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  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    (JAU, JUNAGADH, 2019-06) Makwana Chandrasinh N; Dr. U. D. Patel
    The present experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of quercetin and curcumin against cadmium induced oxidative damage in brain, testes and heart of rats. The study was conducted on 36 male rats which were randomly divided into six groups based on their body weights at the age of 8-9 weeks. Rats of group C1 were kept as normal control. Rats of toxic control group (C2), vehicle group (C3), quercetin treatment group (T1), curcumin treatment group (T2) and, quercetin and curcumin in combination treatment group were administered with cadmium in drinking water (100 ppm) for 28 days. Rats of vehicle group (C3) were administered with corn oil (vehicle). Rats of group T1, T2 and T3 were orally administered with quercetin (50 mg/kg, P.O.), curcumin (100 mg/kg, P.O.) and both quercetin and curcumin in combination, respectively for 28 days. The symptoms of toxicity, feed consumption, body weight gain, oxidative stress parameters, AChE activity in the brain cortex, plasma nitric oxide level, epididymal sperm parameters and gross and histopathological changes in brain, testes and heart were studied. Noticeable signs of toxicity were not observed in rats of any groups except hair fall which was less in other treatment groups. Cadmium exposure in rats had no significant (P>0.05) effect on feed consumption. The body weight gain was reduced during 4th week only which was prevented by the treatment of quercetin and curcumin in combination. In brain cortex, the SOD and CAT activity in brain cortex was slightly lowered with significant increased level of MDA in rats of cadmium-exposed and vehicle-treated groups. Quercetin treatment slightly improved SOD and catalase activity (non-significantly) with significant higher level of GSH in brain cortex which resulted in lower value of MDA level of brain cortex. Curcumin treatment also significantly improved SOD activity and GSH level of brain cortex. Animals treated with quercetin and curcumin in combination increased SOD and catalase activity along with improved GSH level in brain cortex which resulted in significantly lowered level of MDA. Quercetin in combination of curcumin showed more prevention to lipid peroxidation in brain cortex. In testes, cadmium exposure to animals caused slight increase in SOD activity, unaltered catalase activity and level of GSH as compared to normal control animals. The lipid peroxidation in testes was higher. Quercetin treatment was able to increase CAT activity which resulted in low level of MDA. Curcumin treatment did not improve oxidative stress parameters. Combined treatment of quercetin and curcumin resulted nearly normal activity of SOD, higher activity of CAT with lowest level of MDA amongst all groups. Improved SOD activity in heart with lower level of plasma nitric oxide by quercetin alone treatment might be responsible for reduction of MDA level (non significant) in the heart of rats. Curcumin treatment could not be able to alter the cadmium-induced lipid peroxidation in heart of rats. However, quercetin when administered along with curcumin were able to manage higher activity of SOD and CAT (non-significant) along with significant GSH stimulating effect resulted in decrease in MDA level (less lipid peroxidation) in the heart of rats (T3). Activity of AChE in the brain cortex was non-significantly (P>0.05) decreased in cadmium-exposed control groups. Group treated with quercetin (T1), curcumin (T2) and quercetin and curcumin in combination (T3) showed slight higher AChE activity (non-significant, P>0.05) as compared to that of animals of cadmium-exposed and vehicle-treated groups (C2 and C3). Plasma nitric oxide level was significantly (P<0.05) increased in cadmium-exposed and vehicle-treated groups (C2 and C3). Nitric oxide levels in plasma of rats treated curcumin alone (T2) as well as quercetin and curcumin (T3) were significantly higher. The oxidative damage following sub acute cadmium exposure at 100 ppm level through oral route was mainly due to increased level of nitric oxide in rats. In epididymis, mean values of total epididymal sperm count, epididymal sperm motility, total epididymal live sperm count were significantly altered in cadmium-exposed rats which were reversed by the treatment of quercetin, curcumin alone as well as in combination. Sperm deformities in rats of different groups were non-significantly differ from each other. Cadmium exposure for 28 days at 100 ppm caused histopathological alterations in brain cortex, testes and heart of rats under study. The quercetin and curcumin when given alone as well as in combination partially prevented the alterations caused by cadmium-induced oxidative stress. As compare to individual treatment of quercetin and curcumin alone, the combination of both agents produced more ameliorating effect against cadmium-induced histopathological changes.