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  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    APPRAISAL OF SALINITY/SODICITY PARAMETERS IN THE SOILS OF SOUTH SAURASHTRA AGRO-CLIMATIC ZONE
    (JAU JUNAGADH, 2023-10) BAMANIYA VIMALKUMAR PARVATSINH; Dr. L. C. Vekaria; 2010120093
    An attempt has been made in the present investigation to study the salinity/sodicity parameters of Gujarat by collecting 270 surface soil samples from the farmer’s cultivated field during summer, 2021. The present investigation was carried out for the appraisal of soil salinity/sodicity parameters in the soils of South Saurashtra Agro-climatic Zone. For this purpose, 270 surface soil samples were collected from 6 districts (10 soil samples from each taluka) of South Saurashtra Agro-climatic Zone viz., Junagadh, Gir Somnath, Amreli, Bhavanagar, Porbandar and Rajkot. Soil samples were analyzed for chemical properties. On the basis of analyzed data of soil samples, collected from different districts of South Saurashtra Agro-climatic Zone of Gujarat, it can be concluded that the range of water soluble cations Ca++, Mg++, Na+ and K+ were 0.69 to 7.20 me L-1 , 0.40 to 12.98 me L-1 , 1.09 to 149.32 me L-1 and 0.01 to 1.04 me L-1 with mean values of 2.73, 2.61, 14.32 and 0.15, respectively recorded in the soils of South Saurashtra Agro climatic Zone. Similarly, in respect of water soluble anions like CO3 2- , HCO3 - , Cl and SO4 2- in range of 0.00 to 4.80 me L-1 , 0.40 to 9.90 me L-1 , 1.25 to 149.30 me L-1 and 0.00 to 7.98 me L-1 with mean values of 0.28 me L-1 , 3.46 me L-1 , 14.99 me L-1 and 1.07 me L-1 respectively also observed in this zone. The dominance order of water soluble cations Na+>Ca++>Mg++>K+ and water soluble anions Cl ->HCO3 2->SO4 2- >CO3 2- were recorded. The overall exchangeable Ca++ values of South Saurashtra’s soil samples were ranged from 8.80 to 36.80 (cmol (p+ ) kg-1 ) with the mean value of 21.40 (cmol (p+ ) kg-1 ). Among the different districts falls under South Saurashtra Agro-climatic Zone, overall mean value of exchangeable Mg++ was [13.70 (cmol (p+) kg-1 )]. Exchangeable Na+ levels in the South Saurashtra Agro-climatic Zone ranged from 1.70 to 51.40 cmol (p+ ) kg-1 , with a mean of 6.30 (cmol (p+ ) kg-1 ). The overall value of range of Abstract exchangeable K+ in South Saurashtra Agro-climatic Zone was 0.10-1.70 (cmol (p+ ) kg-1 ) with mean value of 0.40 (cmol (p+ ) kg-1 ). The dominance order of exchangeable cations Ca++>Mg++>Na+>K+ was recorded. The overall mean value of EC2.5 of South Saurashtra Agro-climatic Zone was 0.59 dS m-1 and it was ranged widely from 0.14 to 5.15 dS m-1 . In general, the soil samples of South Saurashtra Agro-climatic Zone showed pH2.5 value ranging from 6.74 to 8.84 with a mean value of 7.97. Soluble sodium percentage ranged from 11.72 to 96.30 in the South Saurashtra Agro-climatic Zone, with a mean value of 64.62. The exchangeable sodium percentage was found in the range of 4.20 to 59.00 in the South Saurashtra Agro-climatic Zone, with a mean value of 15.00. The overall range of cation exchange capacity was 20.10 to 87.10 cmol (p+ ) kg-1 with the mean value of 41.80 cmol (p+ ) kg-1 . The overall reserve lime content was ranging from 10.00 to 475 g kg-1 with mean value of 128.50 g kg-1 indicating the normal to slightly calcareous nature of the soil. The soil samples of South Saurashtra Agro-climatic Zone were found about 61.11, 19.25, 18.11 and 1.48 per cent to tend to be saline (0.25 to 0.75 dS m-1 ), saline (0.75 to 2.25 dS m-1 ), be normal (<0.25dS m-1 ), and highly saline (>2.25 dS m 1). about 53.70, 40.37, 5.92 and 0.00 per cent to be normal (<8.0), Alkaline (8.0 to 8.5), Alkali (8.5 to 9.0) and highly alkali (>9.0), about 51.85% , 45.55% and 2.22% to be non alkaline, slightly alkaline and moderately alkaline and about 35.92% and 64.07% soils to be good and fair category, respectively. The soils of South Saurashtra Agro climatic Zone were normal (34.07%) followed by slightly calcareous (31.48%) in nature and cation exchange capacity was 41.80 cmol (p+ ) kg-1
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    DYNAMICS OF MAJOR NUTRIENTS IN THE SOILS OF NORTH SAURASHTRA AGRO-CLIMATIC ZONE 3696
    (JAU JUNAGADH, 2023-07) Laxman Kumawat; Dr. S. G. Savalia; 1010120014
