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  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    EFFECT OF SULPHUR SOURCES AND SULPHUR OXIDIZING BACTERIA (SOB) ON YIELD, QUALITY AND NUTRIENTS UPTAKE BY SUMMER SOYBEAN 3719
    (JAU JUNAGADH, 2023-07) PATEL ANJALIBEN MUKESHBHAI; Dr. J. J. Vaghani; 2010121043
    Soybean, sulphur, SOB, yield, quality, nutrients content and uptake, available nutrients A field experiment entitled “Effect of sulphur sources and sulphur oxidizing bacteria (SOB) on yield, quality and nutrients uptake by summer soybean” was conducted on medium black calcareous soil at Instructional Farm, Krishigadh, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh (Gujarat) during summer season of 2022. The field experiment was comprising of three sources of sulphur viz., Gypsum (SS1), Elemental sulphur (SS2) and Cosavet (fertis) (SS3) and sulphur oxidizing bacteria (SOB) viz., 0.0 lit ha-1 (SOB1), 2.0 lit ha-1 (SOB2), 3.0 lit ha-1 (SOB3) and 4.0 lit ha-1 (SOB4) in randomized block design (Factorial) repeated thrice were tested in the experiment, in respect of growth parameters, yield, yield attributes, content and uptake of nutrients like N, P, K and S at 30 DAS, 60 DAS and at harvest in stover and seed of soybean crop, status of soil available nutrients viz., N, P2O5, K2O and S at 30 DAS, 60 DAS and at harvest as well as bacterial population in soil at 30 DAS, 60 DAS and at harvest of crop. The experimental soil was medium black calcareous, clayey and slightly alkaline in reaction with pH2.5 8.2, EC2.5 0.3 dS m-1 . The soil was low in available nitrogen (230.00 kg ha-1 ), medium in available phosphorus (32.50 kg ha-1 ), medium in available potassium (280.00 kg ha-1 ) and low in available sulphur (9.55 ppm). The results revealed that growth parameters, yield, yield attributes, quality parameters and nutrients content and uptake were significantly influenced by the different sources of sulphur and sulphur oxidizing bacteria (SOB). The results of experiment indicated that plant height, number of pods per plant, dry matter yield at 30 DAS, 60 DAS and at harvest, seed and stover yield were observed maximum with application of cosavet (fertis). Similar trend also observed in case of quality parameters ABSTRACT like, protein and oil content. The nitrogen content in seed and sulphur content in seed and plant at 30 DAS, 60 DAS and at harvest, uptake of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and sulphur by seed and stover at 30 DAS, 60 DAS and at harvest significantly increased with application of cosavet (fertis) as a source of sulphur. The number of seeds per pod, phosphorus and potassium content in seed, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content in plant at 30 DAS, 60 DAS and at harvest did not influence by different sources of sulphur. The effect of sulphur sources on available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in soil did not produce any significance influence at 30 DAS, 60 DAS and at harvest of soybean. Availability of sulphur in soil significantly increased by application of cosavet (fertis). The application of SOB @ 3 lit ha-1 significantly increased the plant height, number of pods per plant, dry matter yield, seed and stover yield as well as protein and oil content. However, days to 50 % flowering and number of seeds per pod did not influence by SOB application. Application of SOB produced significantly favourable effect on nitrogen content in seed, sulphur content in seed and plant at 30 DAS, 60 DAS and at harvest of soybean. Significantly higher values of all these parameters were observed with application of SOB @ 3 lit ha-1 . While, SOB application did not exert any significant effect on phosphorus and potassium content in seed as well as nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content in plant at 30 DAS, 60 DAS and at harvest of soybean crop. Application of SOB @ 3 lit ha-1 also significantly increase the uptake of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and sulphur by seed and stover of soybean crop. The available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in the soil at 30 DAS, 60 DAS and at harvest of soybean were remains unaffected under the different levels of SOB. While the available sulphur in soil at 30 DAS, 60 DAS and at harvest significantly increase with application of SOB @ 3 lit ha-1 . Application of SOB significantly increased the population of sulphur oxidizers at 30 DAS, 60 DAS and at harvest in soil, While, in case of different sources of sulphur did not produce any significant effect on population of sulphur oxidizers in soil at 30 DAS, 60 DAS and at harvest of soybean crop. The interaction effect of sulphur sources and SOB were found non-significant with respect of all growth parameters, yield, yield attributes, quality parameters, content and uptake of nutrients by plant at harvest, available N, P2O5, K2O and S at 30 DAS, 60 DAS and at harvest as well as sulphur oxidizing population in soil at 30 DAS, 60 DAS and at harvest of soybean. The quantitatively highest yield of soybean can be achieved by application of cosavest (fertis) @ 20 kg ha-1 and SOB @ 3 lit ha-1 in the medium black calcareous soils of South Saurashtra region of Gujarat.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDE OF AGRO INPUT DEALERS ABOUT CERTIFICATE COURSE ON PESTICDE MANAGEMENT 3718
    (JAU JUNAGADH, 2023-08) PITHIYA NIMISHKUMAR MULUBHAI; H. C. Chhodavadia; 2010120096