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    For the present study, 150 blood samples (50 from each breed viz. Dumba, Patanwadi and Marwari) were collected randomly from animals located at Sheep Breeding Farm. Morbi, Gujarat. Isolation of genomic DNA was carried out. The quality of DNA was estimated by agarose gel electrophoresis. The amplification of Growth hormone gene and KRT gene was carried out using appropriate primer pairs, optimized reaction mixtures and PGR profile. The genotyping was done with the help of PGR RFLP. The POPGENE software was used for estimating allelic and genotype frequencies at different loci of the genes and to verify Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Genetic identity and genetic distances were measured by Nei's original measures amone various breeds. ^ A. A781G locus. 144 sheep were heterozygous |AB| and 6 sheep were homosygous (AA) hu, no homozygous ,BB| ind.vidual. were found among all the three breeds. At A1575G locus of Growth hormone gene, all sheep were homozygous (CO) but no homozygous (DD) as well as heterozygous (CD) individuals were found in all the three populations. All breeds exhibited clear predominance of the A allele, with its frequency in samples from Marwari breed as 0.54 and 0.50 in Patanwadi breed and 0.52 in Dumba breed. The frequency of allele B in three population was 0.46, 0.5 and 0.48, respectively. Two genotypes viz. AA and AB were observed during the study at different loci for GH gene. The genotypic frequencies of AB were greater than AA for all the three breeds. Overall genotype frequency of AB genotype was greater (0.94) than AA genotype (0.06). This suggests that heterozygous genotype was favoured for body weight and growth in all the three breeds of sheep. At locus KRT 1.2, studies revealed three genotypes viz MM MN and NN with genotype frequencies of 0.74, 0.24 0.02- 0 54 0.42 85 0.04 and 0.64, 0.36 85 0.00 for Marwari, Patanwadi and Dumba breeds, respectively. The overall genotypic frequencies at KRT 1.2 locus for MM, MN and NN were 0.64, 0.34 and 0 02 respectively. The overall allele frequencies for allele M and allele N were 0.81 and 0.19 respectively. In general, the frequency of allele M was higher that of allele N in all three breeds. Three genotypes viz. MM, MN and NN were observed in the study. In general, the genotypic frequencies of MM were higher than MN and NN in all the three breeds. Diversity analysis revealed that Marwari and Dumba breeds were genetically more related (genetic identity = O.9992 and genetic distance = 0.0008). The matrix obtained showed high value of genetic identity between breeds for the growth hormone loci thus, less genetic distance was found between these breeds The observed heterozygosity was higher than expected heterozygosity in all the three breeds. The mean values of observed and expected heterozygosity for GH gene were 0.96 and 0.5009 respectively; while the same for KRT gene were 0 34 and 0.3088 respectively. HWE was tested using chi-square test. In case of GH gene, all three breeds showed significant deviation from HWE (PsO.Ol); while, for KRT locus 1.2, all three breeds were in HWE (P>0.05). The average hetero^gosity for GH gene and KRT locus 1.2 were 0.4987 and 0.3037. Least squares analysis was carried out for physical traits and wool quality traits.Least squares means for birth weight (BWT), three month weight (3WT), six month weight (6WT), adult body weight (ABW), were 3.18 kg, 9.22 kg, 11.70 kg, 27^07 kg while least squares means for staple length , fibre diameter and medullation 0/0 were 5.92 cm, 42.77 p and 76.37 o/„ respectively. The breed of the sheep was a significant (PsO.Ol) source of variation in all the traits. Growth hormone genotype had highly significant effect (P<0.01) on birth weight, the higher birth weight being observed in AB heterozygotes. Greater frequencies of allele A and genotypes AB and AA Showed that selection favouurreeda AA Aa homo^gotes and AB heterozygotes. The measures of Net's genetic identity and genetic distance showed that Marwari and Dumba are genetically more close among the three breeds, Chi-square test for HWE with respect to GH gene showed that all three breeds were away fmm HWE, Chi-square test tor HWE with respect, KRT gene showed that all three breeds were in HWE, Effect o'f breed was highly significant (^PsO.