    An attempt has been made in the present investigation to study evaluation of dynamics of major Nutrients in the soils of North Saurashtra Agro-climatic Zone and collected 480 (10 soil samples from each taluka) soil samples from the cultivated fields across the seven district during the year of 2021. The soil samples were analyzed for different forms of major nutrients viz., available nitrogen, total nitrogen, ammonical nitrogen, nitrate-nitrogen, organic carbon, total phosphorus, total inorganic phosphorus, total inorganic phosphorus fraction (saloid-P, Ca-P, Al-P, Fe-P, Occluded-P, Reductant-P) organic phosphorus, available phosphorus, exchangeable potassium, reserve potassium, total potassium, available potassium, water soluble potassium, HNO3 soluble potassium and chemical properties (pH & EC) . The co-efficient of correlation, regression co-efficient and path co-efficient were worked out for establishing the relationship among forms of major nutrients, On the basis of analyzed data of soil samples, collected from different districts (Jamnagar, Devbhumi Dwarka, Rajkot, Surendranagar, Morbi, Bhavnagar and Amreli) of Northern Saurashtra Agro-climatic Zone were alkaline in reaction. Furthermore, low, medium and high fertility ststus for available nitrogen, available P2O5 and available K2O respectively. The soils content higher potassium might be affected by sea coastal areas and different type of tsunamis hitting in this region during past years. Based on multiple correlations and regression analysis the prediction model for available N, P and K were represented, the available N was highly significantly positive correlated with towards all N forms, available P was significantly correlated with nearly all fractions of P whereas the whole potassium fraction were highly significantly positive correlated with available potassium. The total nitrogen in case of nitrogen, inorganic phosphorus in case of phosphorus and water soluble in case of potassium had the maximum impact on available form of N, P and K respectively. The data slightly varies with the districts. The path co-efficient analysis of available N, P and K influenced by various forms revealed that total-N and ammonical-N form in case nitrogen, total-P in form in case of phosphorus, the value little varies with the districts and water soluble-K and exchangeable-K in case of potassium had direct positive effect on available form of major nutrients.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    EVALUATION OF UNDERGROUND WATER QUALITY IN NORTH SAURASHTRA AGRO CLIMATIC ZONE 3569
    (JAU,JUNAGADH, 2022-09) JADAV BHUMIKA BHAGVANBHAI; Dr. J. J. Vaghani; 2010120036
    A survey experiment entitled “Evaluation of underground water quality in north Saurashtra Agro climatic Zone” was carried out during summer season of 2021. Collecting 480 underground water samples from cultivated fields of north Saurashtra Agro climatic Zone. On the basis of analyzed data of water samples, collected from different district of north Saurashtra Agro climatic zone of Gujarat. The results in quality of underground water revealed that almost 62.5 per cent of irrigation water were found in saline EC ranged from 0.75 to 2.25 dS/m. The overall EC values ranged between 0.59 to 5.20 dS/m with mean value of 1.98 dS/m. The overall pH values ranged between 6.62 to 8.96 and mean value of 7.75. Almost 292 samples of underground water are found in between 7.5 to 8.5.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    EFFECT OF SULPHUR AND SULPHUR SOLUBILIZING BACTERIA ON YIELD AND NUTRIENT UPTAKE BY GARLIC (Allium sativum L.) AND ON SULPHUR FRACTION IN SOIL 3373
    (JAU JUNAGADH, 2021-09) VORA TALPESH VITHALBHAI; B. P. Talavia; 2010119123