    Agro input dealers, Attitude, Certificate course, Knowledge, Pesticide management Agro input dealers are businesspersons with or without a technically qualification and a service provider. In order to overcome the possible negative effects, it is necessary to make technical qualification in agriculture as mandatory for issuing retailer ship license to provide agro advisory services besides selling agricultural inputs. The input dealer has no specifically for qualification to get license from the government and has inadequate knowledge about agricultural technology. So, training has to be provided to get better knowledge and skill to act as an extension service provider by competent institutes (Sharma, 2017). Pesticide is one of the important agri inputs in agriculture. The pesticides is mostly marketed by dealers, distributors and retailers. Most of the farmers are dependent on pesticides dealers/retailers for information related to insecticides and pest management. However, majority of the pesticides dealers do not have formal education in agriculture. It is essential therefore to impart technical knowledge on pesticides, pest management and advisory based on scientific recommendations. To recognizing this strong farmer-input dealer network and to address this issue, the government of India has structured a certificate course on pesticide management with the help of NIPHM to bring a paradigm shift into Indian agricultural extension system. With this consideration, the problem entitled “Knowledge and attitude of agro input dealers about certificate course on pesticide management” was undertaken. A study was conducted in Junagadh, Rajkot, Porbandar and Amreli district of Gujarat state. Forty agro input dealers from each district were selected as respondent, who had completed the certificate course on pesticide management. Thus, a sample of total 160 input dealers was considered for the study. With respect to the characteristics, half (50.00 per cent) of the respondent belong to middle age group, about more than half (55.00 per cent) of the respondent had education up to middle school (9th to 10th standard), nearly half (48.75 per cent) of the respondent belonged to very high annual income, slightly more than half (51.25 per cent) of the respondents had medium social participation, slightly more than half (51.87 per cent) of the respondents had medium experience as a dealer, more than half (54.37 per cent) of the respondents had medium utilization of source of information, more than half (53.13 per cent) of the input dealers had medium level of mass media exposure, slightly more than half (51.25 per cent) of the input dealers had no training received, slightly more than three fifth (61.87 per cent) respondents had medium extension contact, slightly more than half (51.25 per cent) of the respondents had medium level of economic motivation, majority (55.62 per cent) of respondents had medium level of management orientation, more than half (55.62 per cent) of the respondents had medium level of innovativeness, more than two-third (67.50 per cent) of respondents had medium level of risk orientation, one-third (35.00 per cent) of the input dealers had high level of achievement motivation, slightly less than one-third (29.37 per cent) of the input dealers had a high level of scientific orientation. In case of knowledge level of agro input dealers about certificate course on pesticide management slightly less than three-fifth (58.13 per cent) of the input dealers had medium level, followed by 18.11 per cent, 11.87 per cent, 11.11 per cent and 1.87 per cent of the input dealers had high, very high, low and very low level of knowledge. About one-third (35.00 per cent) of input dealers had favourable attitude towards certificate course on pesticide management, followed by 25.62 per cent, 20.00 per cent, 16.25 per cent had strongly favourable, moderately favourable and unfavourable attitude, respectively. Only few (3.13 per cent) of the input dealers had strongly unfavourale attitude towards certificate course on pesticide management. About one-third (33.13 per cent) of input dealers had strongly favourable attitude towards JAU followed by 25.62 per cent, 23.75 per cent, 15.00 per cent had favourable, moderately favourable and unfavourable attitude towards JAU, respectively. Only few (2.50 per cent) of the input dealers had strongly unfavourale attitude towards JAU. The characteristics like age, education, social participation, experience as dealer, source of information, mass media exposure, training received, extension contact, economic motivation, management orientation, innovativeness, achievement motivation, scientific orientation had significant relationship with knowledge about certificate course on pesticide management. The characteristics like age, education, social participation, experience as dealer, source of information, mass media exposure, training received, extension contact, economic motivation, innovativeness, achievement motivation, scientific orientation had significant relationship with attitude towards certificate course on pesticide management. The characteristics like age, education, social participation, experience as dealer, source of information, mass media exposure, training received, extension contact, innovativeness, achievement motivation, scientific orientation had significant relationship with attitude towards JAU. The major constraints faced by agro input dealers during certificate course on pesticide management were: unable to attend classes in the peak season, the duration for the certificate course on pesticide management is very lengthy, classes in working days affect our business. In case of the suggestions from the respondents, the programme curriculum must contain new techniques and molecules of pesticides, there should be more number of field visits to improve the skill, after completion of every session or a chapter, group discussion should be conducted