-Ouli)) oonn bbiirrft-hh ,we i•g hut, 3-month weight, 6-month weight, adult body weight, staple length, fibre diameter and medullation (%). Mean birth weight for genotype AA and AB were significantly (PsO.Ol) different, individuals with AB genotype being higher in birth weight than those with homozygous AA genotype. The important conclusion that emerges from the study is that Dumba seems intermediate between Patanwadi and Marwari breeds of sheep with respect to GH and KRT gene. The OH A1575G locus was completed fixed for CO genotype. No individuals with BB homozygous for locus A781G, CD hetero^gous or DO homo^gous for locus A1575G were detected in all the three sheep population under study.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    (JAU,JUNAGADH, 2012-03) Saurabh Kumar Singhai; Dr. K. Ravikala
    An investigation was undertaken to study the variation m the udder and teat shapes and dimensions, body measurements and their relationship with the milk yield and milking traits in Gir cows. The study is carried out on hundred Gir cows maintained at the Cattle Breeding Farm, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh, Gujarat. The present investigation was carried out in four groups of lactating Gir cows based on udder shape, teat shape, lactation number and stage of lactation, over a period of three months from 01-11-2010 to 31-01-2011. The results showed that among the different udder shapes round shape was very common on the farm followed by trough pendulous and bowl shapes and their occurrences were 35.0%,' 27.0/6, 23.0% and 15.0% resoectivelv ^itviii-. i Y- Similarly, cylindrical teats were more common with a Hpceircceennttaaggee ootf ^35n.0 followejd l by pear, bottle and funnel shaped of teats with 21%, 20% and 24% respectively. The udder & teat measurements in Gir cows were low in bowl shaped udders and high in pendulous shaped udders compared to the other shapes of udders. Body measurements as body length, height at withers and heart girth with different udder shapes were found higher in pendulous shaped udders however, measurements on body length were significant (P < 0.05) with respect to different shapes of udder. Gir cows with pendulous shaped udders were found to have highest average daily milk yield followed by trough, round and bowl udders. Similarly milking time and milk flow rate was higher in pendulous shaped udders and lower in round shaped udders. The maximum milk yielding capacity of pendulous udders might be due to maximum udder, teat and body measurements. Bowl shaped udders were low in all measurements showing low milk yielding capacity. According to different teat shapes in Gir cows, all udder, teat and body measurements had higher means for cylindrical type teats and low for pear type teats. Funnel shaped teats were found to have higher daily milk yield followed by cylindrical, pear and bottle shaped teats. Percent of Milk constituents as Fat, SNF and Protein were not affected due to teat shapes. Milk flow rate and milking time were found to be higher in funnel and cylindrical shaped teats respectively Udder lengths were continuously increasing with parity compare to udder width and udder depth which were highest in third parity animals. Gir cows in third parity were found to have higher average daily milk yield. All udder measurements were high in second stage of lactation (except udder length which is highest in first stage) and low in third stage of lactation. The results of various milking traits were significantly ( P < 0.05 ) higher for daily milk yield, milking time and milk flow rate in first stage of lactation compared to second and third stage of lactation. Percent milk constituents as Fat, SNF and Protein were higher in third stage and lower in second stage of lactation. A positive correlation was found between the udder measurements and the daily milk yield, however, the correlation was significant among udder length, udder width and daily milk yield (P<0.05). A positive correlation existed between the average daily milk yield and teat measurements but was significant (P<0.05) with the teat diameter. Body measurements (except body height) were positively and significantly correlated with udder and teat measurements. Body measurements are not correlated with milking traits and milk constituents. The correlation of milk flow rate with daily milk yield and milking