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  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    The attempt was to develop a portable closed canopy chamber for the measurement of crop evapotranspiration, using transparent acrylic sheet of 4 mm thickness. The length, width and height of the chamber are 0.85 m, 0.85 m and 1.10 m respectively. Two small fans were mounted on the inner side of the chamber for proper mixing of air and water vapour inside the canopy chamber. Between the fans, a temperature and humidity sensor was suspended above the plant canopy for the measurement of instantaneous temperature and RH of vapour-air mixture. The calibration and validation of the developed closed canopy chamber were made using micro lysimeters having a size of 0.2 m × 0.2 m × 0.2 m by growing shallow rooted spinach crop in it. The irrigation applications to the spinach was made as per the crop water consumption. The sensor sensed and recorded the instantaneous temperature and relative humidity at 1 second interval during the 2 min closing time of each cycle of first 15 minutes of 12 period of 2h duration during a day. Between the measurements, the chamber over the micro-lysimeters was removed for a minimum of 2 min to obtain a micro-climate similar to the open atmosphere. Two sample t-tests were applied to compare the data pairs of crop evapotranspiration obtained by the micro-lysimeters inside the canopy chamber with that of outside the canopy chamber to ascertain whether there is any effects of the change in micro climate for a short period of 2 min on the crop growth physiological processes. Also, the data pair of crop evapotranspiration measured by the micro lysimeter and canopy chamber using the sensor data of temperature-humidity were compared and statistically analyzed through t-test. The calibration factor of the closed canopy chamber was found to be 1.3532. The results revealed that there was no significant difference in the crop evapotranspiration measured by the micro-lysimeters inside and outside the canopy chamber, indicating that there are no effects of the change in micro climate for a short period of 2 minutes in the chamber, on the plant physiological processes. The crop evapotranspiration measured by the canopy chamber and micro-lysimeter were compared separately for the winter and summer seasons. The ETc rate increases as sun rises and reaches the peak at 14:00 hrs and then continuously decreases with the time. The ETc rates were found to be very low and constant during the night time, indicating the major contribution is from the soil evaporation component. There were no significant difference between the crop evapotranspiration measured by the canopy chamber and the micro-lysimeter at 95 percent confidence level. The average crop coefficients for the initial stage, mid stage and harvest stage were found as 0.968, 1.187 and 1.07 respectively during the winter season. The developed canopy chamber is portable as well as more comfortable and cost effective compared to the lysimeter for the measurement of the actual crop evapotranspiration and the crop coefficient.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    India has been traditionally an agriculture-based economy and agriculture is the largest consumer of water. Hence, efficient irrigation system is the need of the present era to avoid wastage of water. Drip is the most efficient irrigation system in which water can only be saved if it is operated properly based on need of the crop. Human error can be neglected by adopting automation in drip system. The present study is emphasized to develop low cost automatic irrigation system which can be easily operated remotely using web based mobile application. Web based mobile application computes the time of operation for drip system based on crop evapotranspiration (ETc) and controller controls the whole drip system to irrigate the field for the calculated time. Crop coefficient (Kc) values of eggplant and tomato crop was stored in web based mobile application which is used to calculate crop evapotranspiration. Arduino Mega 2560 was used as controller of the automatic system and ESP8266 Node MCU Wi-Fi module was used to connect controller with internet. To validate the developed system, time of operation calculated by web based application (Tapp) and actual time of operation require to irrigating the field (Treq) was computed by simulating eggplant and tomato crop setup. The developed system tested in the field, the difference between Tapp and Treq was found statistically non-significant when applying