatment groups. In conclusion, administration of poly-herbal extract at the dose rate of 200 mg/kg, PO for 28 days have shown ameliorating effect on glucose, lipid profile and antioxidant levels and pathological lesions in diabetic rats. Though the findings of this short term study are encouraging, further detailed investigation is required to determine the effect of long term administration of poly-herbal extract in diabetic rats
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    “MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF BLACKGRAM [Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper] GENOTYPES FOR SALINE WATER TOLERANCE”
    (JAU,JUNAGADH, 2018-07) Mukul Kumar Gandhi; Dr. G. V. Marviya
    Blackgram [Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper], Family: Fabaceae and sub family: faboideae is the most widely grown type of pulse. To alleviate protein energy malnutrition, a minimum of 50g pulses/capita/day should be available in addition to other sources of protein such as cereals, milk, meat and eggs. The present experiment on “MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF BLACKGRAM [Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper] GENOTYPES FOR SALINE WATER TOLERANCE” was conducted at Department of Biotechnology, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh with objectives to analyze molecular diversity of different blackgram genotypes by PCR based molecular markers to find out the phylogenetic relationship among different blackgram genotypes tolerance to salinity. On the basis of physiological parameters, the blackgram genotypes were discriminated into tolerant, moderate and sensitive to salinity stress. Out of 22 genotypes, five genotypes viz., SKNU-03-03, SKNU-07-06, SKNU-06-03, SKNU-07-01 and IC-214520 were found to be tolerant to salinity. Thirteen genotypes were found to be moderately tolerant and four genotype viz., GJU-1506, JAWAHAR URD-3, JAWAHAR URD-2 and GJU-1509 are sensitive to salinity. Germination per cent decreased by 67.77 %, root length reduced by 64.11 %, shoot length reduced by 67.91 % while seedling length decreased by 66.44 % in T4 treatment as compared to the T1 (control) treatment among all the blackgram genotypes. Seedling dry weight reduced by 1.40 fold in T4 treatment as compared to the T1 (control) treatment. Looking to the vigor index, seedling vigor index-I (length basis) and seedling vigor index-II (Dry weight basis) decreased by 2.21 and 2.03 folds, respectively in T4 ECe dSm-1. For molecular characterization, 11 RAPD, 10 ISSR and 10 SSR primers were used. Amplification of genomic DNA of 20 blackgram genotypes, using RAPD analysis, yielded 80 polymorphic fragments with an average of 99.99 % polymorphism. Number of amplified fragments with RAPD primers ranged from 3 to 15 bands and varied in size from 102 to 3344 bp. A dendrogram based on UPGMA analysis grouped the 20 blackgram genotypes into two main clusters named cluster-A and cluster-B with 10 % similarity, with Jaccard’s similarity coefficient ranging from 0.047 to 0.857. The 10 ISSR primers produced 44 bands across 20 blackgram genotypes, which were polymorphic. The size of amplified bands varied from 61 to 2267 bp. A dendrogram based on UPGMA analysis of 20 blackgram genotypes generated for ISSR data formed two main clusters, named cluster-A and cluster-B with 35 % similarity and Jaccard’s similarity coefficient ranged from 0.240 to 0.741. The 10 SSR primers produced 14 bands across 20 blackgram genotypes, which were polymorphic. A dendrogram based on UPGMA analysis of 20 blackgram genotypes generated by SSR molecular marker data formed two main clusters, named cluster-A and cluster-B with 40 % similarity and Jaccard’s similarity coefficient ranged from 0.100 to 1.00. The pooled study of all markers revealed a dendrogram consisted of two clusters. Cluster-I consisted of 5 blackgram genotypes, while cluster-II consisted of 17 genotypes in different cluster. From the dendrogram depicted genotype JAWAHAR URD-3 found to be most diverse from the other genotypes. The molecular markers (RAPD, ISSR and SSR) revealed phylogenetic relation of 20 blackgram genotypes and showed the different dendrogram pattern for different genotypes taken for study. RAPD abled to discriminate most diverse genotype SKNU-07-01 into cluster-B separately. The ISSR revealed one genotype JAWAHAR URD-3 in cluster-B found to be most diversified genotype across the 20 blackgram genotypes. SSR depicted one diverse genotypes JAWAHAR URD-3 into one cluster-B which were able to be showed diverse position in cluster.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    ORGANIC FERTILIZER MANAGEMENT IN BITTER GOURD (Momordica charantia L.) CV. PREETHI