    garlic, sulphur, SSB, yield, quality, nutrients content & uptake, available nutrients, sulphur fraction A field experiment entitled “Effect of sulphur and sulphur solubilzing bacteria on yield and nutrient uptake by garlic (Allium sativum L.) and on sulphur fraction in soil” was conducted during rabi, 2019-2020 at Instructional Farm, Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh. The field experiment comprised of 12 treatments having four levels of sulphur (S) viz., 0, 15, 30 and 45 kg ha-1 and three levels of sulphur solubilizing bacteria (SSB) viz., 0, 1, and 2 lit ha-1 carried out in factorial randomized block design (FRBD) repeated thrice were tested in the experiment, in respect of growth parameters, yield, yield attributes, quality parameters, content and uptake of nutrients like N, P, K and S at harvest in bulb & stover of garlic crop, status of soil available nutrients viz., N, P and K at harvest and sulphur fractions like, heat soluble sulphur, organic sulphur, sulphate sulphur, water soluble sulphur, non-sulphate sulphur and total sulphur at harvest as well as bacterial populations in soil at harvest of crop. The experimental soil was medium black calcareous, clayey in nature which was slightly alkaline in reaction, pH2.5 (7.9) and EC2.5 (0.52 dS m-1 ), low in available nitrogen (232.0 kg ha-1 ), medium in available phosphorus (39.5 kg ha-1 ), higher in available potassium (302.36 kg ha-1 ) and medium in sulphur (10.18 ppm). The experimental results revealed that the growth parameters, yield, yield attributes, quality parameters, nutrients content & uptake, soil available nutrients, sulphur fractions and bacterial populations in soil after harvest were significantly influenced by the various levels of sulphur and SSB. The application of 45 kg S ha-1 significantly increased the plant height, diameter of bulb, dry weight of bulb, number of clove, 100 clove weight, bulb yield (6006 kg ha-1 ), stover yield (756 kg ha-1 ), dry bulb yield, TSS and essential oil percentage. Application of 45 kg S ha-1 significantly increased sulphur content in bulb and stover at harvest. Whereas, sulphur application did not exert any significant effect on N, P and K content in bulb and stover of garlic. Application of 45 kg S ha-1 significantly increased the uptake of all the nutrients (N, P, K and S) by bulb and stover of the garlic crop. The effect of sulphur application on available nitrogen, ABSTRACT Abstract ii phosphorus and potassium in soil did not produce any significance influence at harvest of garlic. Application of 45 kg S ha-1 significantly increased heat soluble sulphur, organic sulphur and water soluble sulphur at harvest of garlic except, sulphate sulphur, non-sulphate sulphur in soil at harvest of garlic. The application 2 lit SSB ha-1 significantly increased the plant height, diameter of bulb, dry weight of bulb, number of clove, 100 clove weight, bulb yield (6006 kg ha-1 ), stover yield (756 kg ha-1 ), TSS and essential oil percentage. Application of SSB produced significantly favorable effect on sulphur content in bulb and stover of garlic. Significantly higher values of all these parameters were observed with application of 2 lit SSB ha-1 . While, SSB application did not exert any significant effect on N, P and K content in bulb and stover of garlic except, S content in bulb and stover of garlic. Application of 2 lit SSB ha-1 also significantly increased the uptake of all the nutrients (N, P, K and S) by bulb and stover of garlic crop. The available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in the soil after harvest of garlic were remains unaffected under the application of SSB. While, the heat solub sulphur, organic sulphur and water soluble sulphur in soil at harvest, were significantly increased with application of SSB 2 lit SSB ha-1 except, sulphate sulphur, non sulphate sulphur and total sulphur at harvest. Application of SSB significantly increased sulphur solubilizing bacterial populations at harvest in soil while, sulphur application did not produce any significant effect on sulphur solubilizing bacterial populations in soil at harvest of garlic. The significant interaction effects of sulphur and SSB application were observed only in case of diameter of bulb, number of clove, 100 clove weight, dry bulb yield and bulb yield were recorded with combined application of 45 kg S ha-1 and 2 lit SSB ha-1 . The interaction effects of sulphur and SSB were found non-significant with respect to plant height, dry weight of bulb, stover yield, quality parameters, content and uptake of nutrients by plant at harvest, available major nutrients and sulphur fractions in soil at harvest as well as sulphur solubilizing bacterial populations in soil at harvest under investigation. The qualitative highest yield of garlic can be achieved by application of 45 kg S ha-1 along with 2 lit SSB ha-1 in the medium black calcareous soils of South Saurashtra region of Gujarat.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    PHOSPHORUS AVAILABILITY AND DYNAMICS IN SOIL AFFECTED BY LONG TERM NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT UNDER GROUNDNUT-WHEAT CROPPING SEQUENCE IN AICRP-LTFE SOILS 3355