two sample t-test. Nash Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient (ME) of 0.9906 and 0.9932 was found for Tapp and Treq of eggplant and tomato set up respectively which indicates the good match between Tapp and Treq. Hence, automatic irrigation system can be considered as best for irrigation of field. The estimated cost of smart irrigation controller is ₹ 2650. Payback period of automatic drip irrigation system is four months. Hydraulic performance of 8 lph emitter was also carried out at different operating pressure to test the system in the field condition. The uniformity coefficient, coefficient of manufacturing variation and emission uniformity were falls in categories of excellent and very good in the test as per the ASABE standard and better results were at 1.00 kg/cm2 operating pressure.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Grass cutting is an important operation in agriculture field. In India, agriculture has facing serious challenges like scarcity of agricultural labour in peak seasons and almost throughout the year. In India, grass is cut in two ways i.e manual method (conventional method) and mechanized way. In the past and even until now, cutting of grasses in the field surface, forest, sports tracks, industries, hotels, public centre, etc. are being cut with a cutlass. Manual cutting is time consuming and stressful operation. In addition, inaccuracy in cutting level was also observed in manual cutting method. In India, for the design and development of most of the agricultural machines have been given less attention towards ergonomic aspects. While to get more work from a worker it is must to consider ergonomic design. A swiveling head type power brush cutter was developed and test results were analyzed in terms of, cutting efficiency, field efficiency, heart rate, oxygen consumption rate and energy expenditure rate. Three different forward speed: 1 km/h, 1.5 km/h and 2 km/h and three different swiveling shaft speed of 15 rpm, 20 rpm and 25 rpm with three different nylon wire length 10 cm, 15 cm, 20 cm were used for the test performance. For the experiment, alfalfa grass was used for cutting. The field capacity of existing brush cutter is 0.098 ha/h, but in case of developed brush cutter it is 0.123 ha/h. The maximum field efficiency was found 91.47 % at 1 km/h forward speed, 15 rpm swiveling shaft speed and 10 cm nylon wire length. The maximum cutting efficiency was found 94.81 % at 1 km/h, 25 rpm swiveling shaft speed and 20 cm nylon wire length. Minimum heart rate, oxygen consumption rate, energy expenditure rate were found at 1 km/h forward speed, 15 rpm swiveling shaft speed and 10 cm nylon wire length. The energy consumption of developed brush cutter was observed 185.13 MJ/ha while by existing brush cutter operation it was 235.27 MJ/ha.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    (jau,junagadh, 2019-09) Mr. N.P. Delvadiya; Prof. A.L. Vadher
    Pulses is one of the important crops. The food value of pulses is essential due to its high protein content. The pulses crop is mainly grown for its grains which are consumed either whole or in split form (dal). Properly and timely sowing has a dominant effect on germination of seed, plant growth, plant population in the field and ultimately on the total production. In general, pulses is sown by animal/tractor drawn seed drill or manually. Tractor drawn seed drills are suitable for medium or big farms with high seed rate. Draft animals are not only becoming costly but they are diminishing also. More than 75 % of Indian farmers belong to small and marginal category and doing all operations manually. Manual sowing is a highly labour intensive, tedious, time consuming and not technically suitable. Therefore, a double row battery operated seed drill for pulses seed was developed and tested. During the study, the required physical properties of chickpea seed was determined. The developed seed drill was tested for laboratory and field test. The overall size of developed seed drill was 2030×1150×1050 mm. It was operated by 24V, 28Ah battery. A DC motor of 400 watt 24V was used as power source. Ground wheels have 14 lugs. It sowed seeds in two rows at a time. The overall weight of developed seed drill was 54 kg. In the laboratory test, seed rate, and mechanical damage of the developed seed drill were found as 63.20 kg/ha, and 1.20% respectively. The overall performance of the developed seed drill was found satisfactory. While in the field, draft of implement 37.19 kgf, missing index 2.46%, depth of seed placement 6.10 cm, germination per cent 84.49%, and cost of operation of the developed seed drill were ₹350.22/ha. And the field test of manually existing seed drill for draft of implement 14.51 kgf, missing index 3.63%, depth of seed placement 6.20 cm, and cost of operation were obtained ₹ 426.20/ha. The field efficiency of the developed seed drill and manually existing seed drill were found as 83% and 75% respectively.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    (JAU, JUNAGADH, 2019-08) SAVITA KUMARI; K. K. Jai