    (JAU,JUNAGADH, 2018-06) Miss Priyanka I. Patel; Dr. K. D. Patel
    The present investigation entitled “Organic fertilizer management in bitter gourd (Momardica charantia l.) cv. Preethi”, was conducted during summer 2017 at Fruit Research Station, Madhdi Baug, Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh. The present experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design (RBD) with three replications consist of twelve treatments i.e. Control without any treatment (T1), RDF - 60: 60: 60 NPK kg/ha (T2), FYM @ 10 t/ha + Azatobacter @ 3 liter/ha (T3), FYM @ 10 t/ha + Azatobacter @ 3 liter/ha + PSB @ 3 liter/ha (T4), FYM @ 10 t/ha + Azatobacter @ 3 liter/ha + PSB @ 3 liter/ha + KSB @ 3 liter/ha (T5), Vermicompost @ 5 t/ha + Azatobacter @ 3 liter/ha (T6), Vermicompost @ 5 t/ha + Azatobacter @ 3 liter/ha + PSB @ 3 liter/ha (T7), Vermicompost @ 5 t/ha + Azatobacter @ 3 liter/ha + PSB @ 3 liter/ha + KSB @ 3 liter/ha (T8), Castor cake @ 2.5 t/ha + Azatobacter @ 3 liter/ha (T9), Castor cake @ 2.5 t/ha + Azatobacter @ 3 liter/ha + PSB @ 3 liter/ha (T10), Castor cake @ 2.5 t/ha + Azatobacter @ 3 liter/ha + PSB @ 3 liter/ha + KSB @ 3 liter/ha (T11) and FYM @ 5 t/ha + Vermicompost @ 1.25 t/ha + Castor cake @ 0.5 t/ha (T12). The experimental results revealed that among the different treatments, Vermicompost @ 5 t/ha + Azatobacter @ 3 liter/ha + PSB @ 3 liter/ha + KSB @ 3 liter/ha gave significantly maximum main vine length (286.87 cm), length of internodes (8.03 cm), number of branches per plant (9.72), number of nodes on main vine (67.86), number of fruits per plant (17.67), average fruit weight (85.66 g), fruit length (16.52 cm), fruit diameter (12.65 cm), fruit yield per plant (3.09 kg), fruit yield per plot (20.67 kg), fresh fruit yield (17.21 t/ha), dry fruit yield (361 kg/ha) and dry biomass yield (1904 kg/ha). The quality parameters like TSS (5.51 0Brix) and ascorbic acid content (86.21 mg/100g) were also registered significantly higher with treatment of vermicompost @ 5 t/ha + Azatobacter @ 3 liter/ha + PSB @ 3 liter/ha + KSB @ 3 liter/ha (T8). The concentration of nutrients i. e. N (3.58 % , 1.78 %), P (0.75%, 0.37 %), K (3.25% , 3.86 %), S (0.47%, 0.17%), Fe (132.39 mg/kg, 75.06 mg/kg), Mn (20.32 mg/kg,31.09 mg/kg), Zn (38.57 mg/kg, 13.36 mg/kg) and Cu (18.52 mg/kg, 10.68 mg/kg) of fruit and biomass, respectively were recorded significantly higher with treatment vermicompost @ 5 t/ha + Azatobacter @ 3 liter/ha + PSB @ 3 liter/ha + KSB @ 3 liter/ha (T8). Uptake of nutrients i. e. N (12.92 kg/ha, 33.56 kg/ha), P (2.70 kg/ha, 7.04 kg/ha), K (11.73 kg/ha, 73.49 kg/ha), S (1.69 kg/ha, 3.23 kg/ha), Fe (47.77 g/ha, 142.91 g/ha), Mn (7.33 g/ha, 59.19 g/ha), Zn (13.92 g/ha, 25.43 g/ha) and Cu (6.68 g/ha, 20.33 g/ha) by fruit and biomass, respectively were found higher with treatment vermicompost @ 5 t/ha + Azatobacter @ 3 liter/ha + PSB @ 3 liter/ha + KSB @ 3 liter/ha (T8) as compared to remaining organic fertilizer treatments. Significantly higher value of available soil N (289.76 kg/ha), P (47.32 kg/ha), K (286.17 kg/ha), S (13.88 kg/ha), Fe (8.22 mg/kg), Mn (16.87 mg/kg), Zn (0.66 mg/kg) and Cu (1.40 mg/kg) at after the crop harvest were found higher with treatment vermicompost @ 5 t/ha + Azatobacter @ 3 liter/ha + PSB @ 3 liter/ha + KSB @ 3 liter/ha (T8). The highest gross returns per hectare (₹ 3,09,800), net returns per hectare (₹ 2,58,566) and highest BCR (5.05) was found on same treatment. On the basis of experimental result, it can be concluded that vermicompost @ 5 t/ha + Azatobacter @ 3 liter/ha + PSB @ 3 liter/ha + KSB @ 3 liter/ha (T8) was found most effective for improving growth, yield and yield attributes, quality, content and uptake of nutrients as well as maintaining fertility status of soil.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    ASSESSMENT OF MORPHOMETRIC CHARACTARISTICS O SETRUNJI RIVER BASIN USING REMOTE SENSING AND GIS
    (JAU,JUNAGADH, 2012-08) SARIKA SANTU WANDRE; H.D. RANK