time was significantly positive (P < 0.01). Regression analysis is positively and significantly (P < 0.05) dependent on udder length and teat diameter, having the Coefficient of Determination of 14% and 7.00% respectively. In comparison to all, regression analysis of milking traits as milking time and milk flow rate to average daily milk yield in Gir cows was found to be positively and significantly (P < 0.01) higher. Multiple linear regression equation has shown that maximum contribution to average daily milk yield was due to udder width, milking time and milk flow rate. However, value in Simple linear regressions for udder width, milking time and milk flow rate to daily milk yield are found to be 8%, 47% and 31% respectively. So the above regression study suggests that udder width, milking time and milk flow rate are important factors deciding that milking potential of Gir cattle. Key Words: Gir cow, milk yield, teat dimensions, teat shape, udder dimensions, udder shape, body dimensions, milking traits
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    The present study entitled “CLINICAL STUDIES ON PREVALENCE AND THERAPEUTIC MANAGEMENT OF CANINE PARVOVIRUS INFECTION IN DOGS” was conducted at Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh. The duration of study was September, 2017 to June, 2018. A total of 100 fecal samples from dogs showing the symptoms like vomiting, diarrhoea, melena, dehydration and anorexia were considered for study. The parvovirus infection was diagnosed by rapid parvovirus antigen detection kit (ScanVet Parvo Kit) and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The prevalence in relation to breed, age, sex, vaccination status and month were studied based on the result of PCR assay. Positive cases were treated as per the predecided treatment protocol. The hematological alterations in the positive cases of CPV were studied before treatment. The study revealed that 26 and 40 dogs were confirmed for the presence of the CPV infection in faecal sample through ScanVet Parvo kit and PCR assay, respectively out of suspected cases. Thereby, based on PCR assay, the overall prevalence of canine parvovirus infection at T.V.C.C., Veterinary College, Junagadh was 40 %. The higher prevalence was observed in exotic breeds (67.5 %) in comparison with non descriptive (32.5 %) dogs. Higher prevalence observed in German shepherd (30 %) followed by Labrador retriever (10 %), Rottweiler (10 %) and Doberman pinscher (10 %) among exotic breed. The lower prevalence were found in Spitz (5 %) followed by Siberian husky (2.5 %). Out of 100 suspected cases of CPV, The highest prevalence was noted between the 2 - 4 months age group (42.5 %) followed by 0 - 2 months (30 %), 4 - 6 months (17.5 %) and 6 - 8 months (10 %) age groups. The prevalence of CPV infection was recorded 55 % in males and 45 % in females. The higher prevalence was confirmed for CPV by PCR assay during the month of November (35 %), followed by December (25 %), October (17.5 %), January (10 %) and February (10 %). Moreover, the lower prevalence was noted in the month April (2.5 %). However, none of the suspected cases were found positive during March, May, June and September. Non vaccinated dogs were more prone for CPV infection as compared to vaccinated dogs. The faecal samples found positive by ‘ScanVet Parvo kit’ were randomly divided in three different groups for therapeutic trial. The clinico-haemological observations of different groups were recorded. The major clinical signs exhibited by dogs suffering from parvovirus gastroenteritis were dullness, depression, anorexia, emaciation, dehydration, diarrhoea and vomiting. Haemorrhagic diarrhoea was present in 49 % cases. Faeces was yellowish watery and greenish watery in 23 % and 28 % of cases, respectively. Vomition was shown by 92 % dogs. The difference in the pulse rate and temperature was highly significant (P < 0.01) in comparison with healthy dogs where as respiration rates also significantly (P < 0.05) differed. Among the hematological parameters, hemoglobin, lymphocyte, total leukocyte count and total erythrocyte counts were lower and packed cell volume, neutrophils and monocyte count were found higher on day 0 in CPV infected dogs as compared to healthy dogs. Higher MCV and lower MCHC suggested macrocytic hypochromic anaemia. A total of 100 faecal samples were screened by ScanVet parvo rapid test kit and Polymerase Chain Reaction techniques for confirmation of presence of virus in the faecal samples. Out of 100 screened samples, 40 (40 %) were found amplified and yielded the products