    The tractor trolley is suitable for on road transportation of agricultural produce, livelihoods and implements. But for transportation within the territory of agricultural fields and farmers place is not suitable, therefore this hydraulic operated hay rake cum loader was developed for 500 kg carrying capacity. The device was tested for loose (green / dry fodder) and bulk (grain / seed bags) loads on farm road and tar road, respectively. The performance parameters considered for its evaluation were loading/unloading efficiency, handling efficiency (handling time percentage index, driving time percentage index and handling to driving time percentage index), loading/unloading losses and spillage losses during transportation. The device can be used for transporting loose and bulk loads on farm and tar roads. The field testing of the developed device was found satisfactory under various operating conditions. The subjective evaluation of the device was also carried out as per the Borg scale i.e. in terms of Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE), which indicated the operating feasibility of the device. In the research conducted, the bulk load gave better results in terms of all the parameters. The comparison between bulk load and loose load was found highly significant for every performance parameter. The total cost of operation of hydraulic operated hay rake cum loader was determined as ₹ 60.37/h. The payback period and benefit-cost ratio was obtained as 2 years and 2.8, respectively
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    India is the one of the largest producer of banana (Musa paradisiac L.) in the world. Banana is considered a common man’s fruit and is rightly called the dessert fruit. Banana, being a tropical fruit, has a very short shelf life. Foam mat drying allows dehydration of heat sensitive, high sugar content and viscous food like banana which is difficult to dry. The foam mat dried products are cost effective and highly stable against deteriorative microbial, chemical and biochemical reactions. The banana powder can be used as food ingredient and natural flavouring agent in other products during off season. This reduces the glut in the market and farmers fetch remunerative price during harvesting season in the domestic market. High yielding banana variety of Grand Naine which is most commonly grown in Saurashtra region was selected for the experiment. The ripened banana (stage-5) was procured from the local market of Junagadh, Gujarat. The experiment was carried out in the Department of Processing and Food Engineering, College of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh during the year 2018-19. Fruits having 15 ± 1 °Brix TSS were cut into small slices of 3-5 mm and dipped in 1% (w/w) solution of sodium meta bisulphite for 2 min and then rinsed in water for 30 s. Blending and whipping of pulp was carried out with a portable hand blender for proper mixing of air with the pulp. The effect of three foaming parameters viz., foaming agent (2.5, 4.53, 7.5, 10.47 and 12.5%), foaming stabilizer (0.1, 0.18, 0.3, 0.42 and 0.5%) and whipping time (5, 9, 15, 21 and 25 min) were optimized on foam expansion, foam stability and foam density of banana pulp using response surface methodology. Whey protein isolate was used as foaming agent and methyl cellulose was used as foaming stabilizer. The optimum treatment conditions were found to be 5.35% foaming agent, 0.45% foaming stabilizer and 9.43 min whipping time with foam expansion of 138.95%, foam stability of 96.33% and foam density of 0.43 g/cc. The performance of this model was also verified by conducting an experiment at the optimized condition. It could reveal that the experimental value was very close to the predicted value that confirmed the validation of derived model. Optimized parameters for foaming properties of banana pulp were selected for further drying of foamed banana. Drying of foamed banana pulp was carried out at four ii levels of drying temperature (55, 60, 65 and 70 °C) and three levels of foam thickness (2, 4 and 6 mm) in a tray