    (JAU JUNAGADH, 2021-09) CHAURYA JAGRUTIBEN RAMANBHAI; A. V. Rajani; 2010119018
    Dynamics, Fractions, Haplustepts Most of the research information related to available forms of phosphorus is from short-term studies. Cultivating soil during long period of time is changing phosphorus nutrient resources. The nutrient losses from soil are, in fact gradual and sometimes hidden. It is therefore not easy to recognize and understand the physical, chemical and biological processes leading to such phosphorus nutrient constrains in sustaining soil health and productivity in major soil cropping system of the sub-agro ecological zones. Junagadh is one of the centers representing medium black calcareous soil (Vertic Haplustepts). These soils are difficult to manage from fertility point of view. In view of the above the following broad objectives were set: (1) To know the status of phosphorus fractions in soil under AICRP- LTFE soils. (2) To find out the depletion of phosphorus fractions in the soil under investigation. (3) Modeling the dynamics of phosphorus fractions in LTFE soils. To achieve the forgoing objectives, this investigation initiated which comprised of samples derived from long term fertilizer experiment started 20 years back on Vertic Haplustepts calcareous medium black clayey soils of Junagadh. T1 - 50% NPK of recommended doses in G’nut-Wheat sequence, T2-100% NPK of recommended doses in G’nut-Wheat sequence, T3 -150% NPK of recommended doses in G’nut-Wheat sequence, T4-100% NPK of recommended doses in G’ut -Wheat sequence + ZnSO4 @ 50 kg ha-1 once in three year to Groundnut only (i.e. ’99, 02, 05, … etc), T5 - NPK as per soil test, T6-100% NP of recommended doses in G’nut-Wheat sequence, T7 - 100% N of recommended doses in G’nut-Wheat sequence, T8-50 % NPK of recommended doses + FYM @ 10 t ha-1 to G’nut and 100% NPK to Wheat, T9 - Only FYM @10 t ha-1 to G’nut and @ 15 t ha-1 to Wheat., T10-50% NPK of recommended doses in G’nut-Wheat sequence + Rhizobium + PSM to G’nut and 100% NPK to Wheat, T11 - 100% NPK of recommended doses in G’nut-Wheat sequence (P as SSP) and T12 - Control , The samples were subjected to fractionation of phosphorus. The phosphorus, their fractions and soil properties were related to Name of Student: Chaurya Jagrutiben Ramanbhai Major Guide: Dr. A. V. Rajani various yields and P content from plants. In this part also the data were subjected to correlation analysis, stepwise regression, multiple correlation and path analysis. The LTFE involved twelve treatments including untreated control which was subjected to analysis of variance in order to find out the effect of various treatments on yield, P content and phosphorus fractions and also depletion in a long term cycle of 1, 10 and 20 years. The pod and haulm yields of groundnut were significantly influenced by various treatments in 10 and 20 year pooled result and maximum yield of pod and haulm were recorded under treatment T8. Similar results were found in wheat grain and straw yield in 10 and 20 years pooled results. The concentration of phosphorus in 10th year and 20th year increased in groundnut and wheat as compared to the initial year. Pooled over the year was significant in groundnut and in wheat. Maximum content of phosphorus in pod and haulm were recorded under treatment T3. Whereas it found maximum under T9 in wheat grain and straw. The application of FYM also maintained or increased phosphorus status of LTFE soils. In treatments of FYM (T8, T9), the status of phosphorus fractions increased. Available-P status of LTFE soil at Initial stage was low in category (< 28 Kg P2O5 ha-1 ) in most of the treatments, after long run (20th year) it was more decreased except in treatments which were received FYM (T8 & T9). Due to application of FYM available status of P2O5 in LTFE soil increased up to medium category (28-56 Kg P2O5 ha-1 ) from low category. There were overall increased in Inorganic-P & Total-P status of LTFE soils, but