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  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    (JAU, JUNAGADH, 2013-07) Kapadia Jatin V.; Dr. N.K. Gontia
    The study on application of saline water through drip irrigation and catalytic water conditioner was carried out at Agricultural Research Station (Fruit crops), Junagadh Agricultural University, Mahuva. Sodic soils were treated with different soil amendments viz. gypsum, activated effective micro-organism (AEM) and catalytic water conditioner (CWC). Soil samples were collected after irrigating field through drip irrigation at radial distance 15 cm and 30 cm from emitter and at depth of 5-10 cm, 15- 20 cm and 25-30 cm from all the treatments combinations of soil amendments. Analysis of the soil samples reveled that pH, EC, carbonate content and SAR was found minimum in treatment combination of gypsum + AEM + CWC. Cation exchange capacity shown no significant difference. pH was observed 7.93 minimum at radial distance 15 cm from the emitter in treatment gypsum + AEM + CWC and 10.00 maximum at radial distance 30 cm from the emitter in control. EC was observed 1.25 dS/m minimum at radial distance 15 cm from the emitter in treatment gypsum + AEM + CWC and 2.79 dS/m maximum at radial distance 30 cm from the emitter in control. CO3 % was observed 13.17 % minimum at radial distance 15 cm from the emitter in treatment gypsum + AEM + CWC and 15.74 % maximum at radial distance 30 cm fi-om the emitter in control. Though CEC of the soil had decreased in treatment gypsum + AEM + CWC as compared to control, it hadn't shown any significant difference. SAR was observed 12.62 minimum at radial distance 15 cm from the emitter in treatment gypsum + AEM + CWC and 15.18 maximum at radial distance 30 cm from the emitter in control. Evaluation of CWC was also performed. It revealed that there was no significant difference in physio chemical properties of treated and non-treated CWC water. The cost analysis of the system including drip irrigation system, soil amendments and CWC was found to be ? 32748 per ha.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    (JAU, JUNAGADH, 2013-11) Ms. Pratibha Pawar; Dr. V. K. Tiwari
    The onion {Allium cepa L.) is one of the important commercial vegetable crops grown on a large area in India for local consumption as well as export purpose. India is a second major onion producing country in the world has a productivity of 10.19 MT/ha only. Onion growers are facing lot of problems in transplanting of onion seedlings with the shortage of farm labours during transplanting season. Transplanting method is tedious, causing fatigue and backache due to the longer hours required for transplanting. In direct sowing, non uniform distribution of seeds and requirement of seed rate is more which not only increase the cost of seeds but also need to thinning operation. Considering the labour problems, high cost of cultivation and non availability of a good machine, an imported pneumatic vegetable seeder was tested at three speeds (1.56, 2.47 and 4.20 km/h) to find out it's suitability for direct sowing of onion seeds at JAU, Junagadh. The physical properties of onion seed of GWO-1 variety in teirns of equivalent diameter, sphericity, bulk density, angle of repose and thousand seed weight were observed as 0.19 cm, 0.69, 0.46 g/cc, 31.36° and 4.20 g respectively. The seeder was tested for its quality parameters, power requirements, energy requirement, wheel slip, fuel consumption and field efficiency, and then compared economically with the manual transplanting method. The overall best results were obtained at the speed of 4.20 km/h The best results of the machine for seed miss index (16.18%), seed multiple index (5.59%), quality of feed index (78.22%) and variability in spacing (10.09%) were obtained. The plant population per sq. m and germination percentage was observed as 51.50 and 85.44% respectively. The wheel slip, fuel consumption, power requirement energy requirement and field efficiency of the seeder was found as 10.47%, 5.04 1/h' 18.81 kW, 50.11 MJ/ha and 66.75% respectively at the speed of 4.20 km/h. The total cost of direct sowing of seed by the machine was ^ 4,322/ha and the total cost of manual transplanting was ? 21,956/ha. The saving in cost of operation in direct sowing by the seeder over manual transplanting was found to be ^ 14,457/ha.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    (JAU,JUNAGADH, 2013-01) Kamalchandra Trivedi; Dr. P. N. Sarsavadia
    An experiment on development of a ridge-vent type naturally ventilated riet"Cum-polyhouse and its performance on capsicum (^Cdpsicum dnnuum l.) production during December 2011 to May 2012 was conducted at the farm of Dept. of RE&RE, located at Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh (21.5°N, 70.1 °E). For experimental study, a naturally ventilated net-cumpolyhouse having size (12.1 m x 4.86 m) with ridge-vent was constructed at the experimental site. The experiment was laid out in two-factor split-plot design with three replications comprising of total six treatment combinations. Irrigation was the main factor with irrigation levels i.e. IW:CPE ratio, \^ = 0.6, I2 = 0.8 and I3 =1.0 whereas mulching was the sub-factor with Mi = normal black plastic mulch and Mo as no mulch (bare soil). The daily environmental parameters I.e. ambient temperature, relative humidity and solar radiation and soil parameters