dryer. After drying, dried sample was scrapped, grinded and sieved through mesh no. 35 sieve. Drying characteristics viz., drying time, drying rate and moisture ratio of foam mat drying of banana pulp were evaluated. Maximum drying time (300 min) was observed at 55 °C drying temperature and 6 mm foam thickness while minimum drying time (120 min) was observed at 70 °C drying temperature and 2 mm thickness. Drying time for drying temperature 60 °C and 2 mm foam thickness was recorded 180 min. Maximum drying rate (0.310 g water/g dry matter/min) was found for 70 °C for drying temperature for 2 mm foam thickness and minimum drying rate (0.113 g water/g dry matter/min) was recorded for 55 °C drying temperature for 6 mm foamed thickness of banana pulp. There was rapid decrease in moisture ratio with faster rate at initial stage of 50 to 70 min of drying in all cases, however in later stage of drying, the decrease in moisture ratio was at slower rate. Quality parameters viz., physical properties, biochemical properties, functional properties and sensory characteristics of banana powder were carried out after drying of banana foam. Maximum recovery (37.86%), total sugars (39.25%), non-reducing sugar (39.14%), ascorbic acid (0.89 mg/100 g), pH (4.53), water solubility index (66.10%), water absorption index (408.48%) and minimum reducing sugar (0.11%), titratable acidity (0.35%) of banana powder was found for treatment combination T1t1 (55 °C and 2 mm) and it was found at par with treatment combination T2t1 (60 °C and 2 mm) for most of the case. Maximum sensory score (8.2) in term of appearance, texture, flavour, taste and overall acceptability of foam mat dried banana powder was observed in treatment combination T2t1 i.e., 60 °C drying temperature and 2 mm foam thickness. Longer drying time (300 min), more moisture content (5.38) and low sensory score (7.6) was found for treatment combination T1t1 (55 °C and 2 mm) while moderate drying time (150 min), physico-chemical properties and maximum sensory score (8.2) was found for treatment combination T2t1 (60 °C and 2 mm). From the above study, it could be concluded that treatment combination T2t1, i.e., 60 °C drying temperature and 2 mm foam thickness was found to be best among all the treatments considering overall quality and drying time for preparation of banana powder
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Dragon fruit is a seasonal fruit of cactus species. It is classified as a non-climacteric fruit so the ripening mechanism is based on the absence of ethylene burst during fruit ripening. The fruit has high antioxidant activity and also the rich source of potassium, protein, fibre, vitamins and minerals which are major needs of human diet. Besides being consumed fresh, dragon fruit can also be processed into juice and puree. The fruit juices have a limited shelf life and are susceptible to microbial spoilage. Thus, it is important to optimize the thermal treatment used to inactivate microorganisms and enzymes. The present study was aimed to develop process technology for the production of dragon fruit juice. The fully ripened and fresh dragon fruits (Hylocereus polyrhizus) required for conducting the research work were purchased from “Shree Sardar Farm and Nursery” located in Kundheli village of Talaja (Bhavnagar, Gujarat, India). The physical properties of selected fruits such as fruit size, fruit weight, peel weight, pulp weight (with and without seeds), seed weight, peel content, pulp content (without seed) and seed content were determined. The proximate composition of flesh such as moisture content, total carbohydrate, protein, fat, crude fibre, ash, calorific value, ascorbic acid and total betacyanin were determined. The cleaned dragon fruits were cut to obtain the pulp. The pulp was filtered using muslin cloth to remove the seeds. The pure pulp without seeds was used for the juice preparation. Then, RO water was added to the pulp to get desired TSS content and it was boiled at desired temperature and time duration. The obtained juices were evaluated for their physical and biochemical characteristics such as juice yield, juice density, viscosity, turbidity, moisture content, pH, total carbohydrate, total titratable acidity, reducing sugars, total sugars, non-reducing sugars, ascorbic acid, ash and fat content. Various investigations were carried out for different ranges of temperature (50-80°C), time (4-12 minutes) and total soluble solid (8-16°Brix) to optimize process parameters of dragon fruit juice production. A three factor, five level