status of Available-P was decreased, which might be due to calcareousness of soil, which fixed phosphorus that applied as a fertilizers and transformed it in unavailable form to the plant, because of this reaction, available status of LTFE soil decreased, except in treatments where application of FYM, full dose of P and biofertilizerwere there due to chelating effect of organic material and solubilizing reaction of microorganisms which protect available-P form to fixed in unavailable form. At initial stage of the experiment, maximum proportion of phosphorus was recorded as a Ca-P fraction, after 20th year it was changed and maximum proportion was found as a Reductant soluble-P. Whereas Available-P form recorded around 1-2 % in proportion. Available-P showed significant positive relationship with Inorganic-P and Saloid bound-P. The available-P form of phosphorus depicted significant positive relationship with all other forms of phosphorus. Available-P & all other forms of P exhibited significant positive relationship with wheat yield & most of the P fractions, except Ca-P & Fe negative relationship with wheat yield. The Al-P, Fe-P and Ca-P significant positive relationship with groundnut pod yield and Total, Inorganic-P, Organic-P and Saloid bound-P significant positive relationship with groundnut haulm yield. Available-P showed negative relationship with soil pH and soil EC. The available phosphorus influenced by other forms were subjected to step wise regression and multiple correlation and regression analysis. The prediction model was based on multiple and correlation analysis over a cycle of 1, 10 and 20 years.The Inorganic-P influenced maximum on available-P followed by Occluded-P, Al-P, Saloid-P, Ca-P & Fe-P. Organic-P ascribed maximum direct positive effect on Available-P. While Total-P and Reductant-P exhibited direct negative effect on Available-P.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    EVALUATION OF SOIL FERTILITY, SALINITY STATUS AND PRE & POST MONSOON UNDERGROUND WATER QUALITY OF NORTHERN SAURASHTRA COASTAL REGION OF GUJARAT 3421
    (JAU,JUNAGADH, 2021-10) KIRAN YADAV; Dr. K. B. PARMA; 1010118017
    An attempt has been made in the present investigation to study the quality of underground wells/tube wells water and their effect on soil properties of Northern Saurashtra coastal region (Jamnagar, Devbhumi Dwarka and Porbandar district) of Gujarat by collecting 141 surface soil samples from the farmer’s cultivated field during May, 2019. In order, to study the fluctuation in quality of water, only water samples were collected twice i.e. before monsoon (May, 2019) and after monsoon (December, 2019). On the basis of analyzed data of soil samples, collected from different districts of Northern Saurashtra coastal region of Gujarat, it can be concluded that all the soil fertility parameters viz., SOC, available N, P2O5, K2O, S, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn content were increased with increasing the sampling distance (0-5, 5-10, 10-15, 15-20 km) from coastal line except B. In salinity parameters, EC, ESP, SSP and SAR were decreased, while pH was slightly increased with increasing the distance from sea coast. The soils were low with respect to available N (204.70 kg ha-1 ), but medium in available P2O5 (28.95 kg ha-1 ) and S (20.00 mg kg-1 ), whereas high in K2O (401.82 kg ha-1 ) status. The overall available (DTPA extractable) Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn varied between 2.92 to 8.92, 1.32 to 18.80, 0.13 to 7.31 and 0.06 to 3.58 with their ABSTRACT ABSTRACT II corresponding mean values of 5.44, 7.45, 1.01 and 0.46 mg kg-1 , respectively. The available B was found high and it was ranged from 0.78 to 6.61 with the mean value of 3.49 mg kg-1 . The soil organic carbon status of Northern Saurashtra coastal region was found in medium (5.14 g kg-1 ) category. The soils are calcareous in nature (CaCO3 121.20 g kg-1 ) with alkaline in reaction (pH2.5 7.58). The overall mean value of CEC of the soils was 36.99 cmol (p+ ) kg-1 . The result of quality of underground wells/tube wells water in pre & post monsoon of Northern Saurashtra coastal region indicated that values of EC, SSP, SAR & RSC were decreased with increasing the sampling distance (0-5, 5-10, 10-15, 15-20 km) from