as soil temperature were taken and computed mean, average was used for the analysis. The response of capsicur evaluated in terms of plant height, number of flowers per pli^^, fruits per plant, weight of fruits per plant and yield per treatmerl analysis was also done to determine to financial viability of the During the crop season, the average of mean weekly reduction, increase in relative humidity and reduction in solar radiation between external and internal environment of the structure was found as 5.3 °C, 17.35 % and 65.3 % respectively. The soil temperature was found highest in treatment hMi i.e. IW; CPE ratio 0.6 + Mulch where as it was found lowest in the treatment I3M0 i.e. IW:CPE ratio 1.0 + No mulch during the crop period. There was no effect of the treatments, either alone or in combination, on the plant height. All the three levels of irrigation were at par with each other in terms of the number of flowers and number of fruits but effect of mulch was significant on both number of flowers and number of fruits. Irrigation levels and mulch, individually and in interaction, had a significant effect on the weight of fruits. The treatment I3M1 i.e. IW:CPE ratio 1.0 + Mulch was highly superior as compared to the other treatment combinations. The highest benefit cost ratio and lowest payback period was found for I3M1 as 5.07 and 2.6 years respectively.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Conjugate Impact of irrigation regimes and system CONFIGURATIONS ON PRODUCTIVITY OF BANANA 1706
    (JAU,JUNAGADH, 2013-02) Ram Bhavin D.; Dr. R. Subbaiah
    Irrigation with 1.2 IW/ETc resulted higher yield of 86224 kg/ha but was not statistical different with irrigating with 1.0 IW/ElTc of 84507 kg/ha. More application of water could not increase the yield of banana and considered the wastage of water. So in case of banana 1.0 IW/ETc is considered ideal and economic. Earlier flowering, thicker girth, earlier harvesting time, more number of leaves, higher weight of bunch, higher yield per hectare and more number of finger have been observed in irrigating with 1.2 and 1.0 IW/ETc than 0.8 IW/ETc. System configurations significantly affected in banana crop. Irrigating around the plant yielded higher than a single point or two point application of water. Highest gross income 641539.43/ha and net income 565392/ha were found in irrigation application at 1.2 IW/ETc with star emitter system configuration. Highest benefit to cost ratio of 5.45 was obtained in star emitter configuration scheduled at 1.0 IW/Etc.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    (JAU,JUNAGADH, 2012-12) Er. M. B. Lakhnotra; Dr. V. K. Tiwari
    Tyre deflection is the most important and first parameter for optimization of tractor performance. It is affected by the constructional property of tyre, operational parameter such as load, inflation pressure and the mechanical properties of the surface in contact with tyre. Tyre contact area on rigid surface is valuable in assessing tyre ground pressure. It establishes a lower limit for the contact area in yielding soil. Test on rigid surface provides a basis for reliable and repeatable data. To conduct the study a test set-up was designed and developed and found most satisfactory. To conduct study of contact area characteristics and contact pressure under pressure under tyres on hard surface, four bias-tyre (12.4 * 28), (13.6 * 28), (14.9 * 28) and (16.9 * 28) were selected and tested in the range of normal load from 3.93kN to 11.77 kN and the inflation pressure from 69kPa to 193 kPa. Based on the results three prediction models for determining the percentage of deflection, contact area and ground pressure of the tyres were developed.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    (JAU,JUNAGADH, 2012-07) Ms. KHANAPARA PRIYANKA J.; Prof. J. B. Savani
    Groundnut is grown over 100 countries in the world and plays an important role in the economy of several countries. Weed infestation in field plays vital role by reducing the crop yield. It is inevitable to check the weed growth at appropriate crop growth stages. Intercultivation is a cheap method to control the weeds and also provides better environment for crop growth. Maintenance of pair of bullocks now a day has become costlier. Power tillers are utilized for light operations and moreover the use of power tiller is quite limited. Big tractors are underutilized for operations but it is not possible to operate it in narrow inter-space
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    (JAU,JUNAGADH, 2012-10) Miss Lokhande Pooja; Prof. J. B. Savani
    Indian soils are poor in nitrogen. Nearly 1/3 rd of Indian soils are acidic. Food shortage in 1960s necessitated Green Revolution, ushering in the use of high dose of chemical fertilizers and poisonous plant protection chemicals adversely affecting the health of the soil. But long term use of these fertilizers causes degradation of soil, compaction and reduces soil fertility. Organic manures when incorporated into the soil it add nutrients it. Application of FYM improves soil fertility therefore there is wide scope to its application. FYM contains almost all the essential nutrient required for soil The addition of farm yard manure to the field is carried out traditionally. So there IS scope of work to distribute the farm yard manure uniformly on the soil surface. By considering these aspects. Tractor Operated FYM Applicator