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  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.; Pedaliaceae) is a diploid (2n = 26) dicotyledonous and one of the oldest oil seed crop grown widely in tropical and subtropical areas for its edible oil and food products. Beside of large land covered for cultivation of sesame there is a wide demand–supply gap as its production is constrained by various biotic and abiotic stresses which leads to less productivity. Biotic stresses such as diseases, insects, and pests affect sesame crops adversely causing substantial yield losses. Among the major diseases, charcoal rot caused by Macrophomina phaseolina affects severely at the all stages of the crop growth. In India, this disease incidence was recorded up to 50%. Keeping this constrain in mind present study was undertaken to understand the molecular responses of the host cell against a fungal infection and the putative role of regulatory players. In present study, two different genotypes GT-10 [resistant(R)] and RT-373 [susceptible(S)] were selected to perform transcriptome and four genotypes GT-10, Rama (resistant) and RT-373, AT-306 (susceptible) for biochemical characterization. Total 8 samples were collected at post flowering stage at four different post inoculation stages. Root samples of resistant and susceptible genotypes were collected at 0 hpi (hours post inoculation), 24 hpi, 48 hpi, 72 hpi. The mRNA was isolated from all the collected samples and was sequenced in IonS5 next generation sequencer. After completions of sequencing run the total raw sequence generated were assessed through FastQC quality control tool in which all 8 (eight) samples having good quality sequence were selected for further analysis. Trimming of raw reads yielded a total of 8443423, 8381018, 10143124, 11552102 reads in R1, R2, R3 and R4 respectively and 8713438, 8149237, 11265254, 9281491reads yielded in S1, S2, S3 and S4 respectively. This HQ data was mapped on M. phaseolina genome to remove possible contamination of fungus genome. Unmapped data was extracted and mapped on sesame genome which was downloaded from NCBI. Clear reads were used to carry out differential gene expression analysis. Differential expression analysis of both the genotypes yielded top 10 up and down regulated transcripts expressed at each PIS which were selected for the Gene Ontology enrichment analysis. GO terms like response to auxin (GO:0009733), integral component of membrane (GO:0016021), lipid metabolic process (GO:0006629) were found to be significantly over-represented in sequences having higher expression in GT-10. Moreover, glutathione transferase activity (GO:0004364), oxidoreductase activity (GO:0016491), alpha,alpha-trehalose-phosphate synthase (UDP-forming) activity (GO:0003825), oxidoreductase activity (GO:0016491), integral component of membrane (GO:0016021), beta-fructofuranosidase activity ii (GO:0004564), malate transport(GO:0015743) were found in up regulated sequence in GT-10 over the RT-373. In pathway enrichment analysis, common KEGG pathways like starch and sucrose metabolism and phenyl propanoid biosynthesis were enriched in up-regulated transcripts, however their fold expression was different in both the genotypes. Fatty acid degradation, Arachidonic acid metabolism, Glycerophospholipid metabolism, Tryptophan metabolism, Glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism pathways were enriched in down regulated transcripts in susceptible genotype. Inositol phosphate metabolism, Ascorbate and aldarate metabolism and zeatin biosynthesis were enriched in up regulated transcripts of susceptible genotypes. The DEGs obtained from Deseq software were validated by qRT PCR. The expression patterns of the randomly selected DEGs in to RT-qPCR were in agreement with those obtained by the RNA-Seq, suggesting that the RNA-seq data reflected the real expression patterns of the sesame genes in the compatible interaction. The leaves and roots were analyzed at the interval of 24 hours up to 72 hours after pathogen inoculation. The β-1,3 glucanase and chitinase activities were increased up to 48 hpi thereafter decreased at 72 hpi. The activation of chitinase was more rapid and higher in plants of resistant genotypes than in susceptible genotypes. The results of phenol determination using LC-MS/MS reveals that in both the resistant genotypes, Rama and GT-10, vanillic acid, chlorogenic acid and salicylic acid were found to be higher in diseased condition which indicates these phenolics might play important role in defense mechanism. While in susceptible genotype (RT-373) syringic acid, catechin, coumaric acid, salicylic acid, ferulic acid and cinnamic acid were high in post inoculation stages. In AT-306 vanllic acid, catechin, gallic acid and cinnamic acid were increased during interaction with pathogen. In phytohormone profiling, the levels of IAA, Zeatin, ABA, ACC, JA and SA in the plant extracts were successfully quantified in MRM mode, but this was not possible for GA because of the low level of this phytohormone in plant tissues. At 48 hpi the level of IAA increased in resistant genotypes. The concentration of JA was found higher at 24 hpi in leaves and roots of both susceptible genotypes. No significant change in JA concentration was found in both resistant genotypes among all PIS. The level of SA increased at 48 hpi in all genotypes however its concentration varied among the all. The level of ACC increased in all genotypes after fungus inoculation in both the tissues. Zeatin slightly increased in leaves and root of GT-10 at 48 hpi. It drastically increased in root of Rama at 72 hpi.