coastal line but reverse trend was noted in case of pH. The quality of underground wells/tube wells water before monsoon (May, 2019) revealed that almost all the samples of irrigation water were found saline (EC 0.75 dS m-1 and above). The EC values were ranged from 0.25 to 7.35 with a mean value of 2.22 dS m-1 . The water was slightly alkaline in reaction (pH 7.21) with value ranged from 6.45 to 8.47. The SAR values were ranged from 0.95 to 15.91 with a mean value of 5.08 and overall 92.98, 7.02, 0.00 and 0.00 per cent sample falls under S1, S2, S3 and S4 classes of SAR, respectively. The overall RSC values were ranged from 0.00 to 9.40 with mean value of 0.33 me L-1 and overall 89.82, 5.26 and 4.91 per cent sample falls under safe, marginal and unsafe classes of RSC, respectively. The overall mean value of SSP was found 50.63, which were varied from 20.27 to 82.56 and overall 74.74 and 25.26 per cent sample falls under safe and unsafe classes of SSP, respectively. After monsoon (December, 2019), almost all the samples of irrigation water were found saline (EC 0.75 dS m-1 and above). The EC values were ranged between 0.18 to 6.83 with mean value of 2.01 dS m-1 . The water was alkaline in reaction (pH 7.73) with range of 7.00 to 8.90. The SAR values were ranged from 0.47 to 13.05 with a mean value of 4.06 and overall 96.14, 3.86, 0.00 and 0.00 per cent sample falls under S1, S2, S3 and S4 classes of SAR, respectively. The overall RSC values ranged from 0.00 to 4.80 with a mean value of 0.19 me L-1 and overall 92.28, 5.26 and 2.46 per cent sample falls under safe, marginal and unsafe classes of RSC, respectively. The overall mean value of SSP was 44.72, which varied between 14.08 to 78.00 and overall 85.61 and 14.39 per cent sample falls under safe and unsafe class, respectively. All the soil samples were analyzed for EC and pH from saturated and dilute (1:2.5) extract and found that ABSTRACT III the overall highly significant correlation of ECe with EC2.5 (r = 0.8012**) and pHs with pH2.5 (r = 0.4004**) were observed. The highly significant correlation coefficient between SOC and N (r = 0.7798**), ESP and ECe (r = 0.6531**), ESP and EC2.5 (r = 0.6050**) were observed in soil samples. The correlation among fertility parameters (SOC, available N, P2O5, K2O and S) and salinity/sodicity parameters (EC2.5, ECe, pH2.5, pHs and CaCO3) in soils of 0 to 20 km distance from sea coast indicates that EC2.5 was significant and positively correlated with ECe, SSP, SAR, ESP and CaCO3 and pH2.5 was significant and positively correlated with pHs, SOC, available N, K2O and S. The correlation between different properties of pre-monsoon irrigation water (ECiw, pHiw, RSCiw, SSPiw and SARiw) and properties of irrigated soils (EC2.5, ECe, pH2.5, pHs, SARs, SSPs, and ESPs) of 0 to 20 km distance from sea coast indicates that ECiw was observed significant and positively correlated with SARiw, ECe, EC2.5, ESPs, SSPs and SARs and pHiw was significant and positively correlated with RSCiw, pHs and pH2.5. The correlation between different properties of post-monsoon irrigation water (ECiw, pHiw, RSCiw, SSPiw and SARiw) and properties of irrigated soils (EC2.5, ECe, pH2.5, pHs, SARs, SSPs, and ESPs) of 0 to 20 km distance from sea coast indicates that ECiw was observed significant and positively correlated with SARiw, ECe, EC2.5, ESPs, SSPs and SARs and pHiw was significant and positively correlated with RSCiw, pHs and pH2.5. Thus, major constraints related to soil fertility (SOC, N, P2O5, S & Zn), soil salinity (EC, ESP & SSP) of Northern Saurashtra coastal region are associated with poor quality of wells/tube wells water and soil fertility/salinity parameters were found critical upto the 5 km distance away from sea coast. Overall, soils of Northern Saurashtra coastal region were low in N & Zn, medium in SOC, P2O5, S, Fe, Mn and high in K2O & Cu. In case of water quality, almost all well/ tube well water samples (Pre & Post monsoon) of Northern Saurashtra coastal region having higher amount of soluble salts (2.22 & 2.01 dS m -1 ) mainly due to dominance of Na and Cl ions, however, all the quality parameters viz., EC, pH, SSP, RSC and ESP of collected well/tube well water samples after monsoon were improved as compared to the samples collected before monsoon.