was developed and designed components were fabricated and mounted on cultivator frame.Projections of 15 plates of metal flat were given on pipe of 2500 mm length. The distance between two projections was taken as 145 mm. Each plate had dimensions 80 mm x 25 mm x 5 mm. Agitator was designed and fabricated in such a way that group of three metal plates form one helix for maximum working effectively. The drilling attachment consisted of PVC pipes of 100 mm diameter, can be attached to the outlets and joined to back of tyne so that proper drilling of material in furrow. Spreading attachment consisted of five number of spouts attached to the outlets, which spreads manure to the surface of field. The whole assembly was fabricated and mounted on cultivator frame. The power was given by PTO shaft. The speed of agitator decided as selected as 170 rpm. The test results of applicator indicated that, the draft required for drilling and spreading of FYM was 825 and 800 kg respectively. The FYM application rate was 2236 kg/ha. The field efficiency of drilling and spreading operation was 72 and 70 % respectively. The material was drilled properly in the furrow with application rate of 1132 kg/h and for spreading it was 1086.72 kg/h. The operational working time for both the operation was 24 and 25 minutes respectively. The fuel consumption observed as 1.95 and 1.92 1/h for drilling and spreading operation respectively. The satisfactory performance was observed for both drilling and spreading operation.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    (JAU,JUNAGADH, 2012-10) Jamdal Rajesh Mohan; Dr. Pramod Mohnot
    Precision land leveling is the foremost step for judicious use of water and laser land leveler is one such device which could promote efficient utilization of water. So, the present study was conducted at College of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, Junagadh Agriculture University, Junagadh to evaluate the performance of the laser land leveler for land leveling in grading operation and to investigate the effect of laser land leveler on soil properties like soil moisture content and speed of operation, fuel consumption, effective field capacity, theoretical field capacity, field efficiency and cost of operation. Also the effect of laser land leveler on seasonal depth of irrigation, crop parameters of groundnut and irrigation efficiency. The standard deviation of reduced levels after leveling was 5.51 cm and 2,29 cm using the leveler blade and laser land leveler respectively, which was 23.11 percent more than the leveler blade The performance of a laser land leveler was compared with leveler blade for seedbed preparation under a groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) crop rotation. The study comprised two treatments with fifteen replications with Large Plot Technique Design with fifteen replications. The two leveling treatments consisted of leveler blade (Ti) and laser land leveler (T2). The operating speed of tractor achieved with laser land leveler was 2.96 km h-i, with 3.1 lit h-i, fuel consumption, 69.53 percent field efficiency while with leveler blade it was 4.68 km h-i, 2.8 lit h-i and 74.35 percent. The seasonal depth of irrigation of laser land leveler and leveler blade was found (800 mm) .The treatments showed significant crop yield (947.94 kg ha-i), harvesting index (25.08 percent) and water use efficiency was (1.19 kg ha-i mm-i) in laser land leveler that were higher than that of leveler blade 740.03 kg ha-i, 18.22 percent and 0.93 kg ha ' mm-i respectively). Operational cost for laser land leveler (2249.57 ? ha-i) were than that of the leveler blade (756.21 ? ha-i) and higher benefit: cost ratio (B: C ratio) (1.58) was observed in laser land leveler which was (1.30) for leveler blade. 11
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    The study area i.e. Shetrunji basin falling in the district of Bhavanagar, Amreli and Junagadh, is a major one among 71 river basins of Saurashtra region of the Gujarat state, India. The agriculture is the major social, cultural and economic activity of the people in this basin. The water is the most important input resource in the agriculture. The major share of monsoon rainfall concentrated during July and August month. Therefore, the scope for the natural recharge is very less. The existing surface water resources in the study basin include three dams (i.e. Khodiyar and Shetrunji on main river and Munjiasir on its tributaries), and thus present surface water resources are not enough to meet real water demands of this basin area. The major part of the rainwater runs away to Gulf of Khambat Sea, hence there is a need of additional water harvesting structure across existing streams of different orders. Planning of any surface water resources development needs runoff characteristics of the basin to decide various kinds of water harvesting structures. Effective functioning life of such water harvesting structures depends on the sediment loads, carried by input runoff water. This sediment load of the runoff water should be inevitably minimized by taking appropriate soil conservation measures under watershed development plan. Planning any soil and water conservation requires the complete knowledge and quantified indicators reflecting true hydrological behaviour of contributory watershed. Hydrological behaviour of any natural w/atershed or basin depends on its geomorphological characteristics which need to be assessed and quantified properly. The determination of the morphometric characteristics of any watershed requires intensive survey, which is a tedious, difficult and time consuming activity if done by adopting traditional methods. Present study was undertaken adopting remote sensing and GIS technology to ease the task keeping with a view to explain the possibility of below given objectives in background; 1. To prepare the thematic maps of Shetrunji river basin. 