at 681 and 427 bps. Further, among 40 PCR positive samples, 37 amplified products found to be of ~ 583 bps and 3 products of ~ 427 bps. The samples amplified at 583 and 427 bps were positive for CPV infection of type 2c and type 2ab, respectively. The ScanVet Parvo, a rapid antigen detection test showed 65 % sensitivity and 100 % specificity in detection of CPV infection from faecal samples in comparison to PCR technique. Therapeutic trial was carried out in three groups viz group A, group B and group C. Each group had six animals. Positive cases detected by ScanVet Parvo kit were selected for all groups. Group A dogs were treated with Cefotaxime @ 25 mg/kg bwt q 24 hr IntraVenous (IV), group B dogs were treated with Amikacine @ 10 mg/kg bwt q 24 hr IntraMuscular (IM) and Ceftriaxone @ 25 mg/kg bwt q 24 hr IntraVenous (IV), group C dogs were treated with Ceftriaxone Tazobectum @ 25 mg/kg bwt q 24 hr IntraVenous (IV) along with supportive therapy. There was mortality on 5th day in group A and group C dogs. The case fatality rate of group A and group C were 50 % (3/6) and 33.33 % (2/6), respectively and no mortality observed in group B. In view of case fatality, the clinical efficacy in group A, group B and group C dogs were 50 % (3/6), 100 % (6/6) and 66.66 % (4/6), respectively. Thus, the clinical efficacy of Ceftriaxone along with Amikacin was greater in CPV affected dogs in terms of survivability and recovery
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Buffaloes have an unique position in Indian dairy sector as they are considered as bearer cheque of the rural flock. Each component of managerial practices interacts either independently or in combination to affect the productivity of the livestock. Proper housing reduces the energy wastage in maintaining thermo neutral zone as well as reduces the incidence of diseases. Understanding of livestock management practices followed by farmers is necessary to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the rearing systems. The present investigation was carried out to study managerial practices of buffaloes in Junagadh and Porbandar districts of Gujarat State. For the present study, three talukas of Junagadh and two talukas of Porbandar district were selected and from each selected taluka, six villages were selected randomly. Ten respondents were selected randomly from each village. Thus, random samples of 300 buffalo owners were selected for the study. The data was collected through personal interview schedule. Collected data was compiled, tabulated and analyzed using appropriate statistical tools and techniques. The study showed that a majority of buffalo owners (40%) belonged to middle age group and majority of respondents (76.67%) of the buffalo owners were literate. In the study area, 50.34% of the buffalo owners had large land holding and maximum respondents (54%) belonged to nuclear type of family. Maximum respondents (98%) attended calving and took care of the calves after parturition while 85.67% buffalo owners did not practice ligation and disinfection of the navel cord. In study area 33.33% respondents fed colostrum to buffalo calves and 71.67 % buffalo owners practiced deworming of calves. Majority of respondents (77%) did allow calves to suckle their dam. Maximum 96.67% and 94.67% respondents started giving green fodder and concentrate attaining age of 3 months, respectively. Most buffalo owners (59%) bred their buffaloes by natural method while 76.34% buffalo owners practiced to bred buffaloes in late heat stage. Majority of respondents (90.33%) practiced to treat anoestrus of buffaloes. Maximum buffalo owners (55.67%) had animal shed located inside dwelling house with kutcha slopped floor (83.67%). Most buffalo owners (78%) reduced heat stress in buffaloes by splashing of water and 71% farmers adopted both stall feeding and grazing to their buffalo. In study area, 80% buffalo owners cultivated green fodder, 92.67% and 91% respondents did not feed salt and mineral mixture to their buffaloes, respectively. Mostly grown green fodder were maize and lucerne in the study area, 51.33% and 40% respondents fed maize and lucerne to their buffaloes. Sorghum straw (33.33%) and groundnut gotar (61.67%) were fed as dry fodder to their buffaloes. Maximum buffalo owners (95.33%) did not offer bypass fat/protein to their buffaloes and 71.67% buffalo owners fed cottonseed cake to their buffaloes. In this area 82% respondents milked buffaloes by knuckling method. Most of the buffalo owners (95%) cleaned udder and teats of buffalo before milking. Majority of respondents (95.33%) milked their animal two times with dry hand. During milking of buffalo 65.67% respondents used open mouth bucket. Maximum (87.33%) buffalo owners transported milk to co-operative society by themselves. Majority of respondents (60%) practiced to diagnose udder for mastitis. Majority of respondents (84.67%) vaccinated buffaloes. In study area, 59.67% respondents cleaned water trough and mangers daily and 47.67% respondents cleaned animal shed on alternate days. Majority of buffalo owners (80.67%) practiced control of ecto-parasites. Most of the respondents 87.67% isolated sick buffaloes from healthy ones and 55.33% buffalo owners called livestock inspector to treat their buffaloes. Maximum respondents (50.33%) reported that metabolic disorders occurred commonly in previous time. In study area, the buffalo owners faced various constrains. Major problems were unavailability of timely artificial insemination, repeat breeding of buffaloes, poor irrigation facilities, unavailability of cheap and quality green fodder crops, unavailability of veterinary services on time, lack of proper veterinary services, poor facilities of timely vaccination of buffaloes, lack of technical knowledge to manage the dairy enterprise, lack of knowledge of recommended management practices, unavailability of loan for long duration, high rate of interest on loans, difficulty to store milk in summer season, irregular collection of milk reported by buffalo owners.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    In this study caprine skin was acellularized, and biocompatibility was evaluated on clinical abdominal hernias in buffaloes. Fresh skin was de-epithelialized with different concentrations of NaCl/trypsin over a range of periods. Further, de-epithelialized skin was acellularized with different concentrations of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) over a range of periods. Acellularization completeness was confirmed histologically. Prepared caprine acellular dermal matrix (CADM) was further characterized by Masson’s trichrome and Weigert staining, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), DNA quantification, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Twenty Jaffarabadi buffaloes with abdominal hernias were assigned into two equal groups: implanted with CADM (I) and polypropylene mesh (PPM, II). Clinical, hematological, biochemical and antioxidants evaluation was carried to assess healing progress. Histologically, skin treated with 0.25 % trypsin/4 M NaCl combination for 8 h resulted in complete de-epithelialization. Further treatment with 2 % SDS for 48 h demonstrated complete acellularity and orderly arranged collagen fibers. SEM examination confirmed preservation of collagen fibrils arrangement within CADM. Decrease in DNA content was significant (P < 0.05) in CADM (46.20 ± 7.94 ng/mg of tissue) as compared to fresh skin (662.56 ± 156.11 ng/mg of tissue). FTIR spectra of native skin with peaks at 1236.41, 1546.96, 1657.87, 2936.72, 3288.74 cm-1; de-epithelialized skin at 1238.34, 1530.57, 1658.84, 2953.12, 3306.10 cm-1; and CADM at 1238.34, 1530.57, 1658.84, 2953.12, 3306.10 cm-1 were similar to that of amide bonds of L-hydroxyproline of collagen. Animals with CADM implant recovered uneventfully and remain sound, whereas, surgical site infection, dehiscence, mesh infection (5 animals), and even death (one animal) were observed in animals with PPM implant. Hematological, biochemical, circulating antioxidants evaluation too revealed uncomplicated healing of abdominal hernias with CADM implant. Results presented in this study proved biocompatibility of caprine acellular dermal matrix for abdominal hernioplasty in buffaloes.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    Equines form an important fraction of the existing pleasure and draft power of farmers in rural India as well as Saurashtra. Presently equines such as horse, ponies, donkeys and mules are in multifarious uses in the society. Therefore, shortage of petroleum products in future would demand that sufficient attention is bestowed upon the sound animal husbandry practices for the upkeep and further development of draft type animals for their efficient and economic utility. The present investigation was carried out to study the nutritional status of Kathiyawadi horses in their home track and to find the type of feeding, nutritional status of horses and management practices followed by the horse owners of organized (Police farms) and unorganized horse farms in Saurashtra region of Gujarat State. The present study was carried