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  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    (JAU, JUNAGADH, 2014-12) Mr. Rupnar Anil Kisan; Dr. P. M. Chauhan
    Biomass has been a major source of households' energy in India. The share of biomass varies from nearly a third (36%) to a half (46%) of total energy in India. Biomass energy constitutes wood fiiels, crop residues and animal dung. The cheapest biomass sources are the wood and agricultural residues which are easily available. Wood fuels contribute 56 percent of total biomass energy in India. Traditional biomass cookstoves have low thermal efficiency and high flue gas emission compared to improved cookstoves. The efficient use of fuel wood is much more eco-friendly than the use of efficient and conventional fuels like kerosene and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). In order to use biomass in a thermal conversion mode, appropriate designs of biomass stoves are needed. Improved biomass cookstoves are efficient combustion devices which has great potential to minimize emission and yield better fiiel efficiency. An improved biomass cookstove for a family of five to six members was designed, developed and tested as per BIS 13152 (Part 1): 2013 at Thermo-Chemical Conversion Department (TCC) SPRERI, V. V. Nagar, Anand, Gujarat. Combustion chamber of the cookstove was made of three cylinders in which inner shell made with the internal diameter, thickness and height 145, 1.5 and 305 mm respectively. The cook stove was air insulated with the thickness of 20 mm. The middle shell was provided with diameter, thickness and height 185, 1.5 and 260 mm respectively. The outer shell was provided with diameter, thickness and height 225, 2 and 305 mm which contains Insulyte-7 as an insulating material. Two extended pipes each having diameter 38 mm are provided from the sides near the bottom of cookstove. A fiiel opening of 100 x 100 mm from the side at height 80 mm from bottom was provided for continuous feeding. Four wood fuel materials viz. Babool wood {Acacia nilotica\ Mango wood {Mangifera Indica), Nilgiri wood {Eucalyptus) and Palmarosa grass {Cymbopogon martini) briquette were selected and characterized for proximate analysis and calorific value. The calorific value of babool wood, mango wood, nilgiri wood and Palmarosa grass briquette was found to be 4290, 4250, 3987 and 4226 Kcal respectively. Performance of the cookstove was evaluated for different tests viz. fuel consumption rate (PGR), thermal efficiency test (WBT), power output, emission test (CO & CO2), quenching test for grate, surface temperature and stability test. The results of these obtained for different tests revealed that, the PGR was 1.5, 1.57, 1.66 and 1.115 kg/h, thermal efficiency was 28.07, 27.94.27 04 anH 97 na .. kW for babool wood, mango wood nilgiri wood and^all 2.1,2.16, 2.08 and 1.48 peak CO emission from 'r T CO2 was 10700, 16100, 12600 and 16000 ppm for bahnni J and palmarosa grass briquette respectively The CO/CO was found to be 0.015, 0.011. 0.028 and 0.016 i e S^it?iL° th' ^ .'^'P^^tive feedstocks The cast iron component (grate) no any crack or deformib^V™'^ cookstove was found stable against overturning h . ?" quenching after test The cookstoveisevalutedas fliql/? durmg stability test. The total cost of the
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    (JAU,JUNAGADH, 2014-11) Kelaiya Sagar Vinodkumar; Dr. P. M. Chauhan
    Microalgae biomass is suggested as a more sustainable feedstock for biofuel production than conventional biofuel crops. Advantages of algae cultivation are: no dependence on arable land, low nutrient losses and related emissions, possibility of using sea and waste water resources and the possibility of flue gas CO2 recycling. Micro-algae are the fastest growing photosynthesizing unicellular organisms and can complete an entire growing cycle every few days. Cultivation depends on various aspects such as light, nutrient and carbon availability and competition with other species and is generally done in open ponds or closed bioreactors. Closed systems have higher yield due to better control and optimization. Combination of both open and closed systems into a hybrid system is argued to have better overall feasibility. In this study, microalgae {Chlorella sp.) was used for the production of biodiesel. Microalgae was harvested for 15 days interval up to 160 days. The productivity of algae was obtained as 1.5 gm/liter/day. Physico-chemical properties of algae viz bulk density, colour, particle size and physical state at room temperature as physical properties and moisture content, lipid content, protein content and carbohydrate as chemical properties of algae were determined and found to be 0.4 g/cc, green, 2-10 pm,dry powder form , 3.48 %, 8- 10 %, 51- 58 % and 12-17 % respectively. For the oil extraction, using two extraction solvent systems, Hexane/ether (1:1, v/v) and Chloroform/ methanol (2:1, v/v). Hexane/ ether (1:1, v/v) extraction solvent system resulted in low lipid recoveries (4.8 % dry weight) whilechlorofomt/ ntethanol (2: 1, v/v) extraction solvent systen, was proved to be more" efficent for hptd and biodiesel extraction (9.0% dry weight) depending on algal Sp6C16S
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Development of open core throatless DOWNDRAFT BIOMASS GASIFIER 1815
    (JAU,JUNAGADH, 2014-01) Dobariya Umesh D.; Dr. P.N. Sarsavadia
    Biomass gasification is a thermo chemical process, which converts the solid biomass in oxygen deficient environment into combustible producer gas. The cotton stalk is abundantly available for converting solid biomass into useful form of energy, gasification is receiving prime importance. Downdraft gasifiers have promising potential for agriculture and agro industrial applications, which provided improved gas quality, particularly in terms of tar and particulate matter contents of the gas. In the present study, a open core throatless downdraft gasifier has been designed and developed. The performance of the developed gasifier is made by using shredded cotton stalk as feed stalk. The fuel properties of cotton stalk and its gasification for open core throatless downdraft gasifier were investigated. The whole cotton stalk plant is converted into shredded material with the help of cotton stalk shredder. The capacity of cotton stalk shredder machine is 218 kg/h. The proximate analysis of the shredded cotton stalk in terms of moisture content (13.63 %, db), voladle matter (74.52 %, db), ash content (4.95 ^b), fixed carbon (20.53 /o) and calorific value of cotton stalk biomass (3827 cal/g) were determined.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    (JAU, JUNAGADH, 2013-10) Kelaiya Jainish H.; Dr. H. D. Rank
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    (JAU, JUNAGADH, 2013-12) Kunapara Arvind N.; Dr. R. Subbaiah
    A field experiment was undertaken during the year 2011-12 and 2012-13 to analyze the conjugate assessment of drip system configuration and irrigation regimes on productivity of cumin. Three irrigation level mainly 0.6 IW/ETc (lo), 0.8 IW/ETc (Ii) and 1.0 IW/ETc (I2), three lateral spacing i.e. 60 cm (Si), 70 cm (82) and 80 cm (S3) and two and two emitter geometries mainly hexagonal(Gi) and triangular (G2) were analyzed in the present study. Split-Split design was adopted with eighteen treatment combinations. Each treatment was duplicated thrice. Irrigation regimes, lateral spacing and emitter geometry were taken as first, second and third factors respectively. The effect of these factors were analyzed on plant height at harvesting time, seed yield, dry matter, oil content and water use efficiency. Economics of each configuration and irrigation regimes was also calculated. Irrigation with 0.8 IW/ETc resulted higher yield of 1255.78 kg/ha. More application of water could not increase the yield of cumin and considered the wastage of water. So in case of cumin 0.8 IW/ETc is considered ideal and economic. Higher plant height at harvesting, seed yield per hectare, dry matter produced per hectare and oil content have been observed in irrigating with 0.8 IW/ETc than 0.6 and 1.0 IW/ETc. System configurations significantly affected in cumin crop. Increase in lateral spacing decrease the yield attribute for all irrigation regimes and emitter geometry. So 60 cm lateral spacing found better than 70 cm and 80 cm lateral spacing. Triangular emitter geometry configurations system found to be better than hexagonal geometry for attaining sound morphological parameters and yield attributes for all irrigation regimes and lateral spacing. More uniform water distribution was observed between two laterals in triangular geometry. Triangular emitter configuration is better suited in closed growing field crops because of low unwetted area per square meter and less cost compared to the hexagonal emitter pattern geometry. Higher water use efficiency of 5.60 kg/ha.mm was observed in 0.6 IW/ETc with triangular geometry and 60 cm lateral spacing. Highest gross income of Rs. 156108.7 /ha, net income of Rs. 90894.7 /ha and benefit; cost ratio of 2.39 were found in irrigation application at 0.8 IW/ETc with triangular emitter geometry and 60 cm lateral spacing.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    (JAU,JUNAGADH, 2013-01) Kamalchandra Trivedi; Dr. P. N. Sarsavadia
    An experiment on development of a ridge-vent type naturally ventilated riet"Cum-polyhouse and its performance on capsicum (^Cdpsicum dnnuum l.) production during December 2011 to May 2012 was conducted at the farm of Dept. of RE&RE, located at Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh (21.5°N, 70.1 °E). For experimental study, a naturally ventilated net-cumpolyhouse having size (12.1 m x 4.86 m) with ridge-vent was constructed at the experimental site. The experiment was laid out in two-factor split-plot design with three replications comprising of total six treatment combinations. Irrigation was the main factor with irrigation levels i.e. IW:CPE ratio, \^ = 0.6, I2 = 0.8 and I3 =1.0 whereas mulching was the sub-factor with Mi = normal black plastic mulch and Mo as no mulch (bare soil). The daily environmental parameters I.e. ambient temperature, relative humidity and solar radiation and soil parameters as soil temperature were taken and computed mean, average was used for the analysis. The response of capsicur evaluated in terms of plant height, number of flowers per pli^^, fruits per plant, weight of fruits per plant and yield per treatmerl analysis was also done to determine to financial viability of the During the crop season, the average of mean weekly reduction, increase in relative humidity and reduction in solar radiation between external and internal environment of the structure was found as 5.3 °C, 17.35 % and 65.3 % respectively. The soil temperature was found highest in treatment hMi i.e. IW; CPE ratio 0.6 + Mulch where as it was found lowest in the treatment I3M0 i.e. IW:CPE ratio 1.0 + No mulch during the crop period. There was no effect of the treatments, either alone or in combination, on the plant height. All the three levels of irrigation were at par with each other in terms of the number of flowers and number of fruits but effect of mulch was significant on both number of flowers and number of fruits. Irrigation levels and mulch, individually and in interaction, had a significant effect on the weight of fruits. The treatment I3M1 i.e. IW:CPE ratio 1.0 + Mulch was highly superior as compared to the other treatment combinations. The highest benefit cost ratio and lowest payback period was found for I3M1 as 5.07 and 2.6 years respectively.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    (JAU,JUNAGADH, 2012-12) Er. M. B. Lakhnotra; Dr. V. K. Tiwari
    Tyre deflection is the most important and first parameter for optimization of tractor performance. It is affected by the constructional property of tyre, operational parameter such as load, inflation pressure and the mechanical properties of the surface in contact with tyre. Tyre contact area on rigid surface is valuable in assessing tyre ground pressure. It establishes a lower limit for the contact area in yielding soil. Test on rigid surface provides a basis for reliable and repeatable data. To conduct the study a test set-up was designed and developed and found most satisfactory. To conduct study of contact area characteristics and contact pressure under pressure under tyres on hard surface, four bias-tyre (12.4 * 28), (13.6 * 28), (14.9 * 28) and (16.9 * 28) were selected and tested in the range of normal load from 3.93kN to 11.77 kN and the inflation pressure from 69kPa to 193 kPa. Based on the results three prediction models for determining the percentage of deflection, contact area and ground pressure of the tyres were developed.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    (JAU,JUNAGADH, 2012-07) Ms. KHANAPARA PRIYANKA J.; Prof. J. B. Savani
    Groundnut is grown over 100 countries in the world and plays an important role in the economy of several countries. Weed infestation in field plays vital role by reducing the crop yield. It is inevitable to check the weed growth at appropriate crop growth stages. Intercultivation is a cheap method to control the weeds and also provides better environment for crop growth. Maintenance of pair of bullocks now a day has become costlier. Power tillers are utilized for light operations and moreover the use of power tiller is quite limited. Big tractors are underutilized for operations but it is not possible to operate it in narrow inter-space
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    (JAU,JUNAGADH, 2012-07) Chendake Ashvini D.; Dr. P. M. Chauhan
    Agriculture is the backbone of India's economic activity and our experience during the last 50 years has demonstrated the strong correlation between agricultural growth and economic prosperity. If India has to emerge as an economic power in the world, our agricultural productivity should equal those countries, which are currently rated as economic power of the world. We need a new and effective technology which can improve continuously the productivity, profitability, sustainability of our major farming systems. One such technology is the green house technology.. A study on Techno economic feasibility of greenhouse cultivation in Sabarkantha district was carried out during the year 2012 by following proportionate random sampling procedure with 50 farmers and the data were collected by personal interview method