2. To determine the morphometric characteristics of Shetrunji river basin. 3. To estimate the runoff potential. Using the remotely sensed images of the IRS P6 LISS III and Cartosat satellites, the maps for the theme of land use/land cover, soil, drainage, slope and contour were prepared adopting the PCI Geomatica 10.1 software. The GIS analysis was made for the said themes using the ArcMap V9.2. The linear parameters like stream order, stream length, bifurcation ratio, stream length ratio and length of overland flow stream frequency, areal parameters like stream frequency, drainage density, texture ratio, elongation ratio, circularity ratio, form factor and compactness coefficient and relief parameters relief, relative relief,relief ratio, channel slope and ground slope or watershed average slope were determined using GIS. The daily runoff was determined using the SOS ON method using daily rainfall data of monsoon months (June- October) for the year 1961-2010. The time series of monsoon rainfall, runoff and runoff volume were analysed for the preparation of relevant frequency curves. The Shetrunji basin was found as 7^^ order basin. The mean bifurcation ratio was found as 4.51 for the basin and it varied from 1.8 to 4 for the 17 watersheds which indicated that the geological structures did not amply disturbed the drainage pattern. The length of overland flow for watersheds of the basin was found varying from 0.1919 to 0.4419 km. while 0.3132 km for the basin. The drainage texture for watersheds of the basin varied from 3.3 to 10.7. For watershed 5G2B4a. 5G2B4b 5G2B4c and 5G2B6c it was greater than 8 reflecting texture as very fine in nature, while 5G2B5d. 5G2B5c, 5G2B6a. 5G2B6d were moderate in nature. Remaining watersheds remained coarser in nature while for basin it was found as 19.3 indicating it as fine in nature. The drainage density of the basin was found as 1.5965 km/km^ while for its 17 watersheds it ranged between 1.14 to 2.60 km/km^, indicating highly permeable subsoil region, dense vegetation cover and low relief. The elongation ratio of the watersheds varied from 0.45 to 0.85. The watersheds 5G2B2b, 5G2B2C, 5G2B4a, 5G2B4b, 5G2B4c, 5G2B5b, 5G2B5c, 5G2B6a and 5G2B2d were more elongated in nature, while remaining one were less elongated in nature. For the basin as a whole it was 0.6206 indicating less elongation. Similarly the form factor for basin was found 0.3023 and for basin watersheds it varied from 0.16 to 0.56. These low values of form factor indicate the existence of flatter peak flows for longer duration. The circularity ratios for watersheds were found in the range of 0.37 to 0.77 and 0.3853 for basin as a whole, which all together reflects elongated shape, low runoff and high permeability of the subsoil. The compactness coefficient for watersheds was found in between 1.14 to 1.79 and 1.6106 for basin as a whole. In general watersheds of study basin had elongated shape showing the fact there remains enough time for discharge of end runoff or indirectly a sufficient value of time of concentration to facilitate easy disposal of watershed runoff yield. The relief, relative relief and relief ratio for watersheds ranged from 0.095 to 0.445 km, 0.0915 to 0.5399 and 0,00273 to 0.019 and that of for the basin as 0.605 km, 0.1410 and 0.004427 respectively. These values of relief ratios indicate that the discharge capability of watersheds is very high and simultaneously the groundwater recharge potential is meagre. The ground slope and channel slope for different watersheds of study basin were found varied from 0.00307 km/km to 0.0192 km/km and 0.001549 km/km to 0 01224 km/km; and for the basin 0.004427 km/km and 0.002820 km/km, respectively. According to severity ranking of each watershed the compound parameters were estimated by averaging the priorities. The final priority was allotted to the watersheds according to the values of compound parameters. The value of compound parameter for all 17 watersheds varied from 6 to 11.50. The watershed 5G2B5d (compound parameter value 6) receives the highest III priority value and so it becomes potential and prioritized candidate for applying soil conservation measures, in contrast to the other watersheds with low priorities are subjected to lower degree of erosion. Such kind of watershed prioritization becomes helpful to overall watershed management planning. The area weighted runoff depth from the basin at 25%, 50% and 75% dependability was found 332mm, 127mm and 68mm respectively. The runoff potential of the basin at 75% dependability was found 388MCM which can bring additional area of 38800 ha under irrigation during winter season if harvested (assuming 50% storage losses and 50 cm seasonal irrigation requirement of crop). The morphometric properties determined for this basin as whole and for each watershed will be useful for the sound planning of water harvesting and groundwater recharge projects on watershed base. IV