central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was used to optimize process parameters to develop process technology for dragon fruit juice. The mean value of length, width, thickness and size of selected dragon fruits were found 9.11±0.56 cm, 8.13±0.50 cm, 8.32±0.46 cm and 8.51±0.42 cm, respectively. The mean weight of fruit, peel, pulp (with seed and without seed) and seed weight were 307.70±46.38 g, 78.86±12.23 g, 228.84±36.90 g, 225.02±36.39 g and 3.82±0.58 g, respectively. The mean peel, pulp (without seed) and seed content were obtained 25.71±2.34 per cent, 73.05±2.34 per cent and 1.24±0.08 per cent, respectively.The mean moisture content, total carbohydrates, protein, fat, crude fibre, ascorbic acid content, calorific value, total betacyanin and ash content of raw dragon fruit flesh was found 80.81±1.50 per cent, 9.66±0.38 per cent, 0.78±0.05 per cent, 0.32±0.02 per cent, 0.63±0.01 per cent, 13.96±0.13 mg/100g, 44.61±1.5 kcal/g, 19.37±1.09 mg/L and 0.31±0.02 per cent, respectively. The mean value for physical and biochemical parameters of dragon fruit juice viz., Juice yield, Juice density, viscosity, turbidity, moisture content, pH, total carbohydrate, total titratable acidity, reducing sugars, total sugars, non-reducing sugars, ascorbic acid, ash content and fat content were recorded 82.75±0.72 per cent, 1.04±0.03 g/ml, 1.84±0.26 cP, 125.62±7.75 NTU, 83.83±3.63 per cent, 5.07±0.11, 19.72±9.55 per cent, 0.23±0.02 per cent, 5.28±0.35 per cent, 8.75±0.68 per cent, 3.46±0.33 per cent, 12.02±0.71 mg/100g, 0.36±0.11 per cent and 0.91±0.12 per cent. The optimum treatment conditions were found to be, 56°C temperature, 5.6 minutes and 14°Brix total soluble solid content to obtain dragon fruit juice.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    (JAU, JUNAGADH, 2019-08) BHEDA ASHISH KALUBHA; Pramod Mohnot
    Different leafy crops such as leafy vegetables are important class of agricultural products at the national and international levels. Coriander is one of the spices used by mankind and has been cultivated since antiquity. India ranks first in the production of coriander. As far as area under cultivation and production of coriander are concerned, Gujarat occupies third position in the country. Junagadh ranks first in the production of coriander in Gujarat. Other districts in the Gujrat cultivating coriander are Porbandar, Gir Somanth, Amreli, Devbhumi Dwarka, Jamnagar, Rajkot, Patan, Mehsana, etc. Coriander is an annual herb. The plants attain heights from 0.2 to 1.2 m and flower 45 to 60 days after sowing. Row to row distance for coriander was generally taken 0.2 to 0.3 m. Coriander leaves are harvested, the plant will continue to produce new foliage until it goes to seed. That usually occurs around 40 days after the seed germinates. In India, mostly harvesting of leafy crops is done manually with the help of sickle which results in considerable amount of labour drudgery, time and cost to harvest, which reflects on total production cost of the crop. Timely harvesting is important to reduce damage due to moulds and insects. The shortage of labour is thus to be bridged by mechanization. A suitable mechanized harvesting of leafy crops is an immediate need which can reduce drudgery, minimize losses and increase productivity, avoid weather risk, achieve low cost of harvesting and derive benefit from early marketing of produces. Therefore, manual drawn engine powered leafy crop harvester was developed which is suitable to a large group of the farmers of the country and their fields. The major components of the machines include the cutting unit (reciprocating cutter bar), the slider crank mechanism, the reel, conveyor, storage crate and the frame. Cutter bar type blade was used. Leafy crop stem was cut by the cutter bar blade which was powered by engine. The slider mechanism was an arrangement of crank and connecting arm which convert the rotary motion of eccentric wheel to reciprocating motion of the cutter bar. Leafy crops were guided to conveyer belt by reel. Leafy crops were conveyed to crates by inclined conveyer. Cutter bar, reel and conveyer were powered by engine which was supplied through gear box and belt and pulley arrangement. Experiments were conducted in the coriander field by varying crank speeds (200, 300 and 400 rpm) and forward speed ranges (0.9-1.2, 1.3-1.6 and 1.7-2.0 km/h) in different combinations. Two factorial completely randomized design was adapted for the experiment by taking three replications. The results were analysed statistically. The performance of the device was evaluated by determining effective field