out in Junagadh, Botad, Surendranagar and Bhavnagar districts of Gujarat State. For the present study, eight talukas of each district was selected and from each selected taluka, ten villages were selected randomly. Five respondents were selected randomly from each village. Thus, random samples of 400 horse owners were selected for the study. The data was collected through personal interview schedule. Collected data was compiled, tabulated and analyzed using appropriate statistical tools and techniques. The study showed that a majority of respondents (49.50 %) of the horse owners were having primary level of education. In the study area, 50.50 per cent of the horse owners had medium land holding and maximum (74.50%) horse owner’s rear horses for pleasure, while only 25.50 per cent horse owner rear for traveling, carting and racing. Complete stall feeding was reported by 49.50 per cent horse owners in the study area and 50.50 per cent horses adopted stall feeding plus grazing, while complete pasture grazing was not reported. During the study, commonly available green fodder crops like lucerne, maize and sorghum were fed to all the categories of horses. The horse owner’s used a mixture of leguminous and non- leguminous green fodder. The average intakes of green fodder by the stallion, mare and foal were 18.12, 18.06 and 5.19 kg/day/horse, respectively. Common dry fodders fed were straw of groundnut haulms, maize, sorghum and dry grasses. A majority of farmers (60 %) fed only non-leguminous fodder to horses. The average dry fodder intake by the stallion, mare and foal was 16.9, 16.57 and 4.5 kg/day/horse, respectively. Most of the horse owners (55.75%) followed the practice of offering home prepared concentrates mixture mainly formulate from gram, wheat, wheat bran, bajara and oat. The average quantities of concentrate intake by the horses (stallion and mare) and foals were 1.95 and 0.77 kg/day/horse, respectively. In organized police horse farms the average intake of green fodder; dry fodder and concentrate were 5.5, 8.00 and 2.25 kg/day/horse, respectively. About 74.50 per cent horse owners fed concentrate once in a day to horses. Mineral mixture supplementation was done to horses by only 11.50 per cent of the respondents and during pregnancy 24 per cent horse owners fed mineral mixture to mare. Maximum 64.50 per cent and 71 per cent horse owner never fed mineral mixture and salt to horses respectively. Generally, during winters horses offered drink water 3 times a day while in summer the frequency of drinking water increased 4 times a day. In the study, the nutritional status of Kathiyawadi horses showed that all the categories of horses like stallion, mare and foal were of overfed category for DM intake (19.73, 19.74 and 5.69 kg/day, respectively) and overfed category for CP intake (3.60, 3.55 and 1.01 kg/day, respectively) while, optimum fed category for DE intake (17.76, 12.75 and 6.1 Mcal, respectively). All police horse farms were deficit for DM intake (9.26 kg/day), while overfed for CP intake (2.29 kg/day) and optimum for DE intake (13.4 Mcal) according to NRC recommendation. In the study, average rearing and management cost of horses of various talukas of different district ranged from Rs. 3620 to 7400 per month. In study area, majority of horse owners (65.75%) never vaccinates and deworms the horses, while only 34.25 per cent horse owners regularly vaccinate and deworm the horses. Metabolic disorder was observed in 35.50 per cent of horses. It was observed that the majority of horse owners were reared horses for their pleasure and farmers offered rations maximum in terms of bulk/quantity. Nutritional status of horses from present study showed excess dry matter and crude protein intake as compared to recommendations by NRC (2007). While, energy intake was at par with NRC values (2007). Hence, Farmers are need to be educated regarding balancing of rations using the available feeds and fodders, cereals and their byproducts to avoid overfeeding of animals for economic rearing of horses.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    (JAU,JUNAGADH, 2018-06) Bhadarka Dixita H.; Dr. U. D. Patel