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    The attempt was to develop a portable closed canopy chamber for the measurement of crop evapotranspiration, using transparent acrylic sheet of 4 mm thickness. The length, width and height of the chamber are 0.85 m, 0.85 m and 1.10 m respectively. Two small fans were mounted on the inner side of the chamber for proper mixing of air and water vapour inside the canopy chamber. Between the fans, a temperature and humidity sensor was suspended above the plant canopy for the measurement of instantaneous temperature and RH of vapour-air mixture. The calibration and validation of the developed closed canopy chamber were made using micro lysimeters having a size of 0.2 m × 0.2 m × 0.2 m by growing shallow rooted spinach crop in it. The irrigation applications to the spinach was made as per the crop water consumption. The sensor sensed and recorded the instantaneous temperature and relative humidity at 1 second interval during the 2 min closing time of each cycle of first 15 minutes of 12 period of 2h duration during a day. Between the measurements, the chamber over the micro-lysimeters was removed for a minimum of 2 min to obtain a micro-climate similar to the open atmosphere. Two sample t-tests were applied to compare the data pairs of crop evapotranspiration obtained by the micro-lysimeters inside the canopy chamber with that of outside the canopy chamber to ascertain whether there is any effects of the change in micro climate for a short period of 2 min on the crop growth physiological processes. Also, the data pair of crop evapotranspiration measured by the micro lysimeter and canopy chamber using the sensor data of temperature-humidity were compared and statistically analyzed through t-test. The calibration factor of the closed canopy chamber was found to be 1.3532. The results revealed that there was no significant difference in the crop evapotranspiration measured by the micro-lysimeters inside and outside the canopy chamber, indicating that there are no effects of the change in micro climate for a short period of 2 minutes in the chamber, on the plant physiological processes. The crop evapotranspiration measured by the canopy chamber and micro-lysimeter were compared separately for the winter and summer seasons. The ETc rate increases as sun rises and reaches the peak at 14:00 hrs and then continuously decreases with the time. The ETc rates were found to be very low and constant during the night time, indicating the major contribution is from the soil evaporation component. There were no significant difference between the crop evapotranspiration measured by the canopy chamber and the micro-lysimeter at 95 percent confidence level. The average crop coefficients for the initial stage, mid stage and harvest stage were found as 0.968, 1.187 and 1.07 respectively during the winter season. The developed canopy chamber is portable as well as more comfortable and cost effective compared to the lysimeter for the measurement of the actual crop evapotranspiration and the crop coefficient.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    (JAU, JUNAGADH, 2019-08) DHRITIMALA SAIKIA; C. D. Lakhlani
    The present study entitled “Consumer Behavior towards UPL Fungicides of Junagadh And Rajkot Districts of Gujarat” was undertaken with the objectives of studying the socio economic profile of farmers, evaluating the growth and consumption pattern of the fungicides in the two districts, identifying the factors affecting the brand loyalty of farmers with regard to the fungicide ‘Saaf’ and studying the factors which affect the awareness of the farmers towards the brand ‘Saaf’. 120 farmers were selected for the study purpose. The tabular method, Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR), multiple regression and correlation were used for the analysis. The result revealed that a majority of the farmers were large farmers with medium income levels having more than 10 years of experience in agriculture. There was an increasing trend in the consumption of fungicides in the two districts with a positive growth rate. The consumption of the fungicide ‘Saaf’ was highest in case of summer crops as compared to the rabi and kharif crops. The study revealed a variation in the doses used by the farmers as compared to the recommended doses provided by the company. Perception on product quality, availability of the preferred brand, satisfaction towards the brand and performance of the product were significant as well as positive and hence, were the eminent factors that affect the customer’s loyalty towards the brand ‘Saaf’. Moreover, social participation, mass media exposure and extension contact were found to be positive and significant and thus, these were the major factors which accelerates the farmer’s awareness towards the brand ‘Saaf’
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    A dairy product is food produced from the milk of mammals. A production plant for the processing of milk is called a dairy. Recent study shows that India is the largest producer of milk in the world which is nearly 10 per cent of the world production. The research work entitled “Economics of milk procurement and milk processing in a dairy plant” was carried out. The Junagadh district was selected for the study and sample size consisted of 1 chilling center and 31 village collection centers. The tabular analysis was used to calculate the cost of procurement of milk. The tabular analysis, weightage method and different formulas ware used to calculate the cost of procurement of milk the cost of processing. The PCI method was used to study the constraints faced by dairy industry in procurement of milk. The result depicted that all the three cost of milk procurement having more or less equal share in total cost of procurement. The overall milk procurement cost per liter of milk around one rupee per liter. The major share of milk fat was used for Ghee making because of ghee contain more fat concentration. The major share of milk SNF was used for Taza milk. The total solids utilization pattern at the plant Major share of milk was used for Taza milk. In case of milk utilization, the quantity of ghee manufacturing is less but it utilizes more fat, whereas, butter milk, dahi and taza milk utilizing less fat than the other product. The the cost of production of ghee was around Rs. 323 per litre which was the highest among all the dairies. The foremost problem faced by Village milk collection center being far away from milk producers' home. The foremost problem was poor roads for transporting the milk.