capacity, field efficiency, cutting efficiency, fuel consumption, heart rate, oxygen consumption rate and energy ii expenditure rate. The cost of harvesting with developed harvester was also calculated. The highest effective field capacity of developed harvester was found to be 86.42×10-3 ha/h for the combination of crank speed at 200 rpm and 1.7-2.0 km/h of forward speed. The highest field efficiency and cutting efficiency were found to be 87.29 % and 96.28 % respectively with the combination of crank speed of 400 rpm and forward speed of 0.9-1.2 km/h. The lowest fuel consumption was found to be 0.56 l/h with the combination of crank speed of 200 rpm and forward speed of 1.7-2.0 km/h. Increase in heart rate, oxygen consumption rate and energy expenditure rate were found lowest of 26.54 %, 0.33 l/min and 7 kJ/min respectively with the combination of crank speed of 200 rpm and forward speed of 0.9-1.2 km/h. Economic point of view, it was found that hourly cost of operation of ₹ 129.73/h and cost of harvesting of ₹ 1907.79/ha.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Garlic is commonly known as Allium sativum L. and it belongs to “Alliaceae” family. Due to the lack of appropriate planting, cultivation and harvesting machinery for mechanizing its production, it is still grown in relatively small fields using traditional methods. It requires about 60 to 65 man-days to sow one hectare and costing around ₹ 5200 per hectare. In this study, an innovatively designed tractor operated, ground-wheel driven, nine row crop precision planters capable of planting nine rows of garlic cloves at a spacing of 10 × 15 cm was developed and tested. Some of the engineering properties like average length, width, thickness, sphericity, 1000 seed weight, angle of repose and bulk density of GG-4 and GG-5 garlic clove were determined at moisture content of 48.92% and 58.38% (w. b.) respectively, as 26.36 mm, 11.82 mm, 10.32 mm, 0.54, 544 g, 38.16o and 497.82 kg/m3 ; 28.28 mm, 12.81 mm, 10.96 mm, 0.55, 667 g, 37.19o and 529.71 kg/m 3 respectively. The spoon type metering mechanism was designed and developed considering the physical properties of cloves. 10 elliptical spoons were fitted on the periphery of a metering roller of diameter 235 mm. The final operational parameters of the metering mechanism were decided based on average seed spacing, miss index, multiple index, quality of feed index, precision, seed rate, and mechanical seed damage. The spoon size 10 and 20% more than the maximum seed dimension for metering unit showed better results for GG-4 and GG-5 garlic clove with operating forward speed of 2.5 km/h. Further, a tractor operated planter was fabricated with the designed and developed spoon type metering mechanism. The overall length × width × height of the machine is 1600 × 1350 × 1300 mm. The developed planter was tested in laboratory and field conditions. During lab test, seed distribution and seed damage were observed. The variation of seed distribution among the furrow openers was found negligible for both the seed varieties. The visible mechanical damage was found to be 5.51 and 5.70% for GG-4 and GG-5 garlic cloves respectively. During the field test, field performance and seed metering efficiency were evaluated. The effective field capacity was found to be 0.33 and 0.32 ha/h for GG-4 and GG-5 garlic seeds respectively. The average field efficiency was observed as 80.33 and 79.02% for GG-4 and GG-5 garlic variety respectively. The seed metering efficiency was obtained through germination count by comparing the germination obtained in seed damage test and germination obtained in the field. The results of seed metering efficiency for GG-4 and GG-5 garlic seeds were 96.35 and 96.75% respectively. Finally, the results obtained in laboratory experiment were compared with the results obtained in field experiment and found that both miss and multiple index were more at field conditions than laboratory condition for both the variety of garlic. The seed rate obtained was near about similar for both laboratory evaluation and field evaluation. The total cost of planting with the developed planter was found to be ₹ 553.63 per hour and ₹ 1677.67 per hectare. The payback period of the developed planter is 2.27 years. It was concluded that the developed spoon type metering mechanism for garlic planting shows the better result with less miss and multiple index with high quality of feed index. The developed machine was minimizing the cost of cultivation due to bed formation, planting and fertilizer application simultaneously with a single machine.