    The present experiment was carried out to study protective effects of silymarin (10 mg/kg, p.o.) and polyherbal mixture (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg, p.o.) days) against paracetamol (500 mg/kg, p.o.) induced toxicity in rats by 21 days. Noticeable clinical signs of toxicity were not observed in rats of any groups. Paracetamol, silymarin and polyherbal mixture treatments in rats showed no significant effect on feed consumption and body weight during the experiment. No significant alteration in level of Hb, PCV, TEC, TLC, MCV, MCHC, MCH and DLC have been observed in rats of any group. Liver damage caused by paracetamol in terms of alteration in ALT, AST and total bilirubin were restored with treatment of silymarin and polyherbal mixture at 200 and 300 mg/kg orally for 21 days. The altered LDH level by paracetamol was also normalized by polyherbal mixture at all doses used in the study. The increased level of BUN and urea by paracetamol were attenuated by administration of polyherbal mixture at 200 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg. The level of creatinine was non-significantly altered in rats treated with paracetamol only. The levels of creatinine in rats treated with polyherbal mixture were comparable to the control values. No significant alteration in uric acid level, total protein, albumin, globulin in rats of any group has been observed as compared to that of control rats. Significant increased in liver body weight ratio have been observed in paracetamol treated rats as compared to other groups. Whereas, mean values of liver body weight ratio in other treatment groups have been significantly differ from each other treatment group compared to that of control rats. Spleen body weight ratio was non-significantly increased in treatment group (T2 and T3) as compared to paracetamol treated group. Serum SOD level was non-significantly increased in paracetamol treated rats (C3). The mean levels of SOD in rats of silymarin and polyherbal mixture groups (C4 and T2) were significantly lower than mean value of SOD in rats treated with only paracetamol and were also comparable to the values observed in control rats. Blood catalase level was non significantly decrease in paracetamol treated rats but the same was significantly higher in rats treated with polyherbal extract mixture at 200 and 300 mg/kg (T2 and T3) compared that value in rats treated with only paracetamol. However, blood GSH level was not significantly altered in all groups under study. The activity of SOD and catalase in liver were non-significantly increased in rats treated with paracetamol only. The activity of catalase in liver of rats of group T1, T2 and T3 were restored to normal level. However, the level of SOD in liver in rats treated with higher dose of polyherbal mixture only was restored to normal level. The liver GSH level in rats treated with silymarin and polyherbal mixture (200 and 300 mg/kg) were significantly higher than those values observed in other groups. The level of SOD in kidney was non-significantly increased in rats treated with paracetamol only. The value of same in rats treated with highest dose of polyherbal mixture was comparable to that of normal control rats. Non-significant alterations in catalase activity and GSH level in kidney of rats of all treatment groups under study were recorded. No gross pathological lesions were observed in liver and kidney except enlargement of liver in paracetamol treated rats. The histopathological changes of liver of rats of paracetamol control group revealed multiple centri-lobular necrosis, vacuolar degeneration along with infiltration of inflammatory cells and congestion with hepatic necrosis and disturbed the architecture of hepatic lobules. Histopathological changes in rats treated with 200 mg/kg polyherbal mixture along with paracetamol revealed central vein congestion along with mild hepatic necrosis and mild regenerative hepatic cells and rats treated 300 mg/kg polyherbal mixture along with paracetamol show mild hepatic necrosis along with mild central vein congestion and marked regeneration of hepatic cells. The histopathological changes of kidney of rats of paracetamol control group revealed congestion, tubular necrosis and infiltration of inflammatory cells, tubular degeneration. Histopathological changes in rats treated with 200mg/kg polyherbal mixture along with paracetamol revealed congestion and tubular degeneration and mild tubular necrosis compared to group T1 and rats treated 300 mg/kg polyherbal mixture along with paracetamol show almost normal architecture of tubules along with mild congestion and interstitial infiltration of inflammatory cells and mild congestion. Administration of polyherbal mixture at 200 mg/kg orally for 21 days has shown protective effect against paracetamol induced liver and kidney damage through attenuation of oxidative injury. However detailed study is required to determine effects of long term administration of formulation in rats