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    EFFECT OF SILICON AND ZINC ON YIELD, QUALITY AND UPTAKE OF NUTRIENTS ON WHEAT (Triticum aestivum L.) 3339
    (jau junagadh, 2021-08) GONDALIYA DHARA JANAKBHAI; S. G. Savalia; 2010119034
    Wheat, silicon levels, zinc levels, growth and yield A field experiment entitled “Effect of silicon and zinc on yield, quality and uptake of nutrients on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)” Var. GW-366 was carried out under medium black calcareous soil during rabi 2019-20 at the Instructional Farm, Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh. The experiment consisting of twelve treatment combinations, comprising four levels of silicon (0, 200, 300 and 400 kg ha-1 ) and three levels of zinc (0, 20 and 40 kg ha-1 ) was laid out in randomized block design having factorial concept and replicated thrice. The experimental results revealed that the growth, yield and yield attributes, quality & bio-chemical parameters, nutrients content and uptake were significantly influenced by the different levels of silicon. The highest grain yield (4307 kg ha-1 ) and straw yield (6689 kg ha-1 ) were observed with 300 kg Si ha-1 . The soil application of Si @ 300 kg ha-1 exhibited its superiority in highest plant height, no. of total tillers per meter row, no. of effective tillers per meter row, no. of spikelets per spike and spike length at harvest. The quality parameters like test weight and protein content found maximum with 300 kg Si ha-1 . Likewise, bio-chemical parameters viz., highest RWC, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll content were attained under soil application of silicon @ 300 kg ha-1 . ABSTRACT The different levels of silicon did not influence significantly on content of micronutrients (Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu) but produced significant effect on content of N, P and Si in grain and straw of wheat. The maximum uptake of macronutrients (N, P and K) and micronutrients (Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu) and Si were recorded with soil application of 300 kg Si ha-1 by grain and straw of wheat at harvest. Available macronutrients and micronutrients in soil remained unaffected by different doses of silicon but available silicon in soil significantly increased with silicon level. Soil application of zinc (20 kg ha-1 ) gave significant higher grain yield, straw yield, plant height, no. total of tillers per meter row, no. of effective tillers per meter row, no. of spikelets per spike and spike length at harvest. Bio-chemical parameters viz. chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll were registered significantly higher with 20 kg Zn ha-1 . The 20 kg Zn ha-1 gave significantly higher test weight whereas protein content remained unaffected. The concentration of macro (N, P, K and S) and micro (Fe, Mn, and Cu) nutrients as well as content of silicon in grain and straw at harvest were remaining significantly unaffected with different zinc levels but content of zinc in grain and straw of wheat significantly increased with 20 kg Zn ha-1 . Significant responses were found in relation to maximum uptake of macro (N, P K and S) and micro (Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn) nutrients by grain and straw of wheat at harvest. Availability of various macronutrients and micronutrients in soil found non-significant but availability of Zn in soil found significant to different zinc levels in soil after harvest of wheat. The combined effect of silicon (300 kg ha-1 ) and zinc (20 kg ha-1 ) were found significant, in relation to grain and straw yield of wheat
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    EFFECT OF SILICON ON YIELD AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF WHEAT (Triticum aestivum L.) UNDER SIMULATED SOIL SALINITY 3332
    (jau junagadh, 2021-08) VIROJA PRIYABEN BHARATBHAI; L. C. VEKARIA; 2010119119
    ) and zinc (0.56 mg kg-1
  • ThesisItemOpen Access