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    EFFECT OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF NPK ON GROWTH, YIELD AND QUALITY OF DRUMSTICK (Moringa oleifera L.) CV. PKM-1 3717
    (JAU JUNAGADH, 2023-08) VORA JEENAL SHANTIBHAI; Dr. K. D. Patel; 2020621016
    Drumstick, nitrogen, phosphorous, potash, levels, growth, yield, quality. The present research entitled “Effect of different levels of NPK on growth, yield and quality of drumstick (Moringa oleifera L.) cv. PKM-1” was conducted at Lal Baugh Farm, College of Horticulture, J.A.U., Junagadh during the year 2021-22. The treatments comprised of three levels of nitrogen (N) viz., N1 = 40 g/plant; N2: 60 g/plant and N3: 80 g/plant, two levels of phosphorus (P) viz., P1: 15 g/plant and P2: 30 g/plant, with three levels of potash (K) viz., K1: 15 g/plant; K2: 30 g/plant and K3: 45 g/plant. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design (Factorial) with eighteen treatment combinations and three replications. The results indicated that among three levels of nitrogen, N3 (80 g/plant) gave maximum plant height (4.80 m), maximum number of branches per plant (21.47), maximum number of pods per plant (141.67), maximum pod yield (11.32 kg/plant), maximum pod yield (12.57 t/ha), maximum fresh weight (79.46 g), maximum dry weight (18.53 g), maximum pod girth (4.68 cm), maximum pod length (61.19 cm), maximum number of seeds per pod (18.80), maximum nitrogen content of pod (2.05 %) and maximum soil available nitrogen (243.33 kg/ha). While, N1 (40 g/plant) gave minimum days of initiation of first flower (77.03 day), minimum days of first harvest (122.42 day) and maximum fiber content of pod (46.40 %). Between the two levels of phosphorus, P2 (30 g/plant) gave maximum number of branches per plant (20.00), minimum days of initiation of first flower (77.61 day), minimum days of first harvest (124.35 day), maximum number of pods per plant (138.91), maximum pod yield (10.49 kg/plant), maximum pod yield (11.65 t/ha), maximum fresh weight (74.54 g), maximum dry weight (17.64 g), maximum pod girth (4.55 cm), maximum pod length (61.44 cm), maximum number of seeds per pod (18.68), maximum phosphorus content of pod (0.73 %), maximum fiber content (45.15 %) and maximum soil available phosphorus (24.81 kg/ha). The results indicated that among three levels of potash, K3 (45 g/plant) gave maximum plant height (4.57 m), maximum number of branches per plant (20.58), minimum days of initiation of first flower (77.14 day), minimum days of first harvest (122.64 day), maximum number of pods per plant (140.36), maximum pod yield (10.84 kg/plant), maximum pod yield (12.05 t/ha), maximum fresh weight (76.33 g), maximum dry weight (17.55 g), maximum pod girth (4.56 cm), maximum pod length (60.84 cm), maximum number of seeds per pod (18.62), maximum potassium content of pod (1.98 %), maximum fiber content (45.17 %) and maximum soil available potassium (265.19 kg/ha). The interaction effect was found significant on maximum number of branches per plant (23.08), maximum number of pod yield (12.82 kg/plant and 14.24 t/ha) and maximum fresh weight of pod (85.15 g) in N3K3 (80 g/plant and 45 g/plant). While, maximum number of pods (147.44/plant) was recorded with N2P2 (60 g/plant and 30 g/plant) and minimum days of first harvest (118.17 days) was recorded with N1P2 (40 g/plant and 30 g/plant). As far as the economics point of view is concerned, the maximum net returns and Benefit Cost Ratio was obtained with treatments N3: 80 g/plant, P2: 30 g/plant and K3: 45 g/plant.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    EFFECT OF DIFFERENT REPRODUCTIVE FLUSH, BIOSTIMULANTS AND GROWTH REGULATORS ON FRUIT SET, YIELD AND QUALITY OF DRAGON FRUIT [Hylocereus polyrhizus (Britton & Rose)] UNDER SAURASHTRA REGION 3716
    (JAU JUNAGADH, 2023-08) PRERNA PRACHI; Dr. K. D. Patel; 2020621017
    The current experiment titled “Effect of different reproductive flush, biostimulants and growth regulators on fruit set, yield and quality of dragon fruit [Hylocereus polyrhizus (Britton & Rose)] under Saurashtra region” was conducted at Instructional Farm, Polytechnic in Horticulture, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh during the year 2022. The treatment comprised three levels of reproductive flush (F1- June, F2- July and F3- August) and eleven levels of biostimulants and growth regulators (B1- Seaweed extract @ 1%, B2- Seaweed extract @ 2%, B3- Cytozyme @ 0.4%, B4- Cytozyme @ 0.6%, B5- Novel organic fertilizer @ 1.5%, B6- Novel organic fertilizer @ 2%, B7- CPPU @ 10 ppm, B8- CPPU @ 20 ppm, B9- GA3 @ 100 ppm, B10- GA3 @ 200 ppm, B11- Control). The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design (RBD) with factorial concept with three replications and thirty-three treatment combinations. The result revealed that out of the three reproductive flush, F2 (July) witnessed maximum number of flowers/plant (3.73), fruit set (91.01%), number of fruits/plant (3.15), fruit yield (2.67 kg/pillar), fruit yield (12.38 t/ha), fruit breadth (7.11 cm), pulp weight (185.49 g), TSS:TA ratio (61.83), lowest titrable acidity (0.22%) and lowest fruit drop (9.00%). Whereas maximum fruit weight (267.45 g), total sugar (12.71%), reducing sugar (9.16%), ascorbic acid (8.91 mg/100 g pulp), minimum days to flower (14.55) and minimum days to fruit set (18.57) was observed during F3 (August). While maximum TSS (13.26 °Brix), fruit pulp percentage (72.60%) and lowest peel weight (59.18 g) were noticed during F1 (June). For the various treatment of biostimulant and growth regulators given, B2 (Seaweed extract @ 2%) turned out to be better over others and resulted in maximum number of flowers/plant (4.63), number of fruits/plant (4.22), fruit yield (3.60 kg/pillar), fruit yield (16.66 t/ha), fruit length (12.22 cm), fruit breadth (8.55 cm), fruit weight (391.79 g), pulp weight (293.14 g), TSS (14.87 °Brix), total sugar (13.77%), reducing sugar (9.63%), ascorbic acid (9.81 mg/100 g pulp), fruit pulp percentage (75.12%), TSS:TA ratio (135.95) and lowest titrable acidity (0.12%). While maximum non reducing sugar (4.38%) was noted in B1 (Seaweed extract @ 1%). The result also showed that B8 (CPPU @ 20 ppm) took minimum days to flower (13.20) and minimum days to fruit set (20.92) whereas maximum fruit set (91.37%) and lowest fruit drop (8.64%) were noticed in B7 (CPPU @ 10 ppm). And lowest peel weight (52.73 g) was observed in B11 (Control). The interaction effect of reproductive flush, biostimulants and growth regulators was found non-significant for maximum parameters except for some fruit set and yield parameters. The result indicated maximum number of flowers/plant (6.34), number of fruits/plant (5.33), fruit yield (4.44 kg/pillar) and fruit yield (20.54 t/ha) in F2B2 (July + Seaweed extract @ 2%) whereas lowest fruit drop (0.03%) was recorded in F2B7 (July + CPPU @ 10 ppm) and F2B8 (July + CPPU @ 10 ppm), respectively.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    HETEROSIS AND COMBINING ABILITY IN SESAME (Sesamum indicum L.) 3715
    (JAU JUNAGADH, 2023-07) CHAUDHARI PARTHKUMAR KODARLAL; H. V. Solanki; 2010121011
    Line × tester analysis, heterosis, combining ability, gene action, sesame The present investigation was undertaken in order to estimate the heterosis, combining ability and gene action for yield and its components in sesame [Sesamum indicum L.] through line × tester analysis. The experimental materials comprised of eight lines, four testers and resultant 32 hybrids along with a one standard check (GT 6). The experiment was conducted in Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications at Main Oilseeds Research Station, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh during kharif 2022. The observations were recorded for 13 characters viz., days to 50% flowering, days to maturity, plant height (cm), number of branches per plant, height to first capsule (cm), number of capsules per plant, length of capsule (cm), width of capsule (cm), number of seeds per capsule, number of capsules per leaf axil, 1000-seed weight (g), oil content (%) and seed yield per plant (g). Analysis of variance for experimental design revealed significant differences among genotypes and hybrids for all the traits indicating the presence of sufficient amount of genetic variability for all the traits under study. The mean square due to parents as well as hybrids were also found highly significant for all the characters studied indicating substantial amount of genetic variability present among parents and hybrids, respectively for all the thirteen traits. The mean square due to parent vs hybrids comparison was also found highly significant for the most of characters except days to 50% flowering, days to maturity, number of branches per plant and length of capsule (cm). Significant mean square for most of the traits indicating the presence of considerable genetic diversity in the material studied. The data on mean performance revealed that the performance of crosses was better than parental lines. Among the lines, N 63-39 exhibited highest seed yield per plant followed by AT 522 and AT 377. These lines were also found superior for days to 50 % flowering, days to maturity, plant height (cm), number of branches per plant, number of capsules per plant, length of capsule (cm), width of capsule (cm) and 1000- seed weight (g). Among testers, GT 10 exhibited the highest seed yield per plant along with superiority for number of branches per plant, number of capsules per plant, number of seeds per capsule and oil content (%). Considering per se performance of hybrids, the superior cross combinations for seed yield per plant were AT 522 x GT 3, IC 204528 x AT 338 and N 62-39 x AT 338. These cross combinations also had high per se performance for one or more seed yield component traits. The estimates of heterobeltiosis for seed yield per plant ranged -30.853% to 34.886%, while standard heterosis ranged from -21.938% to 36.759%. The cross combination viz., DC 4 x AT 338 had highest, significant and desirable heterobeltiosis followed by AT 522 x GT 3 and AT 482 x AT 338. The cross AT 522 x GT 3 exhibited highest significant heterosis towards positive direction over standard check (GT 6) followed by IC 204528 x AT 338 and N 62 39 x AT 338. These crosses also exhibited desirable heterosis for seed yield component traits viz., number of branches per plant, length of capsule and 1000-seed weight (g) suggested that heterosis for seed yield was associated with heterosis for seed yield component traits. Analysis of variance for combining ability indicated that the mean squares due to lines were significant for all the characters. Whereas, the mean squares due to testers were significant for all the characters except plant height (cm) and 1000-seed weight (g). The mean squares due to line × tester was found significant for all the characters studied except days to maturity and width of capsule (cm). The ratio of σ 2 GCA/σ2 SCA was less than one for all characters indicated involvement of non-additive type of gene action in the expression of this traits except days to maturity. The general combining ability analysis revealed that the parent N 62 39 was good general combiner for days to maturity, 1000-seed weight (g) and seed yield per plant (g); AT 510 gave desirable gca effect simultaneously for three characters viz., length of capsule (cm), number of capsules per leaf axil