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Bio-fertilizers are natural fertilizers made from biological wastes which contain living micro-organisms. They enrich the soil with organic nutrients which in turn promotes a healthy growth of the crop. Bio-fertilizers are best defined as biologically active products or microbial inoculants viz., formulations containing one or more beneficial bacteria or fungal strains in easy to use and economical carrier materials which add, conserve and mobilize crop nutrients in the soil As the use of bio-fertilizers is mandatory in organic farming, the bio-fertilizer market is experiencing a strong growth all over the world. Hence, this research study conducted in search of expectations and constrains of farmers towards bio-fertilizers. Multistage random sampling technique was adopted to survey total 120 samples farmers from Rajkot and Jamanagar district. The multilinear regression method was employed to analyze the brand preference of farmers towards the Phosphosakti product. Garrets rankings technique has been used to find out the most preferred sales promotion activity executed by company and constrains faced by farmer in adoption of bio fertilizer. Simple tabular and graphical presentation was adopted to know socio economic profile of farmers. Simple rankings methods were also used in know farmers and dealers expectations from bio-fertilizer companies. The findings of the study showed that majority of farmers are above 50 years of age and primary education are most common amongst farmers majority of the farmers comes under medium group of land holdings. Land holdings and availability of preferred brand aremost significance factor towards the brand preference by the farmers towards the Phosphoshakti. Farmers meetings and field demonstration are most effective promotional strategy adopted by company. Farmers expect low price and timely availability from the bio-fertilizer companies, while on the other hand dealers expect improve promotional strategy. Most common constrains faced by farmer in adoption of bio-fertilizer are lack of confidence on bio-fertilizer input and lack of knowledge.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Agriculture is the primary growth engine of the Indian economy as nearly 70 per cent of the population of the country depends on agriculture. Potato is a major cash crop of India. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L) popularly known as ‘The king of vegetables has emerged as fourth most important food crop in India after rice, wheat and maize. China is ranks first in area and production of potato in the world. India is the second largest producer of potato in the world. Uttar Pradesh is the first largest state in production of potatoes. The highest growth in area was observed in Uttar Pradesh followed by west Bengal, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh. Gujarat‘s Banaskantha now top potato producing district in India. Potato is grown in more than 100 countries, under temperate, subtropical and tropical conditions. Multi stage sampling technique was adopted to select the taluka, village and farmers. Total sample was 120 farmers and 10 dealers. It was found that the majority of farmers i.e., 82.5 per cent farmer have occupation of agriculture and 9.16 percent were having business followed by 8.33 percent service as their secondary occupation. The study revealed that the average total cost per hectare of potato cultivation was to the tune of Rs. 115083/-. The share of operating cost in the total cost of cultivation was as high 62.69 per cent. It was clearly shows that the K Max bio fertilizer farmers had higher income (Rs. 1, 80,362) than the other brand bio fertilizer farmers (Rs. 1, 62,456) did in the cultivation of potato. The average yield of main potato product from hectare of land was 182 qtl and 168 qtl by K Max bio fertilizer and other brand bio fertilizer provide respectively. The cost of production per quintal over all the cost were higher in potato cultivated by the other brand farmer as compared to K Max bio fertilizer farmers in the district on Cost. As compare to this K Max bio fertilizer bears quite less cost for cultivating potato in district i.e. Rs. 255, Rs. 341, Rs. 351, Rs. 386 on cost Cost A, Cost B, Cost C1 and Cost C2 respectively. The net return and benefit cost ratio over the entire cost concept in the cost of cultivation for K Max bio fertilizer growth the income over cost A found higher (Rs. 72502) in the K Max as compared to the other brand farmers (Rs. 69546). The average net return and benefit cost ratio in one hectare of land obtained by the K Max bio fertilizer farmers (1.60) found higher than other brand bio fertilizer farmers (1.48) over total cost of cultivation. The potato growth rate only for production was positive and significant. The growth rates of area and yield under potato crop found positive but non-significant in sabarkanthas district. The growth rates of area, production and yield under potato crop found positive but non-significant in Gujarat State. Constraints faced by the farmers was high cost and lack of knowledge of the Bio fertilizers. Large majority of the dealers faced constraint of high competition among dealer. The company had adopted skimming price policy to sell its wide range of their products in the market among which K Max having a price of Rs. 3700/-, but very competitive as far as quality was concerned. Turnover of K Max was 8.55 lakh which was the highest among other competitor companies.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    The study on “Market potential, customer’s satisfaction and perception toward Vasudhara packaged buttermilk in Navasari city” was undertaken with the objective to study the socio-economic profile of customers, to derive market potential of Vasudhara packaged buttermilk in Navasari city, to know the customers perception, to know the satisfaction level of customers and to study the constraints faced by retailers. The survey under study was carried out in Navasari city. Purposive sampling technique was used for the selection of 120 customers and 10 retailers, this 120 customers and 10 retailers was used for the determination of the socio-economic profile, satisfaction level and perception of customers and constraints faced by retailers. To determine the market potential 120 customers was selected by random sampling technique. To study the socio-economic profile of customers the tabular analysis was used to analysis of data. MP = N × MS × Q formula was used to find out the market potential of Vasudhara packaged buttermilk in Navasari city. The weighted average mean was used to study the perceptions of customers. The likert scale technique was used to study the satisfaction level of customers. Garrett's ranking technique was used to study the constraints faced by the retailers. The study tries to understand the socio-economic profile of customers. Market potential of Vasudhara packaged buttermilk for Navasari city was 918787 liter (Approx.). Perception of customers were very high related to the regular supply, affordable price, preferred taste and smell. Customers were satisfied with Regular supply, price pay, serving temperature, while some customers were dissatisfied with the attractive packing, shelf life, thickness, fat content and hygiene of Vasudhara buttermilk. Low margin and availability of advertisement at point of sale was major problem faced by retailers.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    The study on “Market potential and satisfaction level of farmers for water soluble fertilizers in Vadodara district of Gujarat” was undertaken to assess market potential, satisfaction level, resource use efficiency and brand wise use of water soluble fertilizers. For the study convenience sampling method was used. Total 120 sample farmers were selected for the study. Socio-economic profile of farmers, satisfaction level of farmers and brand wise use of water soluble fertilizers were accessed by using tabular method, percentage analysis and graphical methods were used to obtain the result. Resource use efficiency accessed by using Cobb- Douglas production function. The result revealed that the majority (54.17 per cent) of the farmers was middle to old age group, having medium land holding and majority of the farmers had medium size of family and secondary level of education. Majority of the farmers were use the bore-well as a source of irrigation. Majority of the farmers were highly dissatisfied with price of water soluble fertilizers and highly satisfied with the brand image, quality, availability and size of the packaging of water soluble fertilizers. Market potential of the water soluble fertilizers was found 748800 kg. The result of resource use efficiency of water soluble fertilizers was revealed that 65 per cent variation in the yield of okra crops by the use of water soluble fertilizers and fertilizers (X2=19:19:19) and (X3=13:00:45) had contributed to gross returns more appreciably, there is bright scope of raising income through extensive use of the water soluble fertilizers. The study indicates increasing return to scale. Overall, for optimizing the gross return and increasing the resource use efficiency there is need to increase the use of the water soluble fertilizers. Majority of the farmers was use the GSFC’s brands water soluble fertilizer in the Vadodara district.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    (JAU, JUNAGADH, 2019-08) DAVRA AKASH ASHOKBHAI; C. R. Bharodia
    The study on “Discrimination of water soluble fertilizers’ users and non-users in Junagadh district” was undertaken to differentiate Coromandel WSF users’ and other companies WSF users’. The farmers groups which are functioning in various villages of Junagadh district of Gujarat, Two stage sampling technique was adopted for the selection of samples. 50 Coromandal’s WSF user farmers were selected randomly from the Junagadh district. The 50 non-user farmers of WSF of Coromandel were selected randomly from the Junagadh district (total 100 farmers) to study the factor discriminating Coromandel WSF users and non-users. For differentiate of user and non users were measured by discrimination analysis tool. Further, association of awareness and adoption with socio-economic characteristics was measure by using coefficient correlation. Further, for finding best promotional activity was measure by percentage method. In discrimination analysis four variables discriminate in user and non-users like quality of water soluble fertilizers, price, yield and age. Further in association of awareness and adoption with socio-economic education, income, farming experience, ages were showing highly significant and best promotional activity for farmers is filed demonstration.