    APPRAISAL OF SALINITY/SODICITY PARAMETERS IN THE SOILS OF NORTH SAURASHTRA AGRO-CLIMATIC ZONE 3543
    (JAU JUNAGADH, 2022-06) SHRUTI GAUR; K. B. PARMAR; 2010120080
    Saurashtra, salinity, sodicity, exchangeable sodium percentage, soluble sodium percentage, cation exchange capacity An attempt has been made in the present investigation to study the salinity/sodicity parameters of Gujarat by collecting 480 surface soil samples from the farmer’s cultivated field during summer, 2021. The present investigation was carried out for the appraisal of soil salinity/sodicity parameters in the soils of North Saurashtra Agro-climatic Zone. For this purpose, 480 surface soil samples were collected from 7 districts (10 soil samples from each taluka) of North Saurashtra Agro-climatic Zone viz., Amreli, Bhavnagar, Rajkot, Surendranagar, Jamnagar, Devbhumi Dwarka and Morbi. Soil samples were analyzed for chemical properties. On the basis of analyzed data of soil samples, collected from different districts of North Saurashtra Agro-climatic Zone of Gujarat, it can be concluded that the range of water soluble cations Ca++, Mg++, Na+ and K + were 1.25 to 23.50 me L-1 , 0.25 to 2.75 me L-1 , 2.83 to 24.71 me L-1 and 0.05 to 1.75 me L-1 with mean values of 7.07, 1.28, 8.74 and 0.26, respectively recorded in the soils of North Saurashtra Agro climatic Zone. Similarly, in respect of water soluble anions like CO3 2- , HCO3 - , Cl and SO4 2- in range of 0.00 to 0.00 me L-1 , 1.00 to 16.50 me L-1 , 2.50 to 35.00 me L-1 and 0.09 to 9.61 me L-1 with mean values of 0.00 me L-1 , 5.59 me L-1 , 6.93 me L-1 and 2.13 me L-1 respectively also observed in this zone. The dominance order of water soluble cations Na+ >Ca++ >Mg++ >K+ and water soluble anions Cl- >HCO3 2- >SO4 2- >CO3 2- were recorded. The overall exchangeable Ca++ values of North Saurashtra’s soil samples were ranged from 9.46 to 40.63 (cmol (p+ ) kg-1 ) with the mean value of 20.97 (cmol (p+ ) kg-1 ). Among the different districts falls under North Saurashtra Agro-climatic Zone, overall mean value of exchangeable Mg++ was [7.21 (cmol (p+ ) kg-1 )]. Exchangeable Na+ levels in the North Saurashtra Agro-climatic Zone ranged from 1.10 to 14.43 cmol (p+) kg-1 , with a mean of 4.32 (cmol (p+) kg-1 ). The overall value of range of exchangeable K+ in North Saurashtra Agro-climatic Zone was 0.12-1.51 (cmol (p+ ) kg-1 ) with mean value of 0.41 (cmol (p+ ) kg-1 ). The dominance order of exchangeable cations Ca++ >Mg++ >Na+ >K+ was recorded. The overall mean value of EC2.5 of North Saurashtra Agro-climatic Zone was 0.44 dS m-1 and it was ranged widely from 0.09 to ABSTRACT Abstract II 3.04 dS m-1 . In general, the soil samples of North Saurashtra Agro-climatic Zone showed pH2.5 value ranging from 7.20 to 9.18 with a mean value of 8.07. Soluble sodium percentage ranged from 17.02 to 69.51 in the North Saurashtra Agro-climatic Zone, with a mean value of 47.62. The exchangeable sodium percentage was found in the range of 3.88 to 28.00 in the North Saurashtra Agro-climatic Zone, with a mean value of 12.94. The overall range of cation exchange capacity was 17.33 to 58.31 cmol (p+ ) kg-1 with the mean value of 32.99 cmol (p+ ) kg-1 . The overall reserve lime content was ranging from 2.00 to 29.00% with mean value of 10.60% indicating the calcareous nature of the soil. The soil samples of North Saurashtra Agro-climatic Zone were found about 30.42, 42.29, 26.67 and 0.62 per cent to be normal (<0.25dS m-1 ), tend to be saline (0.25 to 0.75 dS m-1 ), saline (0.75 to 2.25 dS m-1 ) and highly saline (>2.25 dS m-1 ), about 39.58, 52.25, 8.54 and 0.63 per cent to be normal (<8.0), Alkaline (8.0 to 8.5), Alkali (8.5 to 9.0) and highly alkali (>9.0), about 66.25% , 33.12% and 0.63% to be non alkaline, slightly alkaline and moderately alkaline and about 89.69% and 10.21% soils to be good and fair category, respectively. The soils of North Saurashtra Agro climatic Zone were slightly calcareous (93.33%) in nature and cation exchange capacity was 32.99 cmol (p+ ) kg-1