and 1000-seed weight (g); AT 377 for plant height (cm), number of capsules per plant and number of capsules per leaf axil; AT 375 was good general combiner for days to 50% flowering, number of capsules per leaf axil and oil content (%) and line DC 4 was good general combiner for number of branches per plant and 1000-seed weight (g). The tester, AT 338 was good combiner for days to maturity, length of capsule (cm), number of seeds per capsule and seed yield per plant (g). On the basis of per se performance and gca effect the parents viz., N 62- 39 and AT 338 found superior for seed yield and its component traits which could be utilized in the future sesame yield improvement programme. The cross combinations viz., AT 522 x GT 3, AT 482 x AT 338 and AT 377 x GT 1 were found to be good specific cross combinations for seed yield per plant which were in combination of average × average, poor × good and average × poor combiners, respectively. Crosses with high sca effects for seed yield per plant also depicted high sca effects for important seed yield attributes viz., number of seeds per capsule and number of capsules per plant. On the basis of per se performance, heterotic response, combining ability estimates and gene action involved in the expression of seed yield and its component traits, the cross AT 522 x GT 3 appeared to be the most superior cross combination. This crosses also exhibited higher heterotic response and sca effects in desirable direction for seed yield component traits. Therefore, these crosses could be exploited for heterosis breeding programme to boost the seed yield in sesame.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    MOLECULAR AND BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF PROMISING OKRA [Abelmoschus esculentus] GENOTYPES 3714
    (JAU JUNAGADH, 2023-08) AASHIMA KHAJURIA; Dr. U. K. Kandoliya; 2010121070
    The present investigation on “Molecular and biochemical characterization of promising Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) genotypes” was carried out at the Department of Biotechnology, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh with objectives to analyse molecular characterization of 20 different okra genotypes using various PCR based molecular markers viz. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD), Inter Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSRs) and Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) as well as to find out the phylogenic relationship among different okra genotypes, as well as, estimation of biochemical parameters of okra genotypes was done. The 20 genotypes of okra were selected for the molecular study. Pooled study of molecular marker through RAPD, ISSR and SSR used to confirm the differences and similarity between the okra genotypes. Total 20 RAPD primers were screened, out of which 10 primers amplified a total of 53 bands. There were 52 polymorphic bands out of 53 bands with average of 5.2 bands per primer. The polymorphism obtained for RAPD primers was 98.75 per cent. The Polymorphism Information Content (PIC) values for RAPD markers were ranged from 0.66 to 0.85. For ISSR analysis, total 21 ISSR primers were screened, out of which 10 primers amplified a total of 43 bands. The polymorphism obtained for ISSR primers was 95 per cent. The Polymorphism Information Content (PIC) values for ISSR markers were ranged from 0.46 to 0.85. For SSR analysis, total 15 SSR primers were screened, out of which 10 primers amplified a total of 10 bands. Genetic similarity with all three molecular markers were determined for each pair of twenty okra entries which revealed that genotype JOL-20-02 and JOL-21-09 showed highest similarity (90%) like that AOL-03-01 and JOL-09-06 showed lowest similarity (18%). Jaccard’s similarity coefficient and UPGMA method were used to develop a dendrogram which divided the genotypes into two main clusters I and II with an average resemblance of 31 %. The Main cluster I was divided into two sub clusters A and B with around 49% similarity. while Cluster II consist of only one genotypes AOL-03-01 which is most diverse among other 19 Genotypes. Regarding the biochemical parameters, the highest moisture content was recorded in okra genotype JOL-20-04 (81.31%), while the lowest moisture content was found in genotype JOL-13-03 (78.71%). The total carbohydrate content varied significantly among the different genotypes, with the highest value in JOL-20-02 (13.75 g.100g-1 ). The crude protein content ranged from the maximum in JOL-12-13 (8.69 g.100g-1 ) to the minimum in JOL-13-03 (4.82 g.100g-1 ). The total fat content also varied significantly among the genotypes, with the highest value in GJO-3 (3.61 g.100g-1 ). The ash content showed significant variation among the genotypes and found highest in GO-6 (6.83g.100g-1 ). The maximum fiber content was found in ABSTRACT Abstract Pusa Swarni genotype (3.87 g.100g-1 ). The total carotenoid content was found highest in JOL 12-13. The total phenol content varied between 2.03 mg. g-1 in JOL-12-10 (lowest) to 2.25 mg.g-1 in GO-6 and JOL-20-02 (highest). The highest ascorbic acid content was recorded by genotype JOL-21-09 (4.96 mg.100g-1 in), followed by 4.95 mg.100g-1 in JOL-21-02. The higher antioxidant activity was observed with the genotype JOL-20-02. The calcium, magnesium, iron, copper, zinc, and manganese content of the 20 okra genotypes were carried out and expressed on dry weight basis. The highest calcium content was recorded in variegated genotype AOL-03-01 (1409.92 mg.100g-1 ) whereas the highest Mg content was found in red genotype JOL-12-12 (565.76 mg.100g-1 ). The iron content was varied between 28.60 mg.kg-1 in dark green genotype JOL-21-02 (lowest) to 98.87 mg.kg-1 in JOL 12-12 (highest) having a red pod whereas the copper content was ranged from 1.75 mg.100g-1 in Pusa Swarni (lowest) to 11.78 mg.100g.kg in JOL-12-12 (highest). The Mn content was varied between 26.57 mg.kg-1 in GO-6 (lowest) to 45.42 mg.kg D/W in JOL-09-06 (highest). Overall, the red genotype JOL-12-12 contained the higher Mg, Iron and Copper content. The Comparing the biochemical parameters with the pooled data of cluster analysis, genotype JOL-20-02 exhibited the highest chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, total carbohydrate, antioxidant activity, phenol, and mucilage content, as well as the lowest carotenoid content. Genotype JOL-21-02 also had the highest chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b content, as well as the lowest calcium, magnesium, zinc, iron, and manganese content. Both genotypes belonged to the dark green pod group of okra and covered into the same subcluster based on RAPD, ISSR, and SSR markers. On the other hand, genotype JOL-12-13 had the highest protein, zinc, and carotenoid content. The dark green genotypes JOL-20-09 and JOL 20-04 had the highest ascorbic acid content and moisture content, respectively. Several genotypes (JOL-18-12, JOL-12-10, JOL-20-06, JOL-21-09, JOL-09-03, JOL-09-06, JOL-11- 12, JOL-18-07, and GO-6) shared the same subcluster in the pooled data cluster analysis. Genotype GJO-3 had the highest fat content and the lowest ash and copper content, and it was the only genotype in a subcluster. Genotype AOL-03-01 had the highest calcium content and the lowest antioxidant activity and phenol content, and it was the only genotype in this cluster. Overall, this study revealed significant variability among the okra genotypes. Molecular analysis showed that AOL-03-01 (Variegated genotype) was the most diverse, while JOL-20- 02 and JOL-21-09 (Dark green genotypes) were the most similar. The dendrogram based on biochemical parameters indicated that JOL-20-06, JOL-12-08, and Pusa Swarni were the most diverse among the other genotypes. The information obtained from this study will be valuable for developing okra genotypes with a wider and more diverse genetic background, aiming to enhance crop quality and productivity. The analysis of molecular markers demonstrated considerable polymorphism in okra, and the employed techniques can provide precise information about the genetic relationships among okra genotypes. These findings can be useful for identifying genetic diversity and implementing molecular breeding and marker-assisted selection in crop improvement programs. Keywords: Abelmoschus esculentus L., Antioxidant activity, Biochemical parameter, Carbohydrates, ISSR, Molecular markers, Mucilage, Okra, Phenol, Promising genotypes, Protein, RAPD, SSR
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    GENOTYPE×ENVIRONMENT INTERACTION FOR YIELD AND QUALITY RELATED TRAITS IN GROUNDNUT FOR SELECTION OF CLIMATE RESILIENT GENOTYPE 3713
    (JAU JUNAGADH, 2023-07) URMI P PARMAR; PRAVEEN KONA; 2010121065
    G x E interaction, AMMI and GGE biplot, MASV and MASI, Correlation, Yield, physiological and quality related traits, fatty acid profiling The present investigation entitled “Genotype × Environment interaction for yield and quality related traits in groundnut for selection of climate resilient genotypes” was conducted at ICAR- Directorate of Groundnut Research (DGR), Junagadh in Summer-2022 using 30 groundnut genotypes in Randomized Block Design (RBD) with three replications following spacing of 45 cm × 10 cm. The experiment comprised four different environments: Normal date of sowing with moisture stress (E1), Normal date of sowing with normal irrigation (E2), late sown condition with moisture stress (E3) and late sown condition with normal irrigation (E4) where all the genotypes were evaluated for various yield and quality related traits. The analysis of variance conducted for each individual environment demonstrated the significance of genotypes in relation to all traits, indicating the presence of ample variability within the experimental material. Additionally, the analysis of variance performed for pooled data across environments revealed the significance of genotypes over environments for all studied traits. The environments exhibited significant effect in the expression of all traits, indicating the substantial influence of the environment on trait manifestation. The G x E interaction was highly significant for most traits, highlighting the varying behavior of genotypes across different environments for all traits studied. The study analyzed kernel yield per plant in different sowing and irrigation conditions which is a primary prerequisite for groundnut producer. Late summer sowing with normal irrigation resulted in the highest average yield. Genotype GJG 31 performed well in moisture stress, while NRCG 14670 excelled under normal irrigation condition. Genotype GG 34 had the highest overall kernel yield. This study examined the relationship between yield and in pooled data analysis contributing traits in order to facilitate effective genotype selection for breeding programmes. The results imply that the genotypic correlation between traits was generally stronger than the phenotypic correlation, indicating a robust inherent association at the genetic level. In drought conditions, positive correlations were observed between kernel yield per plant and traits such as harvest index, HKW (Hundred kernel weight), O/L (Oleic/Linoleic), kernel length, kernel width, shelling percentage, and oil content. Under normal condition, positive correlations were found with HKW, O/L ratio, and pod weight. Irrespective of irrigation conditions, a negative correlation was identified between kernel yield per plant and plant height. These findings provide valuable insights for selecting genotypes with desirable traits to enhance kernel yield across diverse environments. In this study, various groundnut genotypes were tested to resistance/tolerance for midseason drought. Unfortunately, none of the genotypes showed resistance, resulting in a significant yield reduction exceeding 30% in comparison to normal conditions. However, the evaluation of physiological efficiency was successful. Drought stress led to decreased SLA (Specific Leaf Area), RWC (Relative Water Content) and increased SCMR (SPAD chlorophyll meter reading). This study suggests that using SCMR as a screening technique can effectively assess multiple genotypes under moisture stress, reducing the workload for breeders in varietal development programmes. AMMI (Additive Main effect and Multiplicative Interaction) and GGE (Genotype Main Effect plus Genotype × Environment) biplot were employed to further investigate the G x E interaction. The results indicated significant mean squares for G x E interactions for various traits, including dry pod yield per plant, kernel yield per plant, hundred kernel weight, oil content, protein content, total soluble sugar (TSS), and O/L ratio. These findings suggest that the genotypes displayed diverse responses to different environments, enabling the prediction of genotype performance for these specific traits. Genotypes, NRCG 11929 and GJG 31 displayed instability but above-average yields, while genotypes NRCG 12731 and NRCG 4054 had below-average kernel yield per plant. Genotype PBSA 11035 exhibited high yield performance and stability, making it a promising candidate for breeding programs. Late sowing with normal irrigation environment differentiated genotypes, while late sowing with moisture-induced stress represented the kernel yield. Unique and well-adapted genotypes were identified in each environment. Effect of drought stress and sowing conditions on fatty acid composition, revealed that genotype NRCG 11929 had high oleic acid to linoleic acid (O:L) ratio. These findings suggest the potential for targeted breeding programmes to develop groundnut varieties with optimal O/L ratios, benefiting the industry and meeting the demand for high-quality groundnut oil. Thus, the study concludes that the AMMI and GGE models are effective tools for studying G x E interaction in multi-environment yield trials in groundnut. The ranking of genotypes using Modified AMMI Stability Index (MASI) and Modified AMMI Stability Value (MASV) stability parameters allowed for the identification of stable and high-yielding genotypes. In the present study, genotype PBSA 11035 was identified as the most stable and high-yielding, followed by GJG 31. On the other hand, genotype PBSA 11007 was found to be the least stable with low yield among all the genotypes for agronomic traits. After confirmative testing promising stable genotype is PBSA 11035 can be used as parents to generate breeding material for the development of novel groundnut varieties with greater adaptability across environments.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    COST OF CULTIVATION AND RESOURCE USE EFFICIENCY OF SOYBEAN CROP IN SAURASHTRA REGION 3712
    (JAU JUNAGADH, 2023-07) GAJERA HARSHITBHAI PRADIPBHAI; C. R. Bharodia; 2072121003
    Soybean (Glycine max) is one of the most important oil crops of the world which also has tremendous importance as a food legume. This study examines the growth, instability soyabean crop using secondary data and analyses the adoption level, cost of cultivation, resource use efficiency, and constraints faced by farmers using primary data of 180 farmers from three districts Rajkot, Junagadh and Gir Somnath. The compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of soybean area and production in India showed modest growth, while the yield had a minimal increase. In contrast, Gujarat exhibited significant growth in all three aspects. Instability was observed in soybean production, indicating vulnerability to various factors. The adoption of improved cultivation practices was moderate to high, with harvesting and seed treatment being the most widely adopted practices. The cost of cultivation per hectare was high, but the net profit indicated overall profitability. Resource allocation efficiency analysis suggested scope for improvement, particularly in the areas of seed, labor, plant protection, and fertilizer. Farmers faced constraints related to supply, economics, and marketing, including the lack of improved varieties, credit availability, and market price fluctuations
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    CHARACTERIZATION OF MUNGBEAN (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) GENOTYPES THROUGH MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS, CHEMICAL TESTS AND SEED QUALITY PARAMETERS 3711
    (JAU JUNAGADH, 2023-07) KAMANI JANVI VRAJLAL; Dr. L. K. Sharma; 2010121028
    Mungbean, characterization, plant morphology, chemical test, seed quality parameters. An experiment was carried out at the Pulses Research Station, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh, to characterize fifty mungbean genotypes based on morphological characters (plant, leaf, stem, flower, pod and seed), chemical tests and seed quality parameters. Fifty mungbean genotypes were grouped into different groups based on 24 plant morphological characters, 4 chemical tests and 4 seed quality parameters. Based on plant growth type, the mungbean genotypes were grouped as erect (3 genotypes), semi erect (46 genotypes) and spreading (1 genotype). Based on plant growth habit, the mungbean genotypes were grouped as determinate (48 genotypes) and indeterminate (2 genotypes). Based on plant height, the mungbean genotypes were grouped as short (<50 cm) (29 genotypes) and medium (50-70 cm) (21 genotypes). Based on hypocotyl: anthocyanin coloration, the mungbean genotypes were grouped as present (29 genotypes) and absent (21 genotypes). In all the 50 genotypes, leaflet lobes was absent. Based on the leaf shape, the mungbean genotypes were grouped as deltoid (2 genotypes) and ovate (48 genotypes). Based on leaf colour, the mungbean genotypes were grouped as light green (24 genotypes), green (22 genotypes) and dark green (4 genotypes). Based on leaf vein color, the mungbean genotypes were grouped as green (11genotypes), green with purple splashes (10 genotypes) and purple (29 genotypes). Based on petiole color, the mungbean genotypes were grouped as green (8 genotypes), green with purple splashes (40 genotypes) and purple (2 genotypes). Based on leaf size, the mungbean genotypes were grouped as small (7 genotypes), medium (37 genotypes) and large (6 genotypes). Based on stem pubescence, the mungbean genotypes were grouped into absent (3 genotypes) and present (47 genotypes). Based on, stem color the genotypes grouped into green (8 genotypes) and green with purple splashes (42 genotypes). Based on time of flowering, the mungbean genotypes were grouped as early (< 40 days) (5 genotypes), medium (40-50 days) (43 genotypes) and late (> 50 days) (2 genotypes). Based on flower color of petal, the mungbean genotypes were grouped into yellow (34 genotypes) and light yellow (16 genotypes). Pod pubescence was present in all fifty mungbean genotypes. Among 50 mungbean genotypes, pod color of premature pod was green (29 genotypes), while it was green with pigmented structure (21 genotypes). Based on pod curvature, the Name of the student: Kamani Janvi Vrajlal Major Guide: Dr. L. K. Sharma mungbean genotypes were grouped into two groups as straight (24 genotypes) and curved (26 genotypes). Based on pod position, the mungbean genotypes were grouped into two groups as above canopy (24 genotypes) and intermediate (26 genotypes). Based on the pod color of mature pods, mungbean genotypes were grouped into two groups as black (4 genotypes) and brown (46 genotypes). Among 50 genotypes, mature pod length was short (25 genotypes), while it was medium (25 genotypes). Seed color was green in all mungbean genotypes. Based on seed shape, drum (22 genotypes) and oval shaped (28 genotypes). On the basis of seed size, the mungbean genotypes categorized in medium seed size (3-5 gm) (24 genotypes) and large seed size (> 5 gm) (26 genotypes). Based on seed coat luster, the mungbean genotypes grouped as shiny (45 genotypes) and dull (5 genotypes). Based on the seed coloration with phenol test, mungbean genotypes were grouped into no change (18 genotypes), light brown (28 genotypes) and brown (4 genotypes). Based on the peroxidase test, mungbean genotypes were grouped into three categories viz., light brown (8 genotypes), brown (3 genotypes) and dark brown (39 genotypes) types. All 50 genotypes expressed reddish brown colour in potassium hydroxide test (KOH). On the basis of NaOH test, mungbean genotypes were grouped into brown (10 genotypes) and orange (26 genotypes) and straw (14 genotypes). Based on seed quality parameters, significantly highest seed germination percentage was observed in GJM 1104 (99.00 %) and the lowest was observed in GJM 1822 (86.00 %). Seedling length ranged from 8.90 cm (GJM 1714) to 15.29 cm (GJM 1010) with a mean of 13.02 cm. Seedling vigour index I ranged from 836.96 (GJM 1714) to 1505.35 (GJM 1010). All the genotypes evaluated were vigorous with a mean of 1232.07. Seedling vigour index II ranged from 12.76 (GJM 1714) to 27.13 (GJM 1020) with a mean of 17.30. From the above results, it can be concluded that plant GJM 1004 was distinct genotype based on plant morphology, as it was spreading plant growth type, determinate plant growth habit, short plant height and absent hypocotyl: anthocyanin coloration and GJM 1012 was distinct genotype with erect plant growth type, intermediate plant growth habit, medium plant height and present hypocotyl: anthocyanin coloration. On the basis of leaf morphology, GJM 1020 and GJM 1022 were distinct genotypes with deltoid leaf shape, green leaf color, purple leaf vein color, green with purple splashes petiole color and medium leaf size. Based on stem character, GJM 1703 was distinct genotype with absent stem pubescence and green stem color. Based on flower morphology, GJM 1028 was distinct genotype with late flowering and light yellow flower color of petal and GJM 1009 and GJM 1703 were distinct genotypes with early flowering and yellow flower color of petal. Based on pod morphology, GJM 1822 was distinct genotype with green color of premature pod, intermediate pod position, short pod length and black pod color. Based on seed morphology, GJM 1714 distinct genotype with drum seed shape, medium seed size and dull seed coat luster. Based on chemical tests, genotype GJM 1116 was distinct with brown color in phenol test, brown color in peroxidase test and orange in NaOH test. The assessment of genetic purity is an important criterion in seed production programme. Therefore, simple and reliable techniques need to be developed for genetic purity assessment and genotype characterization. The study suggested that plant, seed and seedling morphological characteristics and seed quality parameters were found to be useful in broad classification of mungbean genotypes. Further, the cultivar reaction to different chemicals like, phenol test, peroxidase test, KOH test and NaOH test were